Asphodelaceae

 Fuzzy cape-spinach Trachyandra hispida, from here.

Belongs within: Petrosaviidae.
Contains: Bulbine, Alooideae.

The Asphodelaceae are a group of monocotyledons found in warmer regions of the Old World, characterised by the possession of hemitropous ovules and arillate seeds (Eggli & Nyffeler 2020). They have been divided between the succulent Alooideae and the largely non-succulent Asphodeloideae but the latter have been found to be paraphyletic to the former.

Species of the genus Asphodelus, asphodels, are found between the Mediterranean and India, with some species naturalised elsewhere in the world as garden escapes. Asphodelus and the related genus Asphodeline have pedicels articulated below the flower; stamens are all more or less equal in Asphodelus but the outer three are smaller than the inner three in Asphodeline. Trachyandra is an African genus with retrorsely scabrid filaments and multiple ovules per locule (Clifford et al. 1987).

Characters (from Eggli & Nyffeler 2020): Perennial, rarely annual, small, rhizomatous mesophytic to xerophytic herbs, acaulescent geophytes or small herbaceous to rarely erect subshrubs, shrubs, herbaceous, shrubby or pachycaul arborescent, succulent-leaved rosette plants, sometimes with a bulbous base; roots often yellowish inside, sometimes inflated and fusiform or with multi-layered velamen, fibrous, usually terete, sometimes tuberously thickened, fleshy or fusiform; basal stem parts rarely swollen (caudiciform); stem stout or slender, simple or branched, erect, decumbent or pendulous, short to several metres tall, sometimes so short that the plants are described as acaulescent; leaves simple, usually spirally set, occasionally distichous, alternate, linear, deltoid, falcate, lanceolate, oblong, triangular, subulate to thickly conical or elliptic, crowded in dense rosettes at tips of stems and branches higher up or at ground-level, sometimes widely spaced along stem, generally dorsiventral, with sheathing base, usually persistent for several years, usually distinctly succulent and mottled with whitish spots or striations, sometimes terete, often prickly along the margins and sometimes on both faces, apical tip usually ending in a weak to fairly strong spine, surfaces smooth or rough, leaf tissue usually with coloured exudate when broken, amplexicaul, veins longitudinal but indistinct when leaves are succulent; inflorescence terminal or axillary, simple racemes, panicles or rarely spikes on scape-like peduncle, peduncle massive or slender, leafless or with bracteal leaves, nodes unibracteate; flowers bisexual, hypogynous, 3-merous throughout, actinomorphic to conspicuously zygomorphic, sometimes stellate, pedicels often without articulation, red, orange, yellow, white, pinkish or mauve, never blue-violet, rarely green; tepals in 2 whorls of 3, petaloid, oblong to oblong-elongated, often fleshy, free or fused or nearly free and connate into a straight or curved sometimes ventricose tube, limb regular or sometimes bilabiate; stamens 6, free, arising at or near the base of ovary; filaments free, linear, smooth or occasionally hairy; anthers with 2 thecae, dorsifixed-epipeltate, introrse, opening by longitudinal slits, included or exserted, microsporogenesis simultaneous; ovary compound, superior, 3-locular, sometimes with septal nectary; placentation axile; ovules 2-many per locule; style distinct, filiform, terminal; stigma small, punctate or discoid, apical; fruit 3-locular, loculicidally dehiscent capsules, rarely fleshy, indehiscent berries; seeds arillate, elongated to angular-ovoid, usually flattened or winged, sometimes prominently so.

<==Asphodelaceae [Asphodelineae, Asphodeloideae]
    |--+--Asphodeline luteaTS03
    |  `--Asphodelus L. 1753TS03, CC87
    |       |--*A. ramosus L. 1753CC87
    |       |--A. aestivusTS03
    |       |--A. fistulosus Linnaeus 1753HE80
    |       |--A. microcarpusB28
    |       |--A. pendulinusD17
    |       `--A. tenuifoliusAGF98
    `--+--+--BulbineTS03
       |  `--AlooideaeTS03
       `--+--+--Kniphofia Moench 1794TS03, EN20 [incl. Notosceptrum Bentham 1883EN20]
          |  |    |  i. s.: K. benguellensis [=*Notosceptrum benguellense]EN20
          |  |    |         K. typhoides Codd 1964 [incl. Notosceptrum natalense Baker 1896]EN20
          |  |    |--+--K. galpiniiTS03
          |  |    |  `--K. triangularisTS03
          |  |    `--+--K. uvariaTS03 [incl. *K. alooides Moench 1794 (nom. illeg.)EN20]
          |  |       `--K. praecoxTS03
          |  `--Bulbinella Kunth 1843TS03, ME70
          |       |--*B. triquetra [=Anthericum triquetrum]EN20
          |       |--B. angustifolia (Ckn. & Laing) Moore 1964 [=B. hookeri var. angustifolia Ckn. & Laing 1911]ME70
          |       |--B. calcicola Manning & Goldblatt 2010EN20
          |       |--B. floribundaCC87
          |       |--B. gibbsii Ckn. 1909ME70
          |       |    |--B. g. var. gibbsiiME70
          |       |    `--B. g. var. balanifera Moore 1964ME70
          |       |--B. hookeri (Hook.) Cheesem. 1906 (see below for synonymy)ME70
          |       |--B. modesta Moore 1964ME70
          |       |--B. nanaTS03
          |       |--B. rossii (Hook. f.) Cheesem. 1906 (see below for synonymy)ME70
          |       `--B. talbotii Moore 1964ME70
          `--+--EremurusTS03
             |    |--E. anigapterusP93
             |    |--E. himalaicusTS03
             |    `--E. stenophyllusTS03
             `--Trachyandra Kunth 1843TS03, CC87 (see below for synonymy)
                  |  i. s.: T. adamsonii (Compton) Obermeyer 1962 [=Liriothamnus adamsonii Compton 1931]EN20
                  |         T. aridimontana Manning 1990EN20
                  |         T. ciliata (Linné) Kunth 1843 (see below for synonymy)EN20
                  |         T. divaricata (Jacq.) Kunth 1843 [=Anthericum divaricatum Jacq. 1804]CC87
                  |         T. ensifoliaCV06
                  |         T. falcata (Linné) Kunth 1843 (see below for synonymy)EN20
                  |         T. glandulosaCV06
                  |         T. lanataCV06
                  |         T. peculiarisCV06
                  |         *Dilanthes’ revoluta Salisbury 1866EN20
                  |         ‘Anthericum’ squameum [=*Lepicaulon squameum]EN20
                  |         T. tabularis (Baker) Obermeyer 1962 (see below for synonymy)EN20
                  |         T. tortilis (Baker) Obermeyer 1962 (see below for synonymy)EN20
                  |--*T. (sect. Trachyandra) hispida [=Anthericum hispidum, *Obsitila hispida]EN20
                  |--T. sect. Glandulifera Obermeyer 1962EN20
                  `--T. sect. Liriothamnus (Schlechter) Obermeyer 1962 [=Liriothamnus Schlechter 1924]EN20
                       `--T. involucrata (Baker) Obermeyer 1962 (see below for synonymy)EN20

Bulbinella hookeri (Hook.) Cheesem. 1906 [=Chrysobactron hookeri Col. ex. Hook. 1851, Anthericum hookeri (Col. ex. Hook.) Hook. f. 1864]ME70

Bulbinella rossii (Hook. f.) Cheesem. 1906 [=Chrysobactron rossii Hook. f. 1844, Anthericum rossii (Hook. f.) Hook. f. 1864]ME70

Trachyandra Kunth 1843TS03, CC87 [=Obsitila Rafinesque 1837 (nom. rej.)EN20; incl. Dilanthes Salisbury 1866EN20, Lepicaulon Rafinesque 1837 (nom. rej.)EN20]

Trachyandra ciliata (Linné) Kunth 1843 [=Anthericum ciliatum Linné 1781, Bulbine ciliata (Linné) Link 1821; incl. A. blepharophoron Roemer & Schultes 1829, Trachyandra blepharophora (Roemer & Schultes) Kunth 1843, T. bracteosa Kunth 1843, A. canaliculatum Aiton 1789, Bulbine canaliculata (Aiton) Sprengel 1825, Phalangium canaliculatum (Aiton) Poiret 1804, Trachyandra canaliculata (Aiton) Kunth 1843, Anthericum hamatum Von Poellnitz 1942, A. longifolium Jacquin 1786, Phalangium longifolium (Jacquin) Poiret 1804, Trachyandra longifolia (Jacquin) Kunth 1843, Anthericum maculatum Von Poellnitz 1942, A. pilosiflorum Von Poellnitz 1942, A. recurvatum Dinter 1931, A. spongiosum Von Poellnitz 1942, A. pilosiflorum var. subpapillosum Von Poellnitz 1942, A. vespertinum Jacquin 1804, Phalangium vespertinum (Jacquin) Poiret 1804, Trachyandra vespertina (Jacquin) Kunth 1843]EN20

Trachyandra falcata (Linné) Kunth 1843 [=Anthericum falcatum Linné 1782, Bulbine falcata (Linné) Schultes 1829; incl. Chlorophytum drepanophyllum Baker 1897, Anthericum drepanophyllum (Baker) Schlechter 1907, A. weissianum Dinter 1931]EN20

Trachyandra involucrata (Baker) Obermeyer 1962 [=Anthericum involucratum Baker 1876, *Liriothamnus involucratus (Baker) Schlechter 1924]EN20

Trachyandra tabularis (Baker) Obermeyer 1962 [=Anthericum tabulare Baker 1897; incl. A. glabrum Adamson 1941, A. palustre Adamson 1941]EN20

Trachyandra tortilis (Baker) Obermeyer 1962 [=Anthericum tortile Baker 1904; incl. A. oocarpum Schlechter ex Von Poellnitz 1942, A. salteri Leighton 1938]EN20

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[AGF98] Abd El-Ghani, M. M., & A. G. Fahmy. 1998. Composition of and changes in the spontaneous flora of Feiran Oasis, S Sinai, Egypt, in the last 60 years. Willdenowia 28: 123–134.

[B28] Betrem, J. G. 1928. Monographie der Indo-Australischen Scoliiden mit zoogeographischen Betrachtungen. H. Veenman & Zonen: Wageningen.

[CC87] Clifford, H. T., J. G. Conran, J. B. Williams, R. J. F. Henderson, H. J. Hewson, E. M. Watson, G. J. Keighery, D. M. Churchill, I. R. H. Telford, A. Thongpukdee, N. H. Brittan, A. S. George, W. T. Stearn & T. D. Macfarlane. 1987. Liliaceae. Flora of Australia 45: 148–419.

[CV06] Craven, P., & P. Vorster. 2006. Patterns of plant diversity and endemism in Namibia. Bothalia 36 (2): 175–189.

[D17] Diels, L. 1917. Beiträge zur Flora der Zentral-Sahara und ihrer Pflanzengeographie. Nach der Sammelausbeute des Freiherrn Hans Geyr von Schweppenburg. Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 54 (Beiblatt 120): 51–155.

[EN20] Eggli, U., & R. Nyffeler (eds) 2020. Illustrated Handbook of Succulent Plants: Monocotyledons 2nd ed. Springer.

[HE80] Healy, A. J., & E. Edgar. 1980. Flora of New Zealand vol. 3. Adventive cyperaceous, petalous and spathaceous monocotyledons. P. D. Hasselberg, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[ME70] Moore, L. B., & E. Edgar. 1970. Flora of New Zealand vol. 2. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Monocotyledones except Gramineae. A. R. Shearer, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[P93] Pittaway, A. R. 1993. The Hawkmoths of the Western Palaearctic. Harley Books: Colchester.

[TS03] Treutlein, J., G. F. Smith, B.-E. van Wyk & M. Wink. 2003. Phylogenetic relationships in Asphodelaceae (subfamily Aloooideae) inferred from chloroplast DNA sequences (rbcL, matK) and from genomic fingerprinting (ISSR). Taxon 52: 193–207.

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