Aspidochirotida

Stichopus chloronotus, copyright Julien Bidet.

Belongs within: Holothuroidea.
Contains: StichopusPriscopedatus, Holothuria.

The Aspidochirotida are a group of sea cucumbers with a bilaterally symmetrical body plan in which the dorsal tube feet are modified into papillae or warts. Members of this group include the living families Synallactidae, Holothuriidae and Stichopodidae, and most members of the fossil form-family Stichopitidae (Pawson 1966).

The Priscopedatidae are a form family of holothuroid sclerites known from the Jurassic to the Pleistocene (Frizzell & Exline 1966).

<==Aspidochirotida
    |  i. s.: Sporadipus botellusH04
    |         Bathysynactites viai Cherbonnier 1978SG93
    |         Collbatothuria danieli Smith & Gallemí 1991SG93
    |--StichopodidaeP66
    |    |--Parastichopus californicusBK77 [=Holothuria californicaBK77, Stichopus californicusF67]
    |    |--ThelenotaBM09
    |    |    |--T. ananas (Jaeger 1833)BM09
    |    |    |--T. anax Clark 1921BM09
    |    |    |--T. atraH04
    |    |    `--T. rubralineataCH97
    |    `--StichopusBM09
    |--Synallactidae [Priscopedatidae, Turriformidae]MG-H11
    |    |--SynallactesB01
    |    |--Stichopitella Mostler 1969B01
    |    |--Pseudostichopus hyalegerus (Sluiter 1901)MG-H11
    |    |--PriscopedatusSG93
    |    |--Bracchiothuria Boczarowski 2001B01
    |    |    `--*B. ancora Boczarowski 2001B01
    |    |--PaelopatidesMG-H11
    |    |    |--P. asperaH04
    |    |    `--P. quadridens Heding 1940MG-H11
    |    |--Mesothuria Ludwig 1894B01
    |    |    |--M. intestinalis [=Holothuria intestinalis]BK77
    |    |    `--M. marginata Sluiter 1901MG-H11
    |    |--Dictyothurites Deflandre-Rigaud 1959FE66
    |    |    |--*D. corbisema Deflandre-Rigaud 1961FE66
    |    |    `--D. spatuligerFE66
    |    `--Prisculatrites Deflandre-Rigaud 1961FE66
    |         |--*P. schlumbergeri (Deflandre-Rigaud 1946) [=Priscopedatus schlumbergeri]FE66
    |         |--P. deflandreaeFE66
    |         |--P. triceratiumFE66
    |         `--P. tricostatusFE66
    |--HolothuriidaeMG-H11
    |    |--MicrotheleF67
    |    |--Pearsonothuria graeffei (Semper 1868)BM09
    |    |--HolothuriaMG-H11
    |    |--Protholothuria Giebel 1857FE66
    |    |    `--*P. armata Giebel 1857FE66
    |    |--BohadschiaBM09
    |    |    |--B. argus Jaeger 1833BM09
    |    |    `--B. marmorata Jaeger 1833BM09
    |    |--LabidodemasBM09
    |    |    |--L. pertinax Ludwig 1875BM09
    |    |    `--L. semperianum Selenka 1867BM09
    |    |--ActinopygaBM09
    |    |    |--A. difficilisD49
    |    |    |--A. echinites (Jaeger 1833)SM15
    |    |    |--A. lecanora (Jaeger 1833)SM15
    |    |    |--A. mauritiana (Quoy & Gaimard 1833)BM09
    |    |    |--A. miliaris (Quoy & Gaimard 1833)BM09
    |    |    |--A. obesa (Selenka 1867)SM15
    |    |    `--A. serratidens Pearson 1903SM15
    |    `--Calclamnella Frizzell & Exline 1956SG93, FE66
    |         |--*C. irregularis (Schlumberger 1890) [=Priscopedatus irregularis]FE66
    |         |--C. elliptica Deflandre-Rigaud 1946SG93
    |         |--C. fragosaFE66
    |         |--C. fusiformisFE66
    |         |--C. jurassicaFE66
    |         |--C. margaritataFE66
    |         |--C. regularis Stefanov 1970B01
    |         |--C. robustaFE66
    |         `--C. transversaFE66
    `--Stichopitidae [Rhabdorotiformidae]P66
         |--Stichopites Deflandre-Rigaud 1953 [incl. Prostichopus Frentzen 1964]FE66
         |    `--*S. mortenseni Deflandre-Rigaud 1953FE66
         |--Parvispina Kornicker & Imbrie 1958FE66
         |    |--*P. spinosa (Frizzell & Exline 1956) [=Stichopites spinosus]FE66
         |    |--P. harpagoFE66
         |    `--P. subsymmetricaFE66
         |--Cucumarites Deflandre-Rigaud 1952 [incl. Procucumaria Frentzen 1964]FE66
         |    |--*C. feifeli (Mortensen 1937) [=Cucumaria feifeli]FE66
         |    |--‘Eocaudina’ mortenseni Frizzell & Exline 1956FE66
         |    `--C. solidusFE66
         |--Ornaticannula Deflandre-Rigaud 1961FE66
         |    |--*O. bonheurei Deflandre-Rigaud 1961FE66
         |    |--O. micralcyonaritesFE66
         |    `--O. tesseyreiFE66
         |--Rhabdotites Deflandre-Rigaud 1952 [incl. Chiridotella Deflandre-Rigaud 1961, Chirobaculus Frentzen 1964]FE66
         |    |--*R. mortenseni Deflandre-Rigaud 1952FE66
         |    |--R. bifidusFE66
         |    `--R. dorsetensisFE66
         `--Uncinulina Terquem 1862 [incl. Ambulacrites Rioult 1960]FE66
              |--*U. polymorpha Terquem 1862FE66
              |--U. angulataFE66
              |--U. arcuataFE66
              |--U. lunataFE66
              |--U. subrectaFE66
              `--U. terquemiFE66

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[BK77] Barel, C. D. N., & P. G. N. Kramers. 1977. A survey of the echinoderm associates of the north-east Atlantic area. Zoologische Verhandelingen 156: 1–159.

[B01] Boczarowski, A. 2001. Isolated sclerites of Devonian non-pelmatozoan echinoderms. Palaeontologia Polonica 59: 1–219.

[BM09] Bryce, C., & L. Marsh. 2009. Echinodermata (Asteroidea, Echinoidea and Holothuroidea) of Mermaid (Rowley Shoals), Scott and Seringapatam Reefs, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 77: 209–220.

[CH97] Castro, P., & M. E. Huber. 1997. Marine Biology 2nd ed. WCB McGraw-Hill: Boston.

[D49] Dawbin, W. H. 1949. Auto-evisceration and the regeneration of viscera in the holothurian Stichopus mollis Hutton. Transactions and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New Zealand 77 (4): 497–523.

[F67] Fell, H. B. 1967. Echinoderm ontogeny. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt S. Echinodermata 1. General characters. Homalozoa—Crinozoa (except Crinoidea) vol. 1 pp. S60–S85. The Geological Society of America, Inc., and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

[FE66] Frizzell, D. L., & H. Exline. 1966. Holothuroidea—fossil record. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt U. Echinodermata 3 vol. 2 pp. U646–U672. The Geological Society of America, Inc., and The University of Kansas Press.

[H04] Haeckel, E. 1899–1904. Kunstformen der Natur. Bibliographisches Institut: Leipzig und Wien.

[MG-H11] McEnnulty, F. R., K. L. Gowlett-Holmes, A. Williams, F. Althaus, J. Fromont, G. C. B. Poore, T. D. O’Hara, L. Marsh, P. Kott, S. Slack-Smith, P. Alderslade & M. V. Kitahara. 2011. The deepwater megabenthic invertebrates on the western continental margin of Australia (100–1100 m depths): composition, distribution and novelty. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 80: 1–191.

[P66] Pawson, D. L. 1966. Phylogeny and evolution of holothuroids. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt U. Echinodermata 3 vol. 2 pp. U641–U646. The Geological Society of America, Inc., and The University of Kansas Press.

[SM15] Sampey, A., & L. M. Marsh. 2015. Kimberley marine biota. Historical data: echinoderms. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 84: 207–246.

[SG93] Simms, M. J., A. S. Gale, P. Gilliland, E. P. F. Rose & G. D. Sevastopulo. 1993. Echinodermata. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 491–528. Chapman & Hall: London.

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