Asteraceae

 Ainsliaea latifolia, copyright P. B. Pelser & J. F. Barcelona.

Belongs within: Asterales.
Contains: Blumea, Balsamorhiza, Geigeria, Hemizonia, Lasthenia, Lessingia, Lipochaeta, Pulicaria, Cremanthodium, Machaeranthera, Saussurea, Arnica, Eriophyllum, Heterotheca, Hulsea, Layia, Malacothrix, Pyrrocoma, Tetradymia, WyethiaColymbada, Mutisioideae, Carduoideae, Cichorioideae, Asteroideae.

The Asteraceae, also known as Compositae, are a large family of plants distinguished by their production of composite flowers: a large number of minute flowers are clustered together on a common base, giving the superficial appearance of a single flower. The individual flowers may be tubular or ligulate. In the classic radiate ‘daisy’ arrangement, the central flowers are tubular with a circumferential ring of ligulate flowers but other forms have all florets either one form or the other. Past classifications accordingly divided the composite-flowered plants between the subfamilies Liguliflorae and Tubuliflorae, but this division has since been recognised as somewhat artificial. Instead, the South American Barnadesioideae have been recognised as the sister group to the remaining Asteraceae; members of this clade lack a 22 kb inversion in the chloroplast genome found in all other members of the family.

Other basal groups include the Gochnatioideae, containing species found in the Americas characterised by glabrous styles and anthers with appendiculate appendages (Panero & Funk 2002). Hecastocleis shockleyi, prickleleaf, is a low, prickly shrub found on rocky slopes in the southwestern United States. The Pertyoideae are a group of Asian composites bearing discoid or disciform, homogamous heads with florets with actinomorphic, deeply but unequally divided corollas. Gymnarrhena is a genus of rosette-forming perennial herbs found in northern Africa and the Middle East that produces both aerial and subterranean flower heads. Corymbium is a South African genus of tufted herbs with lanceolate, parallel-veined leaves bearing single-flowered heads (Panero & Funk 2002).

Characters (from Black & Robertson 1965): Herbs or shrubs with alternate or opposite exstipulate leaves. Flowers regular or irregular, bisexual or unisexual, sessile or almost so, collected together on a common receptacle or floral base in heads surrounded by an involucre of bracts arranged in one or several rows; surface of receptacle nake or furnished with bracts (chaffy scales), normally one to each flower but sometimes split into fine bristles; calyx mounted on summit of ovary and consisting of ring of bristles or scales or of a small cup or crown called the pappus, or rarely absent; corolla sympetalous, either regular and tubular, the tube expanded upwards into a long or short limb which is more or less deeply cut into five, rarely four, valvate lobes or teeth, or irregular with the teeth or lobes united and extended outwards on one side into a flat usually linear or oblong tongue or ligule, or sometime outer female flowers very slender (filiform) with two or three minute teeth; stamens as many as corolla-lobes, alternate with them and inserted in tube, anthers linear, two-celled, opening inwards by longitudinal slits and usually united in tube round style; ovary inferior, one-celled, with one erect anatropous ovule; style divided at summit in fertile flowers into two (rarely more) long or short stigmatic branches; fruit a small indehiscent achene, naked or crowned by pappus; seed exalbuminous, with thin testa often adherent to pericarp; embryo straight, with short inferior radicle.

<==Asteraceae [Compositae, Lactucoideae, Mutisiaceae, Tubuliflorae]
    |--BarnadesiaK03 [Barnadesieae, BarnadesioideaePF02]
    |    `--B. caryophyllaK03
    `--+--MutisioideaePF02
       `--+--Gochnatioideae [Gochnatieae]PF02
          |    |--Gochnatia Kunth in HBK 1820PF02
          |    |--CnicothamnusPF02
          |    |--CyclolepisPF02
          |    |--Richterago [incl. Actinoseris]PF02
          |    `--ChucoaPF02
          `--+--Hecastocleis Gray 1882 [Hecastocleideae, Hecastocleioideae]PF02
             |    `--H. shockleyiH93
             `--+--CarduoideaePF02
                `--+--+--Gymnarrhena Desfontaines 1818 [Gymnarrheneae, Gymnarrhenoideae]PF02
                   |  `--+--CichorioideaePF02
                   |     `--+--Corymbium Linnaeus 1737 [Corymbieae, Corymbioideae]PF02
                   |        `--AsteroideaePF02
                   `--Pertyoideae [Pertyeae]PF02
                        |--Pertya Schultz 1862PF02
                        |--Ainsliaea latifoliaPF02, D07
                        |--DiaspananthusPF02
                        |--MacroclinidiumPF02
                        `--MyripnoisPF02
Asteraceae incertae sedis:
  Liatris Gaertner ex von Schreber 1791 (nom. cons.) [incl. Lacinaria Hill 1762]GYS03
    |--L. cylindraceaZF84
    |--L. graminefoliaJ23
    |--L. ligulistylisGYS03
    `--L. scariosa (Linnaeus) von Willdenow 1803 (see below for synonymy)GYS03
         |--L. s. var. scariosa (see below for synonymy)GYS03
         |--L. s. var. nieuwlandii (Lunell) Voss 1995 (see below for synonymy)GYS03
         `--L. s. var. novae-angliae (Lunell) Gandhi, Young & Somers 2003 (see below for synonymy)GYS03
  BlumeaLK14
  FitchiaH03
  TetramolopiumH03
  TuberostylisH03
  CatamixisYY22
  DinoserisYY22
  HymenocleaYY22
    |--H. monogyraH93
    `--H. salsolaH93
         |--H. s. var. salsolaH93
         |--H. s. var. patulaH93
         `--H. s. var. pentalepisH93
  AcamptopappusYY22
    |--A. shockleyiH93
    `--A. sphaerocephalusH93
         |--A. s. var. sphaerocephalusH93
         `--A. s. var. hirtellusH93
  AchaetogeronYY22
  AchmophoraYY22
  Achyrachaena mollisH93
  AdelostigmaYY22
  AganippeaYY22
  AiolothecaYY22
  AllendeaYY22
  AniauriaYY22
  AmblyocarpumYY22
  AmellusYY22
  Amphiglossa thujaCV06
  AmphoricarpusYY22
  AnaglyphaYY22
  AnaxetonYY22
  AntithrixiaYY22
  AphanactisYY22
  AphanostephusYY22
  AgyroxiphiumYY22
  ArnicastrumYY22
  ArrowsmithiaYY22
  AstephaniaYY22
  AsteromoeaYY22
  AxiniphyllumYY22
  BalsamorhizaYY22
  BaltimoraYY22
  BellidaYY22
  Bellium minutumPT98
  Berlandiera lyrataYY22, BT72
  BileveilleaYY22
  Blainvillea acmellaPP07
  Blepharizonia plumosaH93
    |--B. p. ssp. plumosaH93
    `--B. p. ssp. viscidaH93
  BoltoniaYY22
  BrachychaetaYY22
  BradburiaYY22
  BryomorpheYY22
  BurrieliaYY22
  CacosmiaYY22
  CadiscusYY22
  Callistephus chinensisBR65, MN03
  Calostephane marlothianaCV06
  Calyptocarpus vialisRC02
  CarpesiumYY22
  CeruanaYY22
  Chaetopappa ericoides [=Leucelene ericoides]H93
  ChardiniaYY22
  CharieisYY22
  ChionolaenaYY22
  ChlamyditesYY22
  ChroilemaYY22
  ChromolepisYY22
  ChrysactiniaYY22
  ChrysogonumYY22
  Clibadium villosumMM96
  ColeocomaYY22
  CommidendronYY22
  Crocidium multicauleH93
  CrossostephiumYY22
  CyathoclineSS02
    |--C. luteaSS02
    |--C. manilaliana Prabhakar Raju & Venkata Raju 1999SS02
    `--C. purpureaSS02
  CylindroclineYY22
  CypselodontiaYY22
  DelameresYY22
  DenekiaYY22
  Dichrocephala integrifoliaD07
  DicranocarpusYY22
  DiplostephiumC61
    |--D. anactinotumC61
    |--D. antioquense Cuatrecasas 1961C61
    |--D. denticulatumC61
    |--D. eriophorumR96
    |--D. revolutumR96
    |--D. rosmarinifoliumR96
    |--D. saxatile Cuatrecasas 1961C61
    `--D. tabanenseC61
  DipterocomeYY22
  DisparagoYY22
  DoronicumYY22
    |--D. austriacumC55a
    |--D. caucasicumC55a
    |--D. pardalianchesC55b
    |--D. plantagineumC55b
    |--D. royleiO88
    `--D. scorpioidesC55a
  EnydraYY22
  ErmeiastrumYY22
  EutetrasYY22
  EvaxH93
    |--E. multicaulisH93
    |--E. proliferaH93
    `--E. pygmaeaPT98
  FeliciaCV06
    |--F. albaCV06
    |--F. gunillaeCV06
    `--F. smaragdinaCV06
  Fresenia DC. 1836KC01
  GamolepisYY22
  GarcilassaYY22
  Garuleum schinziiCV06
    |--G. s. ssp. schinziiCV06
    `--G. s. ssp. crinitumCV06
  GeigeriaCV06
  GlossocardiaLK14
    |--G. bidensLK14
    `--G. bosvalleaPP07
  GlyciderasYY22
  GoldmanellaYY22
  GolionemaYY22
  Grangea maderaspatanaPP07
  GratwickiaYY22
  GreenellaYY22
  GrypocarphaYY22
  GuardiolaYY22
  Gymnodiscus Less. 1831KC01
  GymnospermaYY22
  GymnostephiumYY22
  HeliopsisYY22
  HemizonellaYY22
  HemizoniaYY22
  HeptanthusYY22
  HertiaYY22
  HeterolepisYY22
  HeteropappusYY22
  HidalgoaYY22
  HinterhuberaC61
    |--H. columbicaC61
    |--H. ericoidesC61
    `--H. nevadensis Cuatrecasas 1961C61
  HippiaYY22
  HomochaeteYY22
  HomochromaYY22
  HomogyneYY22
  IchthyothereYY22
  Ifloga spicata [incl. I. fontanesii]D17
  InulopsisYY22
  IschneaYY22
  IsocarphaYY22
  JaegenaYY22
  KeerliaYY22
  KoehneolaYY22
  LachnophyllumYY22
  Laggera alata (Don.) Schultz ex Oliver 1873 (see below for synonymy)SS02
  LagophyllaYY22
    |--L. dichotomaH93
    |--L. glandulosa [incl. L. glandulosa var. serrata]H93
    |--L. minorH93
    `--L. ramosissimaH93
         |--L. r. ssp. ramosissimaH93
         `--L. r. ssp. congestaH93
  Lantanopsis hispidulaJ87
  LasiocomaYY22
  LasiopogonCV06
    |--L. ponticulusCV06
    `--L. volkiiCV06
  LastheniaYY22
  LecocarpusYY22
  LeontonyxYY22
  LepidostephiumYY22
  LeptocarphaYY22
  LessingiaYY22
  LeysseraYY22
  LifagoYY22
  LindheimeraYY22
  LipochaetaYY22
  Macowania Oliv. 1870KC01
  MairiaYY22
  MelampodiumYY22
  MelanodendronYY22
  MerrittiaYY22
  MicractisYY22
  MicrolecaneYY22
  MicrotrichiaYY22
  MinurothamnusYY22
  MolleraYY22
  MonarrhenusYY22
  MonolopiaYY22
    |--M. gracilensH93
    |--M. lanceolataH93
    |--M. majorH93
    `--M. strictaH93
  MonoptilonYY22
    |--M. bellidiformeH93
    `--M. bellioidesH93
  MooniaYY22
  MyriactisYY22
  NannoglottisO88
    |--N. hookeriO88
    `--N. soulieiO88
  NanothamnusYY22
  Narvalina domingensisJ87
  NerrittiaYY22
  NestleraYY22
  Nicolasia heterophyllaCV06
    |--N. h. ssp. heterophyllaCV06
    `--N. h. ssp. affinisCV06
  Nidorella mordenstamiiCV06
  NolletiaCV06
    |--N. chrysocomoidesD17
    `--N. tenuifoliaCV06
  OdontospermumYY22
  OederaYY22
  OlivaeaYY22
  Ondetia linearisCV06
  OreochrysumYY22
  OsmitesYY22
  OsmitopsisYY22
  OtochlamyaYY22
  OxypappusYY22
  PartheniceYY22
  ParantennariaYY22
  Pechuelloeschea [=Pechuel-Löschea]YY22
  Perralderia coronopifoliaD17
  PetalacteYY22
  PetalactellaYY22
  PetrolliniaYY22
  PhacellothrixYY22
  PhaenocomaYY22
  PhalacrocarpumYY22
  PhemmeraYY22
  PhilactisYY22
  PhiloglossaYY22
  Philyrophyllum brandbergenseCV06
  PhymaspermumYY22
  PinillosiaYY22
  PodochaeniumYY22
  PolygyneYY22
  PorphyrostemmaYY22
  PrintziaYY22
  PsiadiaYY22
  PsilactisYY22
  PulicariaPP07
  RaillardellaYY22
    |--R. argenteaH93
    |--R. pringleiH93
    `--R. scaposaH93
  RelhaniaYY22
  RemyaYY22
  Rhantherium adpressumB89
  RhodogeronYY22
  RhynchospermumYY22
  RiddeliaYY22
  RiencourtiaYY22
  RochoniaYY22
  RuckeriaYY22
  RumfordiaYY22
  SabaziaYY22
  SachaiaYY22
  SartwelliaYY22
  SchistocarphaYY22
  SchistostephiumYY22
  SchizotrichiaYY22
  Sclerocarpus africanusPP07
  ScyphocoronisYY22
  Selloa glutinosaYY22, BT72
  SheareriaYY22
  Silphium terebinthaceumT-W89
  SphacophyllumYY22
  SphaeromorphaeaYY22
  Sphagneticola trilobataLK14 [=Thelechitonia trilobataH06]
  StaurochlamysYY22
  SteirodiscusYY22
  StemmatellaYY22
  StenoclineYY22
  StephanodoriaYY22
  StilpnogyneYY22
  SymphyllocarpusYY22
  SyncephalanthaYY22
  SyntrichopappusYY22
    |--S. fremontiiH93
    `--S. lemmoniiH93
  TetragonothecaYY22
  TetranthusYY22
  TetraperoneYY22
  ThespidiumYY22
  ThespisYY22
  ThymopsisYY22
  TolboniaYY22
  TragocerosYY22
  TrigonospermumYY22
  TriplocephalumYY22
  UrbinellaYY22
  VancleveaYY22
  VarillaYY22
  VenegaziaYY22
  VieraeaYY22
  VillanovaYY22
  WelwitschiellaYY22
  Whitneya dealbataH93
  WyomingiaYY22
  XanthismaYY22
  ZoegeaYY22
  Arsium arvenseYY22
  LuciliopsisYY22
  LycoserisYY22
  ParastrephiaYY22
  PetrobiumYY22
  SynchodendronYY22
  TafallaYY22
  ArchibaccharisYY22
  RhetinodendronYY22
  LeontopodiumO88
    |--L. alpinumH09
    |--L. brachyactisO88
    |--L. haastioidesO88
    |--L. himalayanumO88
    |--L. jacotianumO88
    |--L. makianumO88
    |--L. monocephalumO88
    |--L. nanumO88
    `--L. stracheyiO88
  OligandraYY22
  Blepharipappus scaber [incl. B. scaber ssp. laevis]H93
  Cladanthus arabicusYY22, D17
  CremanthodiumO88
  Eatonella niveaH93
  GeissopappusYY22
  GonospermumYY22
  GynoxysYY22
  GynuraYY22
  Ligularia fischeriO88
  OligothrixYY22
  OthakeYY22
  Pericome caudataH93
  WaldheimiaO88
    |--W. glabraO88
    |--W. niveaO88
    `--W. tomentosaO88
  PetasitesO88
    |--P. albus [=Tussilago alba]C55b
    |--P. frigidusH93
    |    |--P. f. var. frigidusH93
    |    `--P. f. var. palmatusH93
    |--P. hybridusNN95
    |--P. niveusC55a
    `--P. tricholobusO88
  Nardosmia fragrans [=Tussilago fragrans]C55b
  Tussilago farfaraC55a, C55b
  MachaerantheraFM80
  BrachyactisO88
    |--B. anomalaO88
    |--B. pubescensO88
    `--B. royleiO88
  CacaliaO88
    |--C. chenopodiifoliaO88
    |--C. penninervisO88
    `--C. pentalobaO88
  CicerbitaSS05
    |--C. cyaneaO88
    |--C. filicina (Duthie) Mamgain & Rao 1989 [=Lactuca filicina Duthie ex Stebbins 1939]SS05
    |--C. macranthaO88
    |--C. macrorhizaO88
    |    |--C. m. var. macrorhizaO88
    |    `--C. m. var. saxatilisO88
    `--C. panciciiGR98
  Cousinia thomsoniiO88
  DendranthemaO88
    |--D. mutellinaO88
    |--D. nubigenumO88
    `--D. tenuiflorumO88
  Dubyaea hispidaO88
  JurineaC98
    |--J. dolomiaeaO88
    `--J. mollis (Linnaeus) Reichenb. 1831PL04 (see below for synonymy)
         |--J. m. ssp. mollisC98
         |    |--J. m. ssp. m. f. mollisC98
         |    `--J. m. ssp. m. f. erectobracteata Conti 1998C98
         `--J. m. ssp. anatolica (Boissier) Stoj. & Stef. 1925PL04
  Leibnitzia nepalensisO88
  Prenanthes violaefoliaO88
  SaussureaCP02
  SoroserisO88
    |--S. deasyiO88
    |--S. gilliiO88
    |    |--S. g. ssp. gilliiO88
    |    `--S. g. ssp. occidentalisO88
    |--S. glomerataO88
    |--S. hookerianaO88
    |    |--S. h. ssp. hookerianaO88
    |    `--S. h. ssp. erysimoidesO88
    `--S. pumilaO88
  YoungiaO88
    |--Y. depressaO88
    |--Y. gracilipesO88
    |--Y. japonicaJ87
    |--Y. racemiferaO88
    |--Y. simulatrixO88
    `--Y. tenuifoliaO88
         |--Y. t. ssp. tenuifoliaO88
         `--Y. t. ssp. diversifoliaO88
  Praxelis clematideaW03
  AtractylisY98
    |--A. aristataD17
    |--A. cancellataPT98 [=Acarna cancellataC55a]
    |--A. flavaD17
    `--A. gummiferaY98
  Aetheorhiza bulbosaPT98
    |--A. b. ssp. bulbosaPT98
    `--A. b. ssp. microcephalaPT98
  AsteriscusPT98
    |--A. aquaticusPT98
    |--A. graveolensCS77
    `--A. pygmaeusD17
  CarlinaPL04
    |--C. acaulisNN95
    |--C. corymbosa Linnaeus 1753PL04
    |    |--C. c. ssp. corymbosaPL04
    |    `--C. c. ssp. graeca (Bociss.) Nyman 1879PL04
    |--C. lanataPT98
    `--C. vulgarisG88
  DittrichiaPL04
    |--D. graveolensGK00
    `--D. viscosa (Linnaeus) Greuter 1973PL04
  Geropogon hybridusPT98
  Hyoseris scabraPT98
  Notobasis syriacaPT98
  Ptilostemon chamaepeucePT98, S98
  Rhagadiolus stellatusPT98
  Bombycilaena erectaGR98 [=Micropus erectaH91]
  Leucopsis (de Candolle 1836) Baker in Martius 1882 non Olivier 1792 (ICZN)FT93
  Kleinia neriifoliaES06 [incl. Senecio kleiniaJ54]
  ActinoboleKM08
    |--A. condensatumKM08
    |--A. drummondianaK90
    |--A. oldfieldianaK90
    `--A. uliginosumG04a
  AsterideaG04b
    |--A. athrixioidesG04b
    `--A. pulverulentaGK00
  Blennospora drummondiiOS04
  Erymophyllum ramosumG04a
  Gilberta tenuifoliaG04a
  Gilruthia osborneiG04a
  StreptoglossaLK14
    |--S. cylindricepsG04a
    |--S. liatroidesG04a
    `--S. odoraLK14
  Trichanthodium skirrophorumG04a
  HyalospermaG04b
    |--H. cotulaGK00
    |--H. demissumG04b
    `--H. simplexGK00
  Argentipallium niveumOS04
  Pterochaeta paniculataOS04
  Steptorhamphus tuberosus (von Jacquin) Grossh. 1934PL04
  Caesulia axillarisP03
  LaunaeaPP07
    |--L. acaulisM72
    |--L. arborescensN-A04
    |--L. fallaxM72
    |--L. procumbensVB02
    `--L. resedifoliaPP07
  EremothamneaeT00
    |--Eremothamnus marlothianusCV06
    `--HoplophyllumT00
  ChamaemelumH93
    |--C. fuscatum [=Anthemis fuscata]H93
    `--C. nobile [=Anthemis nobilis]H93
  Vellereophyton dealbatumGK00
  PithocarpaGK00
    |--P. corymbulosaGK00
    `--P. pulchellaGK00
  PogonolepisKM08
    |--P. muellerianaKM08
    `--P. strictaGK00
  Elytropappus rhinocerotisK02
  AntiphionaCV06
    |--A. fragransCV06
    `--A. pinnatisectaCV06
  PentatrichiaCV06
    |--P. avasmontanaCV06
    `--P. rehmiiCV06
  Dauresia alliariifolia [=Senecio alliariifolius]CV06
  GazaniaCV06
    |--G. linearis [incl. G. longiscapa]H93
    |--G. splendensR35
    `--G. thermalisCV06
  Gorteria diffusaCV06
    |--G. d. ssp. diffusaCV06
    `--G. d. ssp. parviligulataCV06
  Myxopappus hereroensisCV06
  Norlindhia apteraCV06
  PegolettiaCV06
    |--P. pinnatilobataCV06
    `--P. plumosaCV06
  Pentzia tomentosaCV06
  PteroniaCV06
    |--P. eeniiCV06
    |--P. polygalifoliaCV06
    |--P. pomonaeCV06
    |--P. rangeiCV06
    `--P. spinulosaCV06
  Rennera eeniiCV06
  Tripteris nervosaCV06
  Campuloclinium macrocephalumH06
  TithoniaH06
    |--T. diversifoliaH06
    `--T. rotundifoliaH06
  EmiliaLK14
    |--E. fosbergiiJ87
    `--E. sonchifoliaLK14
  Piqueria trinervaJ87
  Pembertonia latisquameaKM08
  Xerochrysum bracteatumMM09
  Oligochaeta ramosaPP07
  Tridax procumbensLK14
  *Artemisiastrum palmeri [=Artemisia palmeri]M79
  Ammobium alatumV09
  Leptorhynchus squamatusM65
  Donia Br. 1813A61
  BaileyaH93
    |--B. multiradiataH93
    |--B. pauciradiataH93
    `--B. pleniradiataBM76
  ParagynoxysC61
    |--P. meridanaC61
    `--P. undulatifolia Cuatrecasas 1961C61
  ParasenecioCP02
    |--P. monanthaCP02
    `--P. nokoensisCP02
  Acmella grandifloraLK14
    |--A. g. var. grandifloraLK14
    `--A. g. var. brachyglossaLK14
  Allopterigeron filifoliusLK14
  Cyanthillium cinereumLK14
  Iotasperma australienseLK14
  PentalepisLK14
    |--P. ecliptoidesLK14
    `--P. trichodesmoidesML13
  PeripleuraLK14
    |--P. spechtiiLK14
    |    |--P. s. var. spechtiiLK14
    |    `--P. s. var. kimberleyensisLK14
    `--P. virgataLK14
  Pleurocarpaea denticulataLK14
  Cenia turbinataC06
  Lapsana communisC06
  Acourtia microcephala [=Perezia microcephala]H93
  Acroptilon repensH93 [=Centaurea repensH93; incl. C. picrisBR65]
  AdenophyllumH93
    |--A. cooperi [=Dyssodia cooperi]H93
    `--A. porophylloides [=Dyssodia porophylloides]H93
  Amphipappus fremontiiH93
    |--A. f. var. fremontiiH93
    `--A. f. var. spinosusH93
  Ancistrocarphus filagineus [=Stylocline filaginea; incl. S. filaginea var. depressa]H93
  CymbolaenaH93
  Anisocoma acaulisH93
  ArgyranthemumH93
    |--A. foeniculaceum [=Chrysanthemum foeniculaceum; incl. C. anethifolium]H93
    `--A. frutescensH93
  ArnicaH93
  Atrichoseris platyphyllaH93
  Bebbia junceaH93
    |--B. j. var. junceaH93
    `--B. j. var. asperaH93
  Cacaliopsis nardosmiaH93
  CalycadeniaH93
    |--C. fremontii [incl. C. ciliosa, C. elegans]H93
    |--C. hooveriH93
    |--C. mollisH93
    |--C. multiglandulosa (see below for synonymy)H93
    |--C. oppositifoliaH93
    |--C. paucifloraH93
    |--C. spicataH93
    |--C. truncata [incl. C. truncata ssp. microcephala, C. truncata ssp. scabrella]H93
    `--C. villosaH93
  CalycoserisH93
    |--C. parryiH93
    `--C. wrightiiH93
  Chaetadelpha wheeleriH93
  ChamomillaH93
    |--C. occidentalis [=Matricaria occidentalis]H93
    `--C. suaveolens [incl. Matricaria matricarioides]H93
  Chloracantha spinosa [=Aster spinosus]H93
  Dimeresia howelliiH93
  Dugaldia hoopesii [=Helenium hoopesii]H93
  Dyssodia papposaH93
  Eastwoodia elegansH93
  EriophyllumH93
  Euthamia occidentalis [=Solidago occidentalis]H93
  GeraeaH93
    |--G. canescensH93
    `--G. viscidaH93
  Glyptopleura marginata [incl. G. setulosa]H93
  HelianthellaH93
    |--H. californicaH93
    |    |--H. c. var. californicaH93
    |    |--H. c. var. nevadensisH93
    |    `--H. c. var. shastensisH93
    `--H. castaneaH93
  HesperevaxH93
    |--H. acaulis [=Evax acaulis (Kellogg) Greene 1883]H93
    |    |--H. a. var. acaulisH93
    |    |--H. a. var. ambusticolaH93
    |    `--H. a. var. robustiorH93
    |--H. caulescens [=Evax caulescens; incl. E. involucrata]H93
    `--H. sparsiflora [=Evax sparsiflora]H93
         |--H. s. var. sparsifloraH93
         `--H. s. var. brevifolia [=Evax sparsiflora var. brevifolia]H93
  Heteranthemis viscidehirtaH93
  HeterothecaH93
  HolocarphaH93
    |--H. heermanniiH93
    |--H. macradeniaH93
    |--H. obconica [incl. H. obconica ssp. autumnalis]H93
    `--H. virgataH93
         |--H. v. ssp. virgataH93
         `--H. v. ssp. elongataH93
  Holozonia filipesH93
  HulseaH93
  HymenopappusH93
    |--H. filifoliusH93
    |    |--H. f. var. filifoliusH93
    |    |--H. f. var. eriopodusH93
    |    |--H. f. var. lugensH93
    |    |--H. f. var. megacephalusH93
    |    `--H. f. var. nanusH93
    `--H. tenuifoliusJ23
  HymenothrixH93
    |--H. loomisiiH93
    |--H. wislezeniBT72
    `--H. wrightiiH93
  IsocomaH93
    |--I. acradenia [=Haplopappus acradenius]H93
    |    |--I. a. var. acradeniaH93
    |    |--I. a. var. bracteosa [=Haplopappus acradenius var. bracteosus]H93
    |    `--I. a. var. eremophila [=Haplopappus acradenius var. eremophilus]H93
    |--I. arguta [=Haplopappus venetus ssp. argutus]H93
    `--I. menziesii [incl. Haplopappus venetus, I. veneta]H93
         |--I. m. var. menziesiiH93 (see below for synonymy)
         |--I. m. var. sedoides [=Haplopappus venetus var. sedoides]H93
         `--I. m. var. vernonioides [=Haplopappus venetus ssp. veronioides]H93
  LayiaH93
  Lembertia congdoniiH93
  LepidospartumH93
    |--L. latisquamumH93
    `--L. squamatum [incl. L. squamatum var. palmeri]H93
  LeucanthemumH93
    |--L. maximumH93 [=Chrysanthemum maximum Ramond 1800H93, R00]
    `--L. vulgare [incl. Chrysanthemum leucanthemum]H93
         |--L. v. var. vulgareS72
         `--‘Chrysanthemum leucanthemum’ var. pinnatifidumS72
  Luina hypoleucaH93
  MalacothrixH93
  Malperia tenuisH93
  MicropusH93
    |--M. amphibolus [=Stylocline amphibola]H93
    `--M. californicusH93
         |--M. c. var. californicusH93
         `--M. c. var. subvestitusH93
  Nicolletia occidentalisH93
  NothocalaisH93
    |--N. alpestrisH93
    `--N. troximoidesH93
  Orochaenactis thysanocarphaH93
  Osmadenia tenella [=Calycadenia tenella]H93
  Palafoxia aridaH93
    |--P. a. var. aridaH93
    `--P. a. var. gigantea [=P. linearis var. gigantea]H93
  Petradoria pumilaH93
  Peucephyllum schottiiH93
  Phalacroseris bolanderi [incl. P. bolanderi var. coronata]H93
  Pleurocoronis pluriseta [=Hoffmeisteria pluriseta]H93
  Porophyllum gracileH93
  Prenanthella exigua [=Lygodesmia exigua]H93
  Prionopsis ciliata [=Haplopappus ciliatus]H93
  PsathyrotesH93
    |--P. annuaH93
    `--P. ramosissimaH93
  PseudobahiaH93
    |--P. bahiifolia [=Monolopia bahiifolia]H93
    |--P. heermannii [=Eriophyllum heermannii]H93
    `--P. peirsoniiH93
  PyrrocomaH93
  RafinesquiaH93
    |--R. californicaH93
    `--R. neomexicanaH93
  RaillardiopsisH93
    |--R. muirii [=Raillardella muirii]H93
    `--R. scabrida [=Raillardella scabrida]H93
  SantolinaH93
    |--S. chamaecyparisusH93
    |--S. marchiiR-CT01
    `--S. rosmarinifoliaRCT96
  StebbinsoserisH93
    |--S. decipiens [=Microseris decipiens]H93
    `--S. heterocarpa [=Microseris heterocarpa]H93
  Uropappus lindleyi [=Microseris lindleyi; incl. M. linearifolia]H93
  StenotusH93
    |--S. acaulis [=Haplopappus acaulis]H93
    |--S. lanuginosusH93
    |--‘Haplopappus’ pulvinatus Moran 1969M69
    `--S. stenophyllus [=Haplopappus stenophyllus]H93
  StyloclineH93
    |--S. citroleumH93
    |--S. gnaphaloides [=S. gnaphalioides (l. c.)]H93
    |--S. intertextaH93
    |--S. masoniiH93
    |--S. micropoidesH93
    |--S. psilocarphoidesH93
    `--S. sonorensisH93
  TetradymiaH93
  Thymophylla pentachaetaH93
    |--T. p. var. pentachaetaH93
    `--T. p. var. belenidium [=Dyssodia pentachaeta var. belenidium; incl. D. thurberi]H93
  TonestusH93
    |--T. eximius [=Haplopappus eximius]H93
    |--T. lyallii [=Haplopappus lyallii]H93
    `--T. peirsonii [=Haplopappus peirsonii]H93
  TownsendiaH93
    |--T. condensataH93
    |--T. leptotesH93
    |--T. parryiH93
    `--T. scapigeraH93
  Trichocoronis wrightiiH93
  Trichoptilium incisumH93
  TrimorphaH93
    |--T. acrisH93
    |    |--T. a. var. acrisH93
    |    `--T. a. var. debilis [=Erigeron debilis]H93
    `--T. lonchophylla [=Erigeron lonchophylla]H93
  Venegasia carpesioidesH93
  Venidium fastuosumH93
  WyethiaH93
  XylorhizaH93
    |--X. cognata [=Machaeranthera cognata]H93
    |--X. orcuttii [=Machaeranthera orcuttii]H93
    `--X. tortifolia [=Machaeranthera tortifolia]H93
  Lygodesmia junceaG05
  Hieracites salyorum Saporta 1861CBH93
  ‘Tricolporopollenites’ microechinatus Hochuli 1978CBH93
  Tubulifloridites antipodica Kemp & Harris 1975CBH93
  BedfordiaWB-P93
    |--B. arborescensWB-P93
    `--B. salicinaSN08
  Acanthotheca DC. 1838KC01
  Arnoldia Mass. 1856KC01
  Asterothrix Cass. 1827KC01
  Ceratella Hook. f. 1844KC01
  Cladochaete DC. 1838KC01
  Eriosphaera Dietr. 1817KC01
  Laestadia Kunth ex Less. 1832KC01
  Margarita Gaudin 1829 nec Leach 1814 (ICZN) nec Leach 1819 (ICZN)KC01
  Martinia Vaniot 1903 non M’Coy 1844 (ICZN)KC01
  Mosigia Spreng. 1826KC01
  Peltidium Zollik. 1820KC01
  Sphaerocephalus Lag. ex DC. 1812KC01
  Xanthopsis (DC.) Koch 1851KC01
  Argyroxyphium sandwicenseSBM11
    |--A. s. ssp. sandwicenseSBM11
    `--A. s. ssp. macrocephalumSBM11
  Wilkesia gymnoxiphiumSBM11
  Daubautia scabraSBM11
  Echinacea pallidaS72
  Goniocaulon indicum (Klein ex Willd.) Clarke 1876 (see below for synonymy)SY72
  AcostaBGS05
  CalcitrapaBGS05
  CalcitrapoidesBGS05
  ChamaecyanusBGS05
  Cheirolophus [incl. Palaeocyanus]BGS05
    |--C. crassifoliusBGS05
    `--C. sempervirensBGS05
  JaceaBGS05
  PetrodavisiaBGS05
  RhaponticoidesBGS05
    `--‘Centaurea’ centauriumBGS05
  Crocodylium [incl. Aegialophila]BGS05
    `--C. pumilioBGS05
  ColymbadaBGS05
  Microgyne macrophyllaA78
  Chrysocoryne pusillaK90
  Farfugium grandeT-W89
  Cineraria sinensisT-W89
  VarthemiaD17
    |--V. iphionoidesD17
    |--V. montanaD17
    `--V. sericea [=Jasonia sericea Batt. & Trab. 1913]D17
  Francoeuria crispaD17
  AnvilleaD17
    |--A. garciniL98
    `--A. radiataD17
         |--A. r. var. radiataD17
         `--A. r. var. australisD17
  Nananthea perpusillaD17
  Chlamydophora pubescensD17
  ZollikoferiaD17
    |--Z. mucronataD17
    |--Z. nudicaulisD17
    |--Z. resedifoliaD17
    `--Z. spinosaD17
  Bracteantha bracteataB00 (see below for synonymy)

Bracteantha bracteataB00 [=Xeranthemum bracteatum Ventenat 1804BR65, Helichrysum bracteatum (Ventenat) Andrews 1805BR65; incl. Elichrysum lucidum Henckel 1806BR65]

Calycadenia multiglandulosa [incl. C. multiglandulosa ssp. bicolor, C. multiglandulosa ssp. cephalotes, C. hispida, C. hispida ssp. reducta, C. multiglandulosa ssp. robusta]H93

Goniocaulon indicum (Klein ex Willd.) Clarke 1876 [=Serratula indica Klein ex Willd. 1803; incl. G. glabrum Cass. 1817]SY72

Isocoma menziesii var. menziesiiH93 [incl. Haplopappus venetus ssp. furfuraceusH93, H. venetus ssp. oxyphyllusM69, I. menziesii ssp. oxyphyllusH93]

Jurinea mollis (Linnaeus) Reichenb. 1831PL04 [=Carduus mollis Linnaeus 1759C98; incl. C. moschatus Gussone 1825C98, Jurinea mollis ssp. moschata (Gussone) Nyman 1879C98, J. mollis var. moschata (Gussone) Visiani 1847C98, J. moschata (Gussone) de Candolle 1838C98]

Laggera alata (Don.) Schultz ex Oliver 1873 [=Erigeron alatum Don. 1825, Blumea alata (Don) de Candolle 1836]SS02

Liatris scariosa (Linnaeus) von Willdenow 1803 [=Serratula scariosa Linnaeus 1753, Lacinaria scariosa (Linnaeus) Hill 1762, Vernonia scariosa (Linnaeus) Poiret in Lamarck 1808]GYS03

Liatris scariosa var. nieuwlandii (Lunell) Voss 1995 [=Lacinaria scariosa var. nieuwlandii Lunell 1912, Liatris × nieuwlandii (Lunell) Gaiser 1946, Liatris novae-angliae var. nieuwlandii (Lunell) Shinners 1943]GYS03

Liatris scariosa var. novae-angliae (Lunell) Gandhi, Young & Somers 2003 [=Lacinaria scariosa var. novae-angliae Lunell 1912, Liatris novae-angliae (Lunell) Shinners 1943]GYS03

Liatris scariosa (Linnaeus) von Willdenow 1803 var. scariosa [incl. Liatris borealis Nuttall ex McNab 1835, Lacinaria scariosa var. borealis (Nuttall) Lunell 1912, Lacinaria scariosa var. virginiana Lunell 1912, Liatris scariosa var. virginiana (Lunell) Gaiser 1948]GYS03

*Type species of generic name indicated

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