Climbing hempvine Mikania scandens, copyright Forest & Kim Starr.

Belongs within: Asteraceae.
Contains: Erechtites, Senecio, Othonninae, Calenduleae, Gnaphalieae, Astereae, Anthemideae, Inuleae, Plucheeae, Helenieae, Coreopsideae, Chaenactis, Heliantheae, Madia, Eupatorium, Brickellia.

The Asteroideae is a major clade within the composite-flowered plants, a major characteristic of which is the presence of true ray florets in many species. Around 3000 species within the Asteroideae are placed in the tribe Senecioneae, characterised by a well-developed pappus of simple or plumose hairs, and flattened, more or less truncate style-arms (Allan 1961). The Athroismeae have disciform, usually whitish heads whose flowers bear caudate anthers and whose achenes have a pappus of a crown of twin trichomes or fused squamellae (Panero & Funk 2002). The Neurolaeneae have discoid or radiate heads that are usually arranged in paniculiform or corymbiform cymes. The Eupatorieae are a primarily New World group with discoid heads, more or less filiform styles and usually terete to clavate style branches.

Synapomorphies (from Sesquiterpene lactones at biogenetic levels 3 and 4, benzopyrans, benzofurans present; ray florets common, female, disc florets with corolla shallowly lobed, perfect; anthers often ecalcarate and usually ecaudate; pollen 25.0-34.3 µm in diameter, colpus ends acute, exine 2.3-4.2 µm across, with a double tectum; style hairs often rounded, only more or less at style tip, stigmatic areas in two marginal bands; n = (4-)9-10(-19); rbcL 6bp x 4 inversion.

<==Asteroideae [Helianthoideae, Helenioideae, Inuloideae]
    |  i. s.: PsilostropheKJ94
    |           |--P. cooperiH93
    |           `--P. tagetinaBTA75
    |--Senecioneae [Senecionideae]PF02
    |    |  i. s.: BlennospermaT00
    |    |           |--B. bakeriH93
    |    |           `--B. nanumH93
    |    |                |--B. n. var. nanumH93
    |    |                `--B. n. var. robustumH93
    |    |         CrassocephalumH03
    |    |           |--C. coeruleumCV06
    |    |           `--C. crepidioidesMH98
    |    |         ErechtitesA61
    |    |         Traversia Hooker 1864A61
    |    |           `--*T. baccharoides Hooker 1864 [incl. Senecio geminatus Kirk 1899]A61
    |    |         Brachyglottis Forster & Forster 1776A61
    |    |           |--*B. repanda Forster & Forster 1776 (see below for synonymy)A61
    |    |           |    |--B. r. var. repandaA61
    |    |           |    |--B. r. var. arborescens (Oliver) Allan 1961 [=B. arborescens Oliver 1948]A61
    |    |           |    `--B. r. var. rangiora (Buchan.) Allan 1961 [=B. rangiora Buchan. 1882]A61
    |    |           |--B. adamsiiW91
    |    |           |--B. belidioidesW91
    |    |           |    |--B. b. var. bellidioidesW91
    |    |           |    `--B. b. var. crassaW91
    |    |           `--B. buchananiW91
    |    |         MelalemaS06
    |    |         CulcitiumS06
    |    |--SenecioBR65
    |    `--OthonninaeBR65
       |  `--+--GnaphalieaePF02
       |     `--+--AstereaePF02
       |        `--AnthemideaePF02
          |  `--PlucheeaePF02
             |    |--Athroisma de Candolle 1883PF02
             |    |--BlepharispermumPF02
             |    `--LeucoblepharisPF02
                      |  |    |--Neurolaena lobataJ87
                      |  |    `--CaleaN10
                      |  |        |--C. dalyiG09
                      |  |        `--C. pinifolia Forster 1786 (n. d.)A61
                      |  `--+--TagetesB00 [TageteaePF02]
                      |     |    |--T. erecta [incl. T. patula]H93
                      |     |    |--T. mendocinaBA13
                      |     |    `--T. minuta Linn. 1753S73
                      |     `--+--ChaenactisPF02
                      |        `--BahiaH93 [BahieaePF02]
                      |             `--B. dissectaH93
                      `--+--Polymnia Linnaeus 1751 [Polymnieae, Polymniinae]PF02
                         |    `--P. pyramidalisOB11
                            `--+--Milleria L. 1753KC01 [MillerieaePF02]
                                  `--+--PerityleH93 [PerityleaePF02]
                                     |    |--P. emoryiH93
                                     |    |--P. inyoensis [=Laphamia inyoensis]H93
                                     |    |--P. megalocephala [=Laphamia megalocephala]H93
                                     |    |    |--P. m. var. megalocephalaH93
                                     |    |    `--P. m. var. oligophyllaH93
                                     |    `--P. villosa [=Laphamia villosa]H93
                                     `--Eupatorieae [Eupatoriaceae]PF02
                                          |--Adenostemma laveniaS06, LK14
                                          |--Alomia [incl. Lycapsus]S06
                                          |    |--C. odorataN10
                                          |    `--C. squalidaW03
                                          |    |--A. conyzoidesMM96
                                          |    |--A. houstonianumM65
                                          |    `--A. mexicanumT-W89
                                          |    |--A. adenophora [=Eupatorium adenophorum]H93
                                          |    |--A. altissimaN10
                                          |    |--A. herbacea [=Eupatorium herbaceum]H93
                                          |    |--A. occidentalis [=Eupatorium occidentale]H93
                                          |    |--A. ripariaH06
                                          |    `--A. shastensis [=Eupatorium shastense]H93
                                          `--Mikania [incl. Willoughbya]S06
                                               |--M. batatifoliaM83
                                               |--M. cordataW03
                                               |--M. cyanosmaJ87
                                               |--M. dissectaJ87
                                               |--M. hotteanaJ87
                                               |--M. micranthaW03
                                               |--M. rhomboideaJ87
                                               |--M. scandensMM96
                                               `--M. tripartitaJ87

*Brachyglottis repanda Forster & Forster 1776 [incl. Cineraria repanda Forster 1786; incl. Senecio (Brachyglottis) forsteri Hooker 1853, S. georgii Endl. 1836]A61

*Type species of generic name indicated


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[BTA75] Baker, E. W., D. M. Tuttle & M. J. Abbatiello. 1975. The false spider mites of northwestern and north central Mexico (Acarina: Tenuipalpidae). Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 194: 1–23.

[BA13] Bicha, S., A. Amrani, O. Benaissa, F. León, D. Zama, I. Brouard, S. Benayache, A. Bentamene & F. Benayache. 2013. A flavonoid with high antioxidant effect from Centaurea acaulis L. Der Pharmacia Lettre 5 (6): 24–30.

[BR65] Black, J. M., & E. L. Robertson. 1965. Flora of South Australia. Part IV. Oleaceae-Compositae. W. L. Hawes, Government Printer: Adelaide.

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[C06] Cheeseman, T. F. 1906. Manual of the New Zealand Flora. John Mackay, Government Printer: Wellington.

[CV06] Craven, P., & P. Vorster. 2006. Patterns of plant diversity and endemism in Namibia. Bothalia 36 (2): 175–189.

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[G09] Goyder, D. J. 2009. Blepharodon crabronum (Apocynaceae: Asclepiadoideae), a new species from the pre-Cambrian serranias of eastern Bolivia. Kew Bulletin 64 (1): 179–181.

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[H93] Hickman, J. C. (ed.) 1993. The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California. University of California Press: Berkeley (California).

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum—Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1–136.

[KJ94] Kim, K.-J., & R. K. Jansen. 1994. Comparisons of phylogenetic hypotheses among different data sets in dwarf dandelions (Krigia, Asteraceae): additional information from internal transcribed spacer sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA. Plant Systematics and Evolution 190: 157–185.

[KC01] Kirk, P. M., P. F. Cannon, J. C. David & J. A. Stalpers. 2001. Ainsworth & Bisby’s Dictionary of the Fungi 9th ed. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[LK14] Lyons, M. N., G. J. Keighery, L. A. Gibson & T. Handasyde. 2014. Flora and vegetation communities of selected islands off the Kimberley coast of Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 81: 205–244.

[M65] Michener, C. D. 1965. A classification of the bees of the Australian and South Pacific regions. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 130: 1–362.

[MH98] Morikawa, H., A. Higaki, M. Nohno, M. Takahashi, M. Kamada, M. Nakata, G. Toyohara, Y. Okamura, K. Matsui, S. Kitani, K. Fujita, K. Irifune & N. Goshima. 1998. More than a 600-fold variation in nitrogen dioxide assimilation among 217 plant taxa. Plant, Cell and Environment 21: 180–190.

[MM96] Mound, L. A., & R. Marullo. 1996. The thrips of Central and South America: an introduction (Insecta: Thysanoptera). Memoirs on Entomology, International 6: 1–487.

[M83] Myers, R. L. 1983. Site susceptibility to invasion by the exotic tree Melaleuca quinquenervia in southern Florida. Journal of Applied Ecology 20: 645–658.

[N10] Norrbom, A. L. 2010. Tephritidae (fruit flies, moscas de frutas). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 2 pp. 909–954. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[OB11] Orenstein, R. I., & D. Brewer. 2011. Family Cardinalidae (cardinals). In: Hoyo, J. del, A. Elliott & D. A. Christie (eds) Handbook of the Birds of the World vol. 16. Tanagers to New World Blackbirds pp. 330–427. Lynx Edicions: Barcelona.

[PF02] Panero, J. L., & V. A. Funk. 2002. Toward a phylogenetic subfamilial classification for the Compositae (Asteraceae). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 115 (4): 909–922.

[S73] Singh, G. 1973. Two new plant records for Kashmir Valley. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 69 (3): 680–681.

[S06] Stuckert, T. 1906. Distribución geográfica de la flora Argentina. Géneros de la familia de las compuestas. Anales del Museo Nacional de Buenos Aires, serie 3, 6: 303–309.

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[W91] Williams, P. A. 1991. Subalpine and alpine vegetation of granite ranges in western Nelson, New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Botany 29: 317–330.

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