Astroentactiniidae

Base of external spine of Moskovistella khaini, from Afanasieva et al. (2005).

Belongs within: Entactinaria.
Contains: Actinommata.

The Astroentactiniidae are a group of radiolarians known from the Silurian to the Triassic (Afanasieva et al. 2005).

Characters (from Afanasieva et al. 2005): Inner frame in shape of 8–12–24 or more rayed spicule, rays of which are connected to 8–12–24 and more external three-blades, or rod-like main spines.

<==Astroentactiniidae [Ethmosphaeracea, Ethmosphaerida, Ethmosphaeridae, Liosphaerida, Liosphaerinae, Cenosphaeridae]AA05
    |  i. s.: TriposphaeridaeLT61
    |           |--Vinassaia Cossmann 1900 [=Rustia Vinassa de Regny 1898 non Stål 1866]LT61
    |           `--Triposphaera Hinde 1890 [incl. Trisphaera Vinassa de Regny 1900]AA05
    |         PlegmosphaerinaeLT61
    |           |--Plegmosphaera Haeckel 1881AA05
    |           `--Dictyoplegma Haeckel 1862 (see below for synonymy)LT61
    |                |--*D. (Dictyoplegma) spongiosum (Müller 1858) [=*Dictyosoma spongiosum, *Dictyosphagma spongiosum]LT61
    |                `--D. (Spongodictyoma Haeckel 1862)LT61
    |         Liosphaera Haeckel 1881AA05
    |--+--ActinommataAA05
    |  |--MultisphaerinaeAA05
    |  |    |--Multisphaera Nazarov & Afanasieva 2000AA05
    |  |    `--Calella Won 1983AA05
    |  `--Helioentactinia Nazarov 1975 [Helioentactiniinae]AA05
    |       |--H. asterAA05
    |       |--H. perjunctaAA05
    |       `--H. unimanaAA05
    `--Astroentactiniinae [Ethmosphaerinae]AA05
         |--Ethmosphaera Haeckel 1862AA05
         |--Cenosphaera Ehrenberg 1854AA05
         |    |  i. s.: C. favosa Haeckel 1887BC98
         |    |         C. hexagonalis Aberdeen 1940AA05
         |    `--C. (Chaunosphaera Loeblich & Tappan 1961) (see below for synonymy)LT61
         |         `--C. (*C.) primordialis Haeckel 1887 [=*Porosphaera primordialis]LT61
         |--Astroentactinia Nazarov 1975AA05
         |    |--A. biaciculataAA05
         |    |--A. crassataAA05
         |    |--A. paronaeAA05
         |    |--A. rusaeviAA05
         |    |--A. stellataAA05
         |    |--A. tikhomiroviAA05
         |    `--A. vishnevskayaeAA05
         `--Moskovistella Afanasieva 2000AA05
              |--M. baccataAA05
              |--M. deorsiacaAA05
              |--M. khainiAA05
              |--M. lucetAA05
              |--M. miraAA05
              |--M. octoradiataAA05
              |--M. rozanoviAA05
              |--M. sinceraAA05
              `--M. victorialisAA05

Cenosphaera (Chaunosphaera Loeblich & Tappan 1961) [=Porosphaera Haeckel 1887 nec Dumort. 1822 (ICBN) nec Steinmann 1878]LT61

Dictyoplegma Haeckel 1862 [=Dictyosoma Müller 1856 non Temminck & Schlegel in Siebold 1845, Dictyosphagma Mivart 1878, Spongodictyon Haeckel 1862, Spongodictyum]LT61

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[AA05] Afanasieva, M. S., E. O. Amon, Y. V. Agarkov & D. S. Boltovskoy. 2005. Radiolarians in the geological record. Paleontological Journal 39 (Suppl. 3): S135–S392.

[BC98] Bjørklund, K. R., G. Cortese, N. Swanberg & H. J. Schrader. 1998. Radiolarian faunal provinces in surface sediments of the Greenland, Iceland and Norwegian (GIN) Seas. Marine Micropalaeontology 35: 105–140.

[LT61] Loeblich, A. R., Jr & H. Tappan. 1961. Remarks on the systematics of the Sarkodina (Protozoa), renamed homonyms and new and validated genera. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 74: 213–234.

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