Atriplex

Sprawling saltbush Atriplex suberecta, copyright Forest & Kim Starr.

Belongs within: Chenopodiaceae.
Contains: Atriplex subsection Arenariae.

Atriplex, saltbushes, is a genus of herbs and shrubs found in temperate to subtropical regions worldwide, commonly growing in alkaline or saline soils (Hickman 1993). Orache A. hortensis is an erect annual herb with triangular leaves that is cultivated as a pot herb.

Within Atriplex, members of the section Obione are monoecious herbs in which fruiting bracteoles are fused together at least to the middle and seeds have the radicle superior (Flores Olvera 2003).

Characters (from Hickman 1993): Annual (generally monoecious) to shrub (generally dioecious), often scaly. Leaves generally alternate, gen entire; lower leaves generally more or less short-petioled; upper leaves generally sessile, more or less reduced. Staminate inflorescence a spike or spheric cluster; bracts absent. Pistillate inflorescence clusters to spike- or panicle-like; bracts 2 per fruit, free to fused, generally compressed, generally sessile. Staminate flower with three to five calyx lobes; three to five stamens. Pistillate flower with calyx more or less absent; ovary ovoid to spheric, two style branches. Seed generally erect.

<==Atriplex L. 1753 (see below for synonymy)W84
    |--A. sect. Atriplex [=A. sect. Dichospermum Dumort. 1827; incl. A. ser. Oleraceae Benth. 1870]W84
    |    `--*A. hortensis L. 1753 [=A. (sect. *Dichospermum) hortensis]W84
    |         |--A. h. var. hortensisV09
    |         `--A. h. var. rubraV09
    |--A. sect. Dialysex Moq. 1840 (see below for synonymy)W84
    |    |--A. (sect. *D.) cinerea Poir. in Lam. 1811 (see below for synonymy)W84
    |    |--A. amnicola Wilson 1984 [incl. A. cephalantha Aellen 1949]W84
    |    |--A. bunburyana Muell. 1882 [incl. A. paludosa ssp. graciliflora Aellen 1938]W84
    |    |--A. hymenotheca Moq. in DC. 1849 [=A. (sect. *Hymenotheca) hymenotheca]W84
    |    |--A. hypoleuca Nees in Lehm. 1845W84
    |    |--A. incrassata Muell. 1859 [=A. cinerea ssp. incrassata (Muell.) Aellen 1938]W84
    |    |--A. isatidea Moq. 1840 (see below for synonymy)W84
    |    |--A. nana Parr-Smith 1984W84
    |    |--A. nummularia Lindley in Mitch. 1848W84 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |    |--A. n. ssp. nummularia [incl. A. nummularia ssp. erosa Aellen 1937]W84
    |    |    `--A. n. ssp. spathulata Aellen 1937W84
    |    |--A. paludosa Br. 1810W84
    |    |    |--A. p. ssp. paludosa [incl. A. paludosa ssp. tridentata Aellen 1938]W84
    |    |    |--A. p. ssp. baudinii (Moq.) Aellen 1938 (see below for synonymy)W84
    |    |    |--A. p. ssp. cordata (Benth.) Aellen 1938 (see below for synonymy)W84
    |    |    `--A. p. ssp. moquiniana (Webb ex Moq.) Parr-Smith 1984 [=A. moquiniana Webb ex Moq. in DC. 1849]W84
    |    |--A. quinii Muell. 1888W84
    |    |--A. rhagodioides Muell. 1858 [=A. cinerea ssp. rhagodioides (Muell.) Aellen 1938]W84
    |    |--A. stipitata Benth. 1870 non A. rosea var. stipitata Muell. 1859 [=A. (ser. *Stipitata) stipitata]W84
    |    `--A. vesicaria Heward ex Benth. 1870 [=A. (ser. *Vesicariae) vesicaria; incl. Pachypharynx neglecta Aellen 1938]W84
    |         |--A. v. ssp. vesicaria [incl. A. paludosa var. obovata Moq. 1840]W84
    |         |--A. v. ssp. appendiculata (Benth.) Parr-Smith 1984 [=A. paludosa var. appendiculata Benth. 1870]W84
    |         |--A. v. ssp. calcicola Parr-Smith 1984W84
    |         |--A. v. ssp. incompta Parr-Smith 1984W84
    |         |--A. v. ssp. macrocystidia Parr-Smith 1984W84
    |         |--A. v. ssp. minor (Aellen) Parr-Smith 1984 (see below for synonymy)W84
    |         |--A. v. ssp. sphaerocarpa Parr-Smith 1984W84
    |         `--A. v. ssp. variabilis Parr-Smith 1984W84
    |--A. sect. Obione (Gaertner) Reichenb. 1828FO03
    |    |  i. s.: A. (sect. *O.) sibiricaFO03
    |    |         A. hillmanii (Jones) Standley 1916FO03 [=A. argentea var. hillmaniiH93]
    |    |--A. subsect. ArenariaeFO03
    |    |--A. subsect. Argenteae (Standley) Welsh 2000 [incl. Atriplex subsect. Saccariae Standley 1916]FO03
    |    |    |--A. (subsect. *A.) argentea Nuttall 1818FO03
    |    |    |    |--A. a. var. argenteaH93
    |    |    |    `--A. a. var. mohavensis [incl. A. argentea ssp. expansa]H93
    |    |    `--A. saccaria Watson 1874 [=A. (subsect. *Saccariae) saccaria]FO03
    |    |--A. subsect. Graciliflorae (Standley) Welsh 2000FO03
    |    |    `--A. (subsect. *G.) graciliflora Jones 1895 non A. paludosa ssp. graciliflora Aellen 1938FO03
    |    |--A. subsect. Leucophyllae (Standley) Welsh 2000FO03
    |    |    `--A. (subsect. *L.) leucophylla (Moquin-Tandon) Dietrich 1852FO03
    |    |--A. subsect. Powellianae (Standley) Flores Olvera 2003FO03
    |    |    `--A. (subsect. *P.) powellii Watson 1874FO03
    |    |--A. subsect. Pusillae (Standley) Welsh 2000FO03
    |    |    |--A. (subsect. *P.) pusilla (Torrey) Watson 1874FO03
    |    |    |--A. cordulata Jeps. 1892FO03
    |    |    |--A. depressa Jeps. 1892FO03
    |    |    |--A. parishii Watson 1882FO03
    |    |    |--A. tularensis Coville 1893FO03
    |    |    `--A. wolfii Watson 1874FO03
    |    `--A. subsect. Truncatae (Standley) Welsh 2000FO03
    |         `--A. (subsect. *T.) truncata (Torrey ex Watson) Gray 1872FO03
    |--A. sect. Pleianthae Welsh 2000FO03
    |    `--A. (sect. *P.) pleianthaFO03
    |--A. sect. Semibaccatae (Standley) Ulbr. 1934 (see below for synonymy)W84
    |    |--A. (sect. *S.) semibaccata Br. 1810 (see below for synonymy)W84
    |    |--A. acutibractea Anderson 1930 [=A. acutibractum]W84
    |    |    |--A. a. ssp. acutibractea (see below for synonymy)W84
    |    |    `--A. a. ssp. karoniensis Aellen 1937 [incl. A. fasciculiflora Aellen 1940, A. spongiivalvis Aellen 1955]W84
    |    |--A. acutiloba Anderson 1934 (see below for synonymy)W84
    |    |--A. angulata Benth. 1870 [incl. A. angulata var. campanulatiformis Aellen 1937]W84
    |    |--A. cordifolia Black 1945W84
    |    |--A. cornigera Domin 1921W84
    |    |--A. crassipes Black 1918W84
    |    |    |--A. c. var. crassipes (see below for synonymy)W84
    |    |    `--A. c. var. appendiculata Aellen 1940 nec A. paludosa var. appendiculata Benth. 1870 nec A. pseudocampanulata var. appendiculata Aellen 1937 nec A. velutinella f. appendiculata Aellen 1937 nec A. cinerea f. appendiculata Aellen 1938 nec A. semibaccata var. appendiculata Aellen 1938W84
    |    |--A. cryptocarpa Aellen 1940W84
    |    |--A. eardleyae Aellen 1949 (see below for synonymy)W84
    |    |--A. eichleri Aellen in Eichler 1965 [incl. A. campanulata var. adnata Black 1918]W84
    |    |--A. elachophylla Muell. 1869 (see below for synonymy)W84
    |    |--A. exilifolia Muell. 1860W84
    |    |--A. fissivalvis Muell. 1875 [=Haloxanthium fissivalve (Muell.) Ulbr. 1934]W84
    |    |--A. flabelliformis Wilson 1984W84
    |    |--A. humifusa Wilson 1984W84
    |    |--A. humilis Muell. 1863 [=A. cinerea ssp. humilis (Muell.) Aellen 1938]W84
    |    |--A. infrequens Wilson 1984 (see below for synonymy)W84
    |    |--A. intermedia Anderson 1930W84
    |    |--A. leptocarpa Muell. 1858 (see below for synonymy)W84
    |    |--A. limbata Benth. 1870 [incl. A. limbata var. sexifida Balck 1914]W84
    |    |--A. lobativalvis Muell. 1889 (see below for synonymy)W84
    |    |--A. morrisii Anderson 1930 [=A. (ser. *Morrisia) morrisii, *Morrisiella morrisii (Anderson) Aellen 1938]W84
    |    |--A. muelleri Benth. 1870W84
    |    |--A. nessorhina Jacobs 1983W84
    |    |--A. papillata Willis 1957W84
    |    |--A. pseudocampanulata Aellen 1937 (see below for synonymy)W84
    |    |--A. pumilio Br. 1810 (see below for synonymy)W84
    |    |--A. quadrivalvata Diels 1904 [=*Haloxanthium quadrivalvatum (Diels) Ulbr. 1934]W84
    |    |    |--A. q. var. quadrivalvata [incl. A. hochreutineri Anderson & Aellen ex Aellen 1931]W84
    |    |    `--A. q. var. sessilifolia (Ising) Ising 1958 [=A. sessilifolia Ising 1955]W84
    |    |--A. semilunaris Aellen 1937 (see below for synonymy)W84
    |    |--A. spinibractea Anderson 1930 [=A. spinibractum]W84
    |    |--A. spinulosa Wilson 1984W84
    |    |--A. sturtii Jacobs 1983 [=A. leptocarpa f. minor Anderson 1930, A. leptocarpa var. minor (Anderson) Black 1948]W84
    |    |--A. suberecta Verd. 1954W84
    |    |--A. turbinata (Anderson) Aellen 1937 (see below for synonymy)W84
    |    `--A. velutinella Muell. 1859 (see below for synonymy)W84
    |--A. sect. Spongiocarpus Buxb. 1927 (see below for synonymy)W84
    |    |--A. (sect. *S.) spongiosa Muell. 1858 (see below for synonymy)W84
    |    |--A. codonocarpa Wilson 1984 [incl. A. halimoides var. deplanata Muell. 1881]W84
    |    |--A. conduplicata Muell. 1886H90, W84 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |--A. holocarpa Muell. 1859 (see below for synonymy)W84
    |    |--A. kochiana Maiden 1897W84
    |    |--A. lindleyi Moq. in DC. 1849W84 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |    |--A. l. ssp. lindleyiW84
    |    |    `--A. l. ssp. inflata (Muell.) Wilson 1984 (see below for synonymy)W84
    |    |--A. macropterocarpa (Aellen) Eichler 1965 [=Blackiella macropterocarpa Aellen 1938]W84
    |    `--A. obconica Wilson 1984W84
    `--A. sect. Teutliopsis Dumort. 1827 [=A. sect. Schizotheca Meyer in Ledeb. 1833]W84
         |--A. (sect. *T.) hastata [=A. (sect. *Schizotheca) hastata]W84
         |--A. australasica Moq. 1840 [incl. A. patula var. gunnii Aellen 1938, A. patula var. serratifolia Aellen 1938]W84
         `--A. prostrata Boucher ex DC. in Lam. & DC. 1805 (see below for synonymy)W84
Atriplex incertae sedis:
  A. acanthocarpaBTA75
  A. buchananii (Kirk) Cheesem. 1906 [=Chenopodium buchanani Kirk 1898]A61
    |--A. b. var. buchananiiA61
    `--A. b. var. tenuicaulis Petrie 1915A61
  A. californicaH93
  A. canescens [incl. A. canescens var. laciniata]H93
    |--A. c. ssp. canescens [incl. A. canescens var. macilenta]H93
    `--A. c. ssp. linearisH93
  A. confertifoliaBT72
  A. gardneriCL86
    |--A. g. var. gardneriH93
    `--A. g. var. falcata [=A. nuttallii var. falcata]H93
  A. halimusC55
  A. heterospermaH93
  A. hymenelytraH93
  A. joaquiniana [incl. A. patula ssp. spicata]H93
  A. lampaRJ11
  A. lasianthaDH98
  A. lentiformisBT72
    |--A. l. ssp. lentiformis [incl. A. lentiformis ssp. breweri]H93
    `--A. l. ssp. torreyiH93
  A. leucocladaDH98
  A. minusculaH93
  A. nitensC55
  A. novae-zelandiae Aellen 1940 [=A. hastata ssp. novae-zelandiae ms; incl. A. hastata var. angusta ms]A61
  A. parryiH93
  A. patulaWH02
    |--A. p. var. patulaH93
    |--A. p. var. angustifolia Rodway 1903 (n. d.)W84
    |--A. p. var. littoralis Rodway 1903 (n. d.)W84
    `--A. p. var. obtusaH93
  A. pendunculataCS77
  A. phyllostegiaH93
  A. polycarpaBT72
  A. portulacoidesY98
  A. pterocarpa Ewart & Rees 1910H90, W84
  A. roseaH93
  A. sagittataK09
  A. spiniferaH93
  A. subcordataF92
  A. subspicataH93
  A. tornabensisF92
  A. triangularisH93
  A. vallicolaH93
  A. watsoniiH93

Atriplex L. 1753 [incl. Blackiella Aellen 1938, A. subg. Blackiella (Aellen) Maire 1962, Blakiella, Haloxanthium Ulbr. 1934, Neopreissia Ulbr. 1934, Pachypharynx Aellen 1938, Senniella Aellen 1938]W84

Atriplex sect. Dialysex Moq. 1840 [incl. A. ser. Austrohalimus Ulbr. 1934, A. sect. Hymenotheca Ulbr. 1934, A. sect. Nummularia Ulbr. 1934, A. ser. Paniculatae Benth. 1870, A. ser. Stipitata Ulbr. 1934, A. sect. Teutlioides Ulbr. 1934, A. ser. Vesicariae Benth. 1870]W84

Atriplex sect. Semibaccatae (Standley) Ulbr. 1934 [=A. XIII. Semibaccatae Standley 1916, A. sect. Semibaccata; incl. A. sect. Austrobione Ulbr. 1934, A. sect. Elachophylla Ulbr. 1934, A. ser. Glomeratae Benth. 1870, A. ser. Leptocarpa Ulbr. 1934, A. sect. Lobativalvis Ulbr. 1934, A. ser. Morrisia Ulbr. 1934, Morrisiella Aellen 1938, A. sect. Podiceps Ulbr. 1934, A. ser. Velutinella Ulbr. 1934]W84

Atriplex sect. Spongiocarpus Buxb. 1927 [=A. sect. Spongiosa Ulbr. 1934 (nom. illeg.); incl. A. sect. Halimoides Ulbr. 1934, A. ser. Parvilobae Benth. 1870]W84

Atriplex acutibractea Anderson 1930 ssp. acutibractea [=A. acutibractea ssp. whyallensis Aellen 1937 (nom. illeg.); incl. A. leptocarpa var. acuminata Black 1922]W84

Atriplex acutiloba Anderson 1934 [=A. acutiloba var. eu-acutiloba Aellen 1938 (nom. illeg.); incl. A. acutiloba var. velutinelliformis Aellen 1938]W84

Atriplex cinerea Poir. in Lam. 1811 [=Neopreissia cinerea (Poir.) Ulbr. 1934; incl. A. cinerea f. appendiculata Aellen 1938 nec A. paludosa var. appendiculata Benth. 1870 nec A. pseudocampanulata var. appendiculata Aellen 1937 nec A. velutinella f. appendiculata Aellen 1937, A. halimus var. adscendens Nees in Lehm. 1845, A. cinerea var. adscendens (Nees) Eichler 1965, A. elaeagnoides Moq. 1840, A. cinerea var. elaeagnoides (Moq.) Moq. in DC. 1849, A. cinerea ssp. globulosa Aellen 1938, A. cinerea var. palmata Aellen 1938]W84

Atriplex conduplicata Muell. 1886H90, W84 [=A. halimoides var. conduplicata (Muell.) Muell. & Tate 1892W84, A. lindleyi ssp. conduplicata (Muell.) Wilson 1984W84, Blackiella conduplicata (Muell.) Aellen 1938W84; incl. B. conduplicata var. phyllocarpa Aellen 1938W84]

Atriplex crassipes Black 1918 var. crassipes [=A. crassipes var. inappendiculata Aellen 1940 (nom. illeg.) nec A. campanulata var. inappendiculata Anderson 1930 nec A. campanulata var. inappendiculata Aellen 1937 nec A. velutinella f. inappendiculata Aellen 1937; incl. A. rosea var. stipitata Muell. 1859, A. muelleri var. stipitata (Muell.) Aellen 1937]W84

Atriplex eardleyae Aellen 1949 [=A. campanulata Benth. 1870 non Woods 1850; incl. A. campanulata var. inappendiculata Aellen 1937 non Anderson 1930, A. eardleyae var. inappendiculata Aellen in Hegi 1960 (nom. inv.), A. campanulata var. multiappendiculata Aellen 1937, A. eardleyae var. multiappendiculata (Aellen) Aellen in Hegi 1960 (nom. inv.)]W84

Atriplex elachophylla Muell. 1869 [=A. (sect. *Elachophylla) elachophylla; incl. A. semibaccata f. tenuis Bailey 1910, A. elachophylla var. tenuis (Bailey) Anderson ex Ulbr. 1934, A. varia Ewart & Davies 1917]W84

Atriplex holocarpa Muell. 1859 [=A. spongiosa var. holocarpa (Muell.) Black 1948, Senniella spongiosa var. holocarpa (Muell.) Aellen 1938; incl. S. spongiosa f. microcarpa Aellen 1938, S. spongiosa var. xylocarpa Aellen 1938]W84

Atriplex infrequens Wilson 1984 [=A. microcarpa Benth. 1870 non Moq. ex Dietr. 1852, A. prostrata var. microcarpa Muell. ex Maiden & Betche 1916, A. semibaccata var. microcarpa (Maiden & Betche) Aellen 1938]W84

Atriplex isatidea Moq. 1840 [=A. cinerea ssp. isatidea (Moq.) Aellen 1938, *Neopreissia isatidea (Moq.) Ulbr. 1934; incl. A. isatidea var. brachytheca Moq. in DC. 1849, A. cinerea var. brachytheca (Moq.) Aellen 1938, A. halimus var. erecta Nees in Lehm. 1845, A. cinerea var. macrotheca Aellen 1938]W84

Atriplex leptocarpa Muell. 1858 [=A. (ser. *Leptocarpa) leptocarpa, A. leptocarpa var. armata Aellen 1937 (nom. illeg.); incl. A. leptocarpa f. gracilis Aellen 1937, A. leptocarpa var. inermis Aellen 1937]W84

Atriplex lindleyi Moq. in DC. 1849W84 [=A. (sect. *Halimoides) lindleyiW84, A. halimoides Lindley in Mitch. 1838 non Tineo 1827W84; incl. A. lindleyi ssp. quadripartita Wilson 1984H90, W84]

Atriplex lindleyi ssp. inflata (Muell.) Wilson 1984 [=A. inflata Muell. 1858, Blackiella inflata (Muell.) Aellen 1938; incl. A. lampifer Buxb. 1927]W84

Atriplex lobativalvis Muell. 1889 [=A. (sect. *Lobativalvis) lobativalvis, A. lativalve Durand & Jackson 1902; incl. A. lobativalvis var. biarcuata Aellen 1938, A. muelleri var. lobaticarpa Muell. 1884]W84

Atriplex nummularia Lindley in Mitch. 1848W84 [=A. (sect. *Nummularia) nummulariaW84; incl. A. halimoides var. monumentalis Sprenger 1890W84, A. nummularia var. monumentalis (Sprenger) Rodigas 1891W84, A. nummularia ssp. omissa Aellen 1937H90, W84]

Atriplex paludosa ssp. baudinii (Moq.) Aellen 1938 [=A. paludosa var. baudinii Moq. in DC. 1849; incl. A. drummondii Moq. in DC. 1849]W84

Atriplex paludosa ssp. cordata (Benth.) Aellen 1938 [=A. paludosa var. cordata Benth. 1870; incl. Pachypharynx acuminate Aellen 1938, A. paludosa var. acuticordata Aellen 1938, A. paludosa var. cordivalvis Aellen 1938, A. reniformis Br. 1810]W84

Atriplex prostrata Boucher ex DC. in Lam. & DC. 1805 [incl. A. hastata var. salina Wallr. ex Gren. in Gren. & Godron 1855]W84

Atriplex pseudocampanulata Aellen 1937 [incl. A. pseudocampanulata var. appendiculata Aellen 1937 non A. paludosa var. appendiculata Benth. 1870, A. campanulata var. inappendiculata Anderson 1930, A. pseudocampanulata var. inappendiculata (Anderson) Aellen 1937]W84

Atriplex pumilio Br. 1810 [incl. A. decumbens Br. ex Schultes in Roemer & Schultes 1820, A. prostrata Br. 1810 non Boucher ex DC. in Lam. & DC. 1805]W84

Atriplex semibaccata Br. 1810 [incl. A. semibaccata var. appendiculata Aellen 1938 nec A. paludosa var. appendiculata Benth. 1870 nec A. pseudocampanulata var. appendiculata Aellen 1937 nec A. velutinella f. appendiculata Aellen 1937 nec A. cinerea f. appendiculata Aellen 1938, A. semibaccata var. biformis Aellen 1938, A. denticulata Moq. in DC. 1849, A. flagellaris Wooton & Standley 1913, A. semibaccata var. gracilis Aellen 1938 nec A. leptocarpa f. gracilis Aellen 1937 nec A. semilunaris var. gracilis Aellen 1937, A. neurivalvis Domin 1921]W84

Atriplex semilunaris Aellen 1937 [incl. A. semilunaris var. gracilis Aellen 1937 non A. leptocarpa f. gracilis Aellen 1937]W84

Atriplex spongiosa Muell. 1858 [=A. (sect. *Spongiosa) spongiosa, A. holocarpa var. spongiosa (Muell.) Maiden & Betche 1916, *Senniella spongiosa (Muell.) Aellen 1938; incl. Senniella spongiosa var. amoena Aellen 1938]W84

Atriplex turbinata (Anderson) Aellen 1937 [=A. leptocarpa f. turbinata Anderson 1930, A. leptocarpa var. turbinata (Anderson) Black 1948]W84

Atriplex velutinella Muell. 1859 [=A. (ser. *Velutinella) velutinella, A. velutinella ssp. levibractea Aellen 1937 (nom. illeg.); incl. A. velutinella f. appendiculata Aellen 1937 nec A. paludosa var. appendiculata Benth. 1870 nec A. pseudocampanulata var. appendiculata Aellen 1937, A. velutinella f. inappendiculata Aellen 1937 nec A. campanulata var. inappendiculata Anderson 1930 nec A. campanulata var. inappendiculata Aellen 1937, A. velutinella ssp. tomentosa Aellen 1937]W84

Atriplex vesicaria ssp. minor (Aellen) Parr-Smith 1984 [=A. hymenotheca var. minor Aellen 1938 non A. leptocarpa f. minor Anderson 1930]W84

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

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[BTA75] Baker, E. W., D. M. Tuttle & M. J. Abbatiello. 1975. The false spider mites of northwestern and north central Mexico (Acarina: Tenuipalpidae). Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 194: 1–23.

[C55] Candolle, A. de. 1855. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[CL86] Collins, E. I., & R. W. Lichvar. 1986. Vegetation inventory of current and historic black-footed ferret habitat in Wyoming. Great Basin Naturalist Memoirs 8: 85–93.

[CS77] Cramp, S., & K. E. L. Simmons (eds) 1977. Handbook of the Birds of Europe, the Middle East and North Africa: The Birds of the Western Palaearctic vol. 1. Ostrich to Ducks. Oxford University Press: Oxford.

[DH98] Danin, A., & I. C. Hedge. 1998. Contributions to the flora of Jordan 2. A new species of Satureja (Labiatae) and some new records. Willdenowia 28: 135–142.

[F92] Fan Z. 1992. Key to the Common Flies of China 2nd ed. Science Press: Beijing.

[FO03] Flores Olvera, H. 2003. Classification of North American species of Atriplex section Obione (Chenopodiaceae) based on numerical taxonomic analysis. Taxon 52: 247–260.

[H90] Harden, G. J. (ed.) 1990. Flora of New South Wales vol. 1. New South Wales University Press.

[H93] Hickman, J. C. (ed.) 1993. The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California. University of California Press: Berkeley (California).

[K09] Köhler, G. 2009. Heuschrecken (Saltatoria) und Ohrwürmner (Dermaptera) im Immissionsgebiet des Düngemittelwerkes Steudnitz/Thüringen—eine Langzeitstudie (1978–2001). Mauritiana 20 (3): 601–646.

[RJ11] Rising, J. D., A. Jaramillo, J. L. Copete, P. G. Ryan & S. C. Madge. 2011. Family Emberizidae (buntings and New World sparrows). In: Hoyo, J. del, A. Elliott & D. A. Christie (eds) Handbook of the Birds of the World vol. 16. Tanagers to New World Blackbirds pp. 428–683. Lynx Edicions: Barcelona.

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