Austrochiloidea

Macrogradungula moonya, copyright Szűts Tamás.

Belongs within: Neocribellatae.

The Austrochiloidea are a clade of araneomorph spiders found in southern South America and Australasia that retain two pairs of spiracular openings, with the posterior book-lungs often modified into tracheae. The Australasian Gradungulidae are characterised by strongly dissimilar claws on the first two pairs of legs, together with numerous ventral spines on the tarsi. The tarsal claws are equal in members of the Austrochilidae, found in southern South America and Tasmania (Jocqué & Dippenaar-Schoeman 2007).

<==AustrochiloideaJD-S07
    |--Austrochilidae [Hickmaniidae]JD-S07
    |    |--Hickmania Gertsch 1985 [Hickmaniinae]JD-S07
    |    |    `--H. troglodytes [=Theridion troglodytes]FF99
    |    `--AustrochilinaeJD-S07
    |         |--Thaida Karsch 1880JD-S07
    |         |    `--T. peculiarisR14
    |         `--Austrochilus Gertsch & Zapfe 1955JD-S07
    |              |--A. forsteriR14
    |              |--A. franckeiJD-S07
    |              `--A. melonJD-S07
    `--GradungulidaeJD-S07
         |--Kayia Gray 1987JD-S07
         |--Gradungula Forster 1955PVD10
         |    `--*G. sorenseni Forster 1955PVD10
         |--Tarlina Gray 1987JD-S07
         |    `--T. woodwardi [=Gradungula woodwardi]FF99
         |--Spelungula Forster in Forster et al. 1987PVD10
         |    `--*S. cavernicola Forster in Forster et al. 1987PVD10
         |--Pianoa Forster in Forster et al. 1987PVD10
         |    `--*P. isolata Forster in Forster et al. 1987PVD10
         |--Progradungula Forster & Gray 1979JD-S07
         |    `--P. carraiensisFF99
         `--Macrogradungula Gray 1987JD-S07
              `--M. moonyaMF01

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[FF99] Forster, R., & L. Forster. 1999. Spiders of New Zealand and their World-wide Kin. University of Otago Press: Dunedin (New Zealand).

[JD-S07] Jocqué, R., & A. S. Dippenaar-Schoeman. 2007. Spider Families of the World. Royal Museum for Central Africa: Tervuren (Belgium).

[MF01] Monteith, G. B., & L. H. Field. 2001. Australian king crickets: distribution, habitats and biology (Orthoptera: Anostostomatidae). In: Field, L. H. (ed.) The Biology of Wetas, King Crickets and Their Allies pp. 79–94. CABI Publishing: Wallingford (UK).

[PVD10] Paquin, P., C. J. Vink & N. Dupérré. 2010. Spiders of New Zealand: annotated family key and species list. Manaaki Whenua Press: Lincoln (New Zealand).

[R14] Ramírez, M. J. 2014. The morphology and phylogeny of dionychan spiders (Araneae: Araneomorphae). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 390: 1–374.

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