Avicularoidea

Mangrove trapdoor spider Idioctis sp., copyright K. Stenchly.

Belongs within: Mygalomorphae.
Contains: Anamini, Dipluridae, Hexathelidae, Nemesiidae, Rastelloidina, Theraphosidae.

The Avicularoidea is a clade of mygalomorph spiders in which the male palps have the bulb perpendicular to the cymbium or directed back towards the base. This clade is further divided between the Dipluroidea, with numerous maxillary cuspules on the labium and a prolateral spine on the first tibia of the male, and the Crassitarsae, with a serrula present on the maxilla and small, closely placed posterior lateral spinnerets. Members of the Crassitarsae include the Microstigmatidae, a group of small to medium-sized spiders, found in South Africa and South America, with blunt-tipped or clavate setae covering the body and often encrusted with earth (Jocqué & Dippenaar-Schoeman 2007).

Synapomorphies (from Jocqué & Dippenaar-Schoeman 2007): Abdomen with dorsal scutum; posterior lateral spinnerets close, three articles of posterior lateral spinnerets with spigots; male palp without conductor, axis of palpal bulb orthogonal to cymbial axis or directed towards base, cymbial cavity apically open, incised and membranous.

<==Avicularoidea [Anamae, Bipectina, Orthopalpae, Quadrithelina]
    |  i. s.: Anamidae [Anaminae]HG20
    |           |  i. s.: *Acanthogonatus franckiS89, LP08, S89
    |           |         HermachaLP08
    |           |         Hesperonatalius maxwelli Castalanelli, Huey et al. 2017HG20
    |           `--AnaminiMF09
    |--DipluroideaJD-S07
    |    |--DipluridaeJD-S07
    |    `--HexathelidaeJD-S07
    `--CrassitarsaeJD-S07
         |--NemesioideaJD-S07
         |    |--NemesiidaeJD-S07
         |    `--MicrostigmatidaeJD-S07
         |         |--Microstigmata Strand 1912 [Microstigmatinae]JD-S07
         |         |--Envia Ott & Höfer 2003JD-S07
         |         |--Ministigmata Raven & Platnick 1987JD-S07
         |         |--Pseudonemesia Caporiacco 1955JD-S07
         |         |--Spelocteniza Gertsch 1982JD-S07
         |         |--Xenonemesia Goloboff 1989JD-S07
         |         `--Micromygale Platnick & Forster 1982 [Micromygalinae]JD-S07
         |              `--M. diblemmaFF99
         `--+--RastelloidinaJD-S07
            `--TheraphosoidinaJD-S07

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[FF99] Forster, R., & L. Forster. 1999. Spiders of New Zealand and their World-wide Kin. University of Otago Press: Dunedin (New Zealand).

[HG20] Harvey, M. S., K. Gruber, M. J. Hillyer & J. A. Huey. 2020. Five new species of the open-holed trapdoor spider genus Aname (Araneae: Mygalomorphae: Anamidae) from Western Australia, with a revised generic placement for Aname armigera. Records of the Western Australian Museum 35: 10–38.

[JD-S07] Jocqué, R., & A. S. Dippenaar-Schoeman. 2007. Spider Families of the World. Royal Museum for Central Africa: Tervuren (Belgium).

[LP08] Lucas, S. M., V. Passanha, C. R. V. Janini & R. P. Indicatti. 2008. On the genus Neostothis Vellard (Araneae, Nemesiidae). Journal of Arachnology 36 (2): 472–475.

[MF09] Main, B. Y., & V. W. Framenau. 2009. A new genus of mygalomorph spider from the Great Victoria Desert and neighbouring arid country in south-eastern Western Australia (Araneae: Nemesiidae). Records of the Western Australian Museum 25 (3): 277–285.

[S89] Simon, E. 1889. Voyage de M. E. Simon au Venezuela (Décembre 1887–Avril 1888). 4e mémoire. Arachnides. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France, 6e série 9: 169–220, pls 1–3.

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