Cast of Baculites grandis, copyright Ninjatacoshell.

Belongs within: Turrilitaceae.

The Baculitidae are a Cretaceous (Upper Albian to Upper Maastrichtian) group of heteromorph ammonites (Wright et al. 1996). Conchs have an initial coiled section followed by a more or less straight juvenile and adult section (Enseger & Keupp 2002).

Characters (from Wright et al. 1996): Minute initial coil of one or two whorls followed by straight or slightly curved, single shaft (one genus crioconic); whorl section circular, oval, pear-shaped, or with acute venter; surface smooth or with flexuous striae or ribs, which may be enlarged into tubercles on sides or venter. Aperture of macroconchs oblique and simple; microconchs with or without collar and with large or small lappets. Suture with all elements more or less bifid, except for internal and rarely external lobes; varying in floridity and detail. Rugaptychi present in Baculites at least.

<==Baculitidae [Eubaculitinae]
    |--Pseudobaculites Cobban 1952WCH96
    |    `--*P. nodosus Cobban 1952WCH96
    |--Fresvillia Kennedy 1986WCH96
    |    `--*F. constricta Kennedy 1986WCH96
    |--Boehmoceras Riedel 1931WCH96
    |    |--*B. krekeleri (Wegner 1905) [=Ancyloceras krekeleri]WCH96
    |    `--B. loescheriWCH96
    |--Lechites Nowak 1908WCH96
    |    |--*L. (Lechites) gaudini (Pictet & Campiche 1861) [=Baculites gaudini]WCH96
    |    `--L. (Tuberolechites Cooper & Kennedy 1977)WCH96
    |         `--L. (*T.) regifex Cooper & Kennedy 1977WCH96
    |--Sciponoceras Hyatt 1894 [=Cyrtochilella Strand 1929, Cyrtochilus Meek 1876 non Jakowlew 1875]WCH96
    |    |--*S. baculoides (Mantell 1822) [=Hamites baculoides, *Cyrtochilella baculoides, *Cyrtochilus baculoides]WCH96
    |    |--S. bohemicumK79
    |    |--S. gracileK79
    |    `--S. kossmatiK79
    |--Eubaculites Spath 1926 (see below for synonymy)WCH96
    |    |--*E. ootacodensis (Stoliczka 1866) [=Baculites vagina ootacodensis]WCH96
    |    |--E. carinatus (Morton 1834) [incl. Baculites vagina var. simplex]KM08
    |    |--*Eubaculiceras’ compressum Brunnschweiler 1966WCH96
    |    |--*Giralites’ latecarinatus Brunnschweiler 1966WCH96
    |    |--*Cardabites’ tabulatus Brunnschweiler 1966WCH96
    |    `--E. vaginaWCH96
    `--Baculites Lamarck 1799EK02 (see below for synonymy)
         |--*B. vertebralis Lamarck 1801WCH96 [=Ammonites (Baculites) vertebralisG20]
         |--B. ancepsK79
         |--B. aquilasensisK79
         |--B. asperK79
         |--B. asperiformisK79
         |--B. baculusK79
         |--B. bouleiK79
         |--B. capensisK79
         |--B. chicoenseK79
         |--B. claviformis Stephenson 1941OZ89
         |--B. clinolobatusK79
         |--B. columnaK79
         |--B. compressusK79
         |--B. crickmayiK79
         |--B. cuneatusK79
         |--B. eliasiK79
         |--B. gilbertiK79
         |--B. grandisK79
         |--B. gregoryensisK79
         |--B. incurvatus Dujardin 1837 [=*Euhomaloceras incurvatum]WCH96
         |--B. inornatusK79
         |--B. jenseniK79
         |--B. kirkiK79
         |--B. lechitidesBRW98
         |--B. lomaensisK79
         |--B. maclearniK79
         |--B. obtususK79
         |--B. occidentalisK79
         |--B. ovatusW77
         |--B. perplexusK79
         |--B. pseudovatusK79
         |--B. rectusSt98
         |--B. reesideiK79
         |--*Rugaptychus’ rugosus (Sharpe 1857)Sp98
         |--B. rexK79
         |--B. schenkiK79
         |--B. scottiK79
         |--B. sulcatusM08
         |--B. undatusK79
         |--B. valognensisP93
         `--B. yokoyamaiK79
Nomen nudum: Baculites sheringomensis Crick 1924KM08

Baculites Lamarck 1799EK02 [incl. Euhomaloceras Spath 1926WCH96, Homaloceratites Hupsch 1768 (non-binomial)WCH96, RugaptychusSp98]

Eubaculites Spath 1926 [incl. Cardabites Brunnschweiler 1966, Eubaculiceras Brunnschweiler 1966, Giralites Brunnschweiler 1966]WCH96

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BRW98] Beesley, P. L., G. J. B. Ross & A. Wells (eds) 1998. Fauna of Australia vol. 5. Mollusca: The Southern Synthesis. Part A. Australian Biological Resources Study: Canberra.

[EK02] Engeser, T., & H. Keupp. 2002. Phylogeny of the aptychi-possessing Neoammonoidea (Aptychophora nov., Cephalopoda). Lethaia 35: 79–96.

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[K79] Kauffman, E. G. 1979. Cretaceous. In: Robison, R. A., & C. Teichert (eds) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt A. Introduction. Fossilisation (Taphonomy), Biogeography and Biostratigraphy pp. A418–A487. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

[KM08] Klinger, H. C., & N. Malchus. 2008. The first record of Agerostrea ungulata (von Schlotheim, 1813) (Bivalvia: Ostreoidea) from the Upper Maastrichtian of KwaZulu, South Africa, with a discussion of its distribution in southeast Africa and Madagascar. African Natural History 4: 11–16.

[M08] McMillan, I. K. 2008. Reappraisal of foraminiferal assemblages of the Santonian–Campanian Mzamba Formation type section, and their correlation with the stratigraphic succession of the KwaZulu Basin. African Natural History 4: 25–34.

[OZ89] Olivero, E. B., & W. J. Zinsmeister. 1989. Large heteromorph ammonites from the Upper Cretaceous of Seymour Island, Antarctica. Journal of Paleontology 63 (5): 626–636.

[P93] Page, K. N. 1993. Mollusca: Cephalopoda (Ammonoidea: Phylloceratina, Lytoceratina, Ammonitina and Ancyloceratina). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 213–227. Chapman & Hall: London.

[Sp98] Spaeth, C. 1998. Cretaceous cephalopods. Lethaia 31: 28.

[St98] Stilwell, J. D. 1998. Late Cretaceous Mollusca from the Chatham Islands, New Zealand. Alcheringa 22 (1): 29–85.

[W77] White, C. A. 1877. Report upon the invertebrate fossils collected in portions of Nevada, Utah, Colorado, New Mexico, and Arizona, by parties of the expeditions of 1871, 1872, 1873, and 1874. U.S. Geographical Surveys West of the One Hundredth Meridian 4 (1): 1–219, pls 1–21.

[WCH96] Wright, C. W., J. H. Calloman & M. K. Howarth. 1996. Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt L. Mollusca 4, revised vol. 4. Cretaceous Ammonoidea. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

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