Balognathidae

P1 element of Latericriodus, from here.

Belongs within: Prioniodontida.
Contains: Polyplacognathidae, Icriodus.

The Balognathidae are an Ordovician lineage of conodonts that include the ancestors of later Silurian and Devonian Prioniodontida (Sweet 1988).

<==Balognathidae [Balognathinae]
    |  i. s.: Promissum Kovács-Endrödy 1986AS93
    |           `--P. pulchrumPD98
    |         Polonodus Dzik 1976AS93
    |           `--P. corbatoi (Serpagli 1974)AS93
    |--+--PolyplacognathidaeS88
    |  `--+--Sagittodontina Knüpfer 1967 [incl. Noixodontus McCracken & Barnes 1982]S88
    |     |--Complexodus Dzik 1976S88
    |     |    `--C. pugioniferS88
    |     |--Rhodesognathus Bergström & Sweet 1966S88
    |     |    `--R. elegansS88
    |     `--Amorphognathus Branson & Mehl 1933S88 [incl. Balognathus Rhodes 1953S88, H62]
    |          |--*A. ordovicica Branson & Mehl 1933H62
    |          |--A. duttonusS88
    |          |--*Balognathus’ expansa Rhodes 1953H62
    |          |--A. inaequalisS88
    |          |--A. kielcensisS88
    |          |--A. ramosaH62
    |          |--A. superbusS88
    |          `--A. tvaerensisS88
    `--+--Baltoniodus Lindström 1971S88
       |    |--B. alobatusS88
       |    |--B. bohemicus Dzik 1984AS93
       |    |--B. crassulus (Lindström 1955)AS93
       |    |--B. gerdaeS88
       |    |--B. navisS88
       |    |--B. norrlandicusAB04
       |    |--B. triangularisS88
       |    `--B. variabilisS88
       |--+--Gamachignathus McCracken, Nowlan & Barnes 1980 [incl. Birksfeldia Orchard 1980]S88
       |  |    |--G. ensifer McCracken et al. 1980AS93
       |  |    |--G. hastatus McCracken et al. 1980AS93
       |  |    `--G. macroexcavatusM02
       |  `--DistomodontidaeSD01
       |       |--Dentacodina dubia (Rhodes 1953)AS93
       |       |--Johnognathus Mashkova 1977AS93
       |       |--Coryssognathus Link & Druce 1972S88
       |       |    `--C. dubiusJT12
       |       |--Rotundacodina Carls & Gandl 1969S88
       |       |    `--R. dubius [=Distomodus dubius]S88
       |       `--Distomodus Branson & Branson 1947S88 [incl. Icriodina Branson & Branson 1947H62]
       |            |--*D. kentuckyensis Branson & Branson 1947H62 (see below for synonymy)
       |            `--D. staurognathoides (Walliser 1964)MS12 [=Hadrognathus staurognathoidesS88]
       `--+--Icriodella Rhodes 1953S88 [IcriodellidaeSD01]
          |    |--*I. superba Rhodes 1953 [incl. I. superba var. acuta]H62
          |    |--I. cerata (Knüpfer 1967)AS93
          |    |--I. deflectaS88
          |    |--I. discretaS88
          |    |--I. inconstansM02
          |    `--I. praecox Lindström, Racheboeff & Henry 1974S88
          `--Icriodontidae [Icriodidae, Icriodontinae]SD01
               |--IcriodusV03
               |--Antognathus Lipniagov 1978S88
               |--Sannemannia Al-Rawi 1977AS93
               |    `--S. pesanserisS88
               |--Streptotaxis Uyeno & Klapper 1980AS93
               |    `--S. furnishi Klapper 1980V03
               |--Pedavis Klapper & Philip 1971AS93
               |    |--P. latialata (Walliser 1964)AS93
               |    |--P. pesavisS88 [=Icriodus pesavisN79]
               |    `--P. thorsteinssoniELL98
               |--Pelekysgnathus Thomas 1949 [incl. Bouckaertodus Gagiev 1979]S88
               |    |--*P. inclinata Thomas 1949H62
               |    |--P. communisN79
               |    |--P. indexS88
               |    |--P. planus Sannemann 1955D02
               |    `--P. serratusELL98
               `--Latericriodus Müller 1962S88
                    |--L. angustoidesS88
                    |--L. huddleiS88
                    |    |--L. h. huddleiS88
                    |    `--L. h. curvicaudaS88
                    |--L. latericrescensS88
                    |--L. postwoschmidtiS88
                    `--L. woschmidtiS88
                         |--L. w. woschmidtiS88
                         `--L. w. hesperiusS88

*Distomodus kentuckyensis Branson & Branson 1947H62 [incl. Trichonodella expansa Nicoll & Rexroad 1968S88, Exochognathus expansusS88, *Icriodina irregularis Branson & Branson 1947H62, S88]

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[AB04] Albanesi, G. L., & S. M. Bergström. 2004. Conodonts: Lower to Middle Ordovician record. In: Webby, B. D., F. Paris, M. L. Droser & I. G. Percival (eds) The Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event pp. 312–326. Columbia University Press.

[AS93] Aldridge, R. J., & M. P. Smith. 1993. Conodonta. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 563–572. Chapman & Hall: London.

[D02] Dzik, J. 2002. Emergence and collapse of the Frasnian conodont and ammonoid communities in the Holy Cross Mountains, Poland. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 47: 565–650.

[ELL98] Elliott, D. K., E. J. Loeffler & Y. Liu. 1998. New species of the cyathaspidid Poraspis (Agnatha: Heterostraci) from the late Silurian and early Devonian of Northwest Territories, Canada. Journal of Paleontology 72: 360–370.

[H62] Hass, W. H. 1962. Conodonts. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt W. Miscellanea: Conodonts, Conoidal Shells of Uncertain Affinities, Worms, Trace Fossils and Problematica pp. W3–W69. Geological Society of America, and University of Kansas Press.

[JT12] Jeppsson, L., J. A. Talent, R. Mawson, A. Andrew, C. Corradini, A. J. Simpson, J. Wigforss-Lange & H. P. Schönlaub. 2012. Late Ludfordian correlations and the Lau Event. In: Talent, J. A. (ed.) Earth and Life: Global biodiversity, extinction intervals and biogeographic perturbations through time pp. 653–675. Springer.

[M02] Männik, P. 2002. Conodonts in the Silurian of Severnaya Zemlya and Sedov archipelagos (Russia), with special reference to the genus Ozarkodina Branson & Mehl, 1933. Geodiversitas 24 (1): 77–97.

[MS12] Molloy, P. D., & A. J. Simpson. 2012. An analysis of the Ireviken Event in the Boree Creek Formation, New South Wales, Australia. In: Talent, J. A. (ed.) Earth and Life: Global biodiversity, extinction intervals and biogeographic perturbations through time pp. 615–630. Springer.

[N79] Norris, A. W. 1979. Devonian in the Western Hemisphere. In: Robison, R. A., & C. Teichert (eds) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt A. Introduction. Fossilisation (Taphonomy), Biogeography and Biostratigraphy pp. A218–A253. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

[PD98] Purnell, M. A., & P. C. J. Donoghue. 1998. Skeletal architecture, homologies and taphonomy of ozarkodinid conodonts. Palaeontology 41: 57–102.

[S88] Sweet, W. C. 1988. The Conodonta: Morphology, taxonomy, paleoecology, and evolutionary history of a long extinct animal phylum. Clarendon Press: Oxford.

[SD01] Sweet, W. C., & P. C. J. Donoghue. 2001. Conodonts: past, present, future. Journal of Paleontology 75 (6): 1174–1184.

[V03] Valiukevičius, J. 2003. Devonian acanthodians from Severnaya Zemlya Archipelago (Russia). Geodiversitas 25: 131–204.

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