Porphyra purpurea, copyright Peter Meininger.

Belongs within: Rhodophyta.

The Bangiales are a mostly marine lineage of red algae exhibiting a biphasic, heteromorphic life cycle (Adl et al. 2019).

Characters (from Adl et al. 2019): Pluricellular with Golgi–ER/mitochondrion association; life history biphasic, heteromorphic, gametophyte macroscopic, initially uniseriate, becoming pluriseriate or foliose by diffuse growth; carposporangia and spermatangia produced in packets by successive perpendicular divisions; sporophyte filamentous, with pit plugs with a single cap layer, but lacking membranes; typically forming conchospores in fertile cell rows.

<==Bangiales [Bangiaceae, Bangiophyceae, Porphyreae]
    |--Porphyrella gardneri Smith & Hollenberg 1943S57
    |--Porphyropsis coccinea (Agardh) Rosenvinge 1909S57
    |--Bangiomorpha pubescensAB19, YM06
    |--Pyropia yezoensisAB19, C-SCL15
    |--Bangia Lyngb. 1819 [incl. Girardia Gray 1821]KC01
    |    |--B. atropurpureaHSA03
    |    |--B. carneaG64
    |    |--B. ceramicolaG64
    |    |--B. fuscopurpurea (Dillwyn) Lyngbye 1819 [=B. atropurpurea f. fuscopurpurea]S57
    |    |--B. languginosa Hooker & Harvey 1855L27
    |    `--B. tenuis Gardner 1927S57
         |--P. abyssicola Kjellman 1883S57
         |--P. amplissima (Kjellman) Setchell & Hus in Hus 1900 [=Diploderma amplissimum]S57
         |--P. columbina Montagne 1845 [incl. P. capensis Hooker & Harvey 1864]L27
         |--P. haitanensisHH09
         |--P. kuniedaiHSA03
         |--P. laciniataG64
         |--P. lanceolata (Setchell & Hus) Smith in Smith & Hollenberg 1943S57 (see below for synonymy)
         |--P. leucostictaBBB-S95
         |--P. miniataMS02
         |    |--P. m. f. miniataS57
         |    `--P. m. f. cuneiformis Setchell & Hus in Hus 1900S57
         |--P. naiadum Anderson in Blankinship & Keeler 1892S57
         |--P. nereocystis Anderson in Blankinship & Keeler 1892S57
         |--P. nobilis Agardh 1882L27
         |--P. perforata Agardh 1883S57
         |    |--P. p. f. perforataS57
         |    `--P. p. f. segregata Setchell & Hus in Hus 1900S57
         |--P. purpureaHH09
         |--P. seriataL10
         |--P. teneraSSA75
         |--P. umbilicalis (Setchell & Gardner) Collins 1913 [=P. laciniata f. umbilicalis]S57
         |--P. variegata (Kjellman) Hus 1900 [=Diploderma variegatum]S57
         |--P. vulgarisG64
         `--P. yezoensisHH09

Nomen nudum: Porphyra subtumensL27

Porphyra lanceolata (Setchell & Hus) Smith in Smith & Hollenberg 1943S57 [=P. perforata f. lanceolata Setchell & Hus 1900L27]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[AB19] Adl, S. M., D. Bass, C. E. Lane, J. Lukeš, C. L. Schoch, A. Smirnov, S. Agatha, C. Berney, M. W. Brown, F. Burki, P. Cárdenas, I. Čepička, L. Chistyakova, J. del Campo, M. Dunthorn, B. Edvardsen, Y. Eglit, L. Guillou, V. Hampl, A. A. Heiss, M. Hoppenrath, T. Y. James, A. Karnkowska, S. Karpov, E. Kim, M. Kolisko, A. Kudryavtsev, D. J. G. Lahr, E. Lara, L. Le Gall, D. H. Lynn, D. G. Mann, R. Massana, E. A. D. Mitchell, C. Morrow, J. S. Park, J. W. Pawlowski, M. J. Powell, D. J. Richter, S. Rueckert, L. Shadwick, S. Shimano, F. W. Spiegel, G. Torruella, N. Youssef, V. Zlatogursky & Q. Zhang. 2019. Revisions to the classification, nomenclature, and diversity of eukaryotes. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 66: 4–119.

[BBB-S95] Boubezari, K., G. Bitar & D. Bellan-Santini. 1995. Structure et organisation de trois moulières (Mytilus galloprovincialis et Perna perna) de la région d’Alger. Mésogée 54: 63–72.

[C-SCL15] Cavalier-Smith, T., E. E. Chao & R. Lewis. 2015. Multiple origins of Heliozoa from flagellate ancestors: new cryptist subphylum Corbihelia, superclass Corbistoma, and monophyly of Haptista, Cryptista, Hacrobia and Chromista. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 93: 331–362.

[G64] Gray, J. E. 1864. Handbook of British Water-weeds or Algae. R. Hardwicke: London.

[HH09] Hampl, V., L. Hug, J. W. Leigh, J. B. Dacks, B. F. Lang, A. G. B. Simpson & A. J. Roger. 2009. Phylogenomic analyses support the monophyly of Excavata and resolve relationships among eukaryotic “supergroups”. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 106 (10): 3859–3864.

[HSA03] Huisman, J. M., A. R. Sherwood & I. A. Abbott. 2003. Morphology, reproduction, and the 18S rRNA gene sequence of Pihiella liagoraciphila gen. et sp. nov. (Rhodophyta), the so-called ‘monosporangial discs’ associated with members of the Liagoraceae (Rhodophyta), and proposal of the Pihiellales ord. nov. Journal of Phycology 39: 978–987.

[KC01] Kirk, P. M., P. F. Cannon, J. C. David & J. A. Stalpers. 2001. Ainsworth & Bisby’s Dictionary of the Fungi 9th ed. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[L27] Laing, R. M. 1927. A reference list of New Zealand marine algae. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 126–185.

[L10] Levenets, I. R. 2010. Macroalgae of fouling, scallop epibiosis and benthos in the southern Primorye, Sea of Japan. In: China-Russia Bilateral Symposium: Proceedings of the China-Russia Bilateral Symposium of “Comparison on Marine Biodiversity in the Northwest Pacific Ocean”, 10–11 October 2010, Qingdao (China) pp. 208–213. Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences; A. V. Zhirmunsky Institute of Marine Biology, Far East Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

[MS02] Müller, K. M., A. R. Sherwood, C. M. Pueschel, R. R. Gutell & R. G. Sheath. 2002. A proposal for a new red algal order, the Thoreales. Journal of Phycology 38: 807–820.

[S57] Scagel, R. F. 1957. An annotated list of the marine algae of British Columbia and northern Washington (including keys to genera). National Museum of Canada Bulletin 150: 1–289.

[SSA75] Sneath, P. H. A., M. J. Sackin & R. P. Ambler. 1975. Detecting evolutionary incompatibilities from protein sequences. Systematic Zoology 24 (3): 311–332.

[YM06] Yoon, H. S., K. M. Müller, R. G. Sneath, F. D. Ott & D. Bhattacharya. 2006. Defining the major lineages of red algae (Rhodophyta). Journal of Phycology 42 (2): 482–492.

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