Banksia

 Banksia montana, copyright E. Holland & E. Hickman.

Belongs within: Grevilleoideae.
Contains: Dryandra.

Banksia is a genus of trees and shrubs found in Australia, with a single species, B. dentata, extending into New Guinea. The highest diversity of species is found in the south-west of Western Australia, with the majority of species found in sandy or gravelly soils. Banksia flowers are often borne in conical inflorescences. Dehiscent fruits embedded in the inflorescence can have a mouth-like appearance, inspiring the ‘bad banksia men’ of Australian children’s author May Gibbs.

Species with flat inflorescences have historically been separated as the genus Dryandra but recent molecular phylogenetic analyses have found Banksia excluding Dryandra to be paraphyletic. Instead, the genus may be divided between the Phanerostomata and Cryptostomata clades, the former possessing spathulate cotyledons and the latter beaked follicles (Mast et al. 2005). The bull banksia B. grandis is a member of the Phanerostomata clade that grows as a tree up to ten metres in height, bearing yellow flowers in spikes up to 40 cm long.

Characteristics (from Foreman 1995): Twigs pubescent or glabrous. Leaves whorled, scattered or spirally arranged, coriaceous, entire, dentate, lobed or pinnatisect. Inflorescences terminal or axillary, cylindrical or spherical. Flowers bisexual, sessile, in pairs subtended by one common bract and two floral bracts. Perianth linear, regular to slightly irregular; limb and upper portions of perianth claws separating at anthesis. Anthers all perfect, sessile in concave like segments; connective slightly prolonged. Hypogynous glands 4, alternate with tepals, small and membranous. Ovary sessile, very small, 1-locular; ovules 2, attached laterally; style straight, bowed to slightly curved below pollen presenter, often hard and wiry; pollen presenter erect, small, conical or turbinate; stigma mostly terminal or oblique. Infructescence woody, consisting of few to many woody follicles; bracts persistent, becoming woody. Seeds often 2, compressed, with terminal membranous wing.

Banksia [Banksiinae]
    |--PhanerostomataMJH05
    |    |--+--B. (ser. Grandes) grandisMJH05
    |    |  `--+--B. tricuspisMJH05
    |    |     `--+--B. (ser. Dryandroideae) dryandroidesMJH05
    |    |        `--B. pulchellaMJH05
    |    `--+--B. ericifoliaMJH05
    |       |--B. (ser. Salicinae) oblongifoliaMJH05
    |       `--+--B. (ser. Quercinae) quercifoliaMJH05
    |          `--+--B. browniiMJH05
    |             `--B. nutansMJH05
    |                  |--B. n. var. nutansMJH05
    |                  `--B. n. var. cernuellaMJH05
    `--CryptostomataMJH05
         |  i. s.: B. baxteriMJH05
         |         B. coccineaMJH05
         |         B. speciosaMJH05
         |--+--+--*B. serrataMJH05
         |  |  |    |--B. s. var. serrataB96
         |  |  |    `--B. s. var. hirsuta Baker 1896B96
         |  |  `--B. aemulaMJH05
         |  `--+--+--B. (ser. Ochraceae) benthamianaMJH05
         |     |  `--+--B. baueriMJH05
         |     |     `--B. lullfitziiMJH05
         |     `--+--B. (ser. Cyrtostylis) mediaMJH05
         |        `--+--B. (ser. Tetragonae) elderianaMJH05
         |           `--B. (ser. Prostratae) petiolarisMJH05
         `--+--+--B. attenuataMJH05
            |  |--B. elegansMJH05
            |  `--B. subg. IsostylisMJH05
            |       |--B. cuneataMJH05
            |       |--B. ilicifoliaMJH05
            |       `--B. oliganthaMJH05
            |--+--B. candolleanaMJH05
            |  `--+--B. (ser. Lindleyana) lindleyanaMJH05
            |     |--B. menziesiiMJH05
            |     `--+--B. ashbyiMJH05
            |        `--B. sceptrumMJH05
            `--DryandraMJH05
Banksia incertae sedis:
  B. archaeocarpa McNamara & Scott 1983DK10
  B. audaxGi04
  B. australisTW07
  B. campbelli Ettingshausen 1886F71
  B. dentata Linnaeus 1781F95
  B. helianthaGML13
  B. integrifoliaTW07
  B. laevigataGi04
    |--B. l. ssp. laevigataGi04
    `--B. l. ssp. fuscoluteaGi04
  B. latifoliaM87
  B. lawsoni Ettingshausen 1886F71
  B. littoralisJK08
  B. marginataSN08
  B. meisneriGK00
  B. myricaefolia Ettingshausen 1886F71
  B. paludosaC70
  B. prionotesGr04
  B. repensMJH05
  B. saxicolaMJH05
  B. sphaerocarpaGi04
    |--B. s. var. sphaerocarpaGi04
    `--B. s. var. dolichostylaGi04
  B. spinulosaWB-P93
    |--B. s. var. spinulosaWB-P93
    `--B. s. var. collinaWB-P93
  B. violaceaGi04
  B. ser. PlumosaeGML13
    |--B. montanaGML13
    |--B. plumosaGML13
    `--B. pseudoplumosaGML13

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[B96] Baker, R. T. 1896. On the botany of Rylstone and the Goulburn River districts. Part I. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 21 (3): 427–466.

[C70] Common, I. F. B. 1970. Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 765–866. Melbourne University Press.

[DK10] Darragh, T. A., & G. W. Kendrick. 2010. Eocene molluscs from the Merlinleigh Sandstone, Carnarvon Basin, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum 26 (1): 23–41.

[F71] Fletcher, H. O. 1971. Catalogue of type specimens of fossils in the Australian Museum, Sydney. Australian Museum Memoir 13: 1–167.

[F95] Foreman, D. B. 1995. Proteaceae. In: Conn, B. J. (ed.) Handbooks of the Flora of Papua New Guinea vol. 3 pp. 221–270. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Australia).

[Gi04] Gibson, N. 2004. Flora and vegetation of the Eastern Goldfields Ranges: part 7. Middle and South Ironcap, Digger Rock and Hatter Hill. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (2): 49–62.

[GK00] Gibson, N., & G. J. Keighery. 2000. Flora and vegetation of the Byenup-Muir reserve system, south-west Western Australia. CALMScience 3 (3): 323–402.

[Gr04] Groom, P. K. 2004. Seedling growth and physiological responses of two sandplain Banksia species differing in flood tolerance. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (3): 115–121.

[GML13] Gullan, P. J., M. L. Moir & M. C. Leng. 2013. A new species of mealybug (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) from critically endangered Banksia montana in Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum 28 (1): 13–20.

[JK08] Johnstone, R. E., & T. Kirkby. 2008. Distribution, status, social organisation, movements and conservation of Baudin’s cockatoo (Calyptorhynchus baudinii) in south-west Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum 25 (1): 107–118.

[MJH05] Mast, A. R., E. H. Jones & S. P. Havery. 2005. An assessment of old and new DNA sequence evidence for the paraphyly of Banksia with respect to Dryandra (Proteaceae). Australian Systematic Botany 18 (1): 75–88.

[M87] Mueller, F. von. 1887. Some hitherto undescribed plants of New South Wales. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (4): 1105–1110.

[SN08] Schmidt, E. R., & T. R. New. 2008. The Psocoptera (Insecta) of Tasmania, Australia. Memoirs of Museum Victoria 65: 71–152.

[TW07] Thongphak, D., & Q. Wang. 2007. Taxonomic revision of the longicorn beetle genus Uracanthus Hope 1833 (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Cerambycinae: Uracanthini) from Australia. Zootaxa 1569: 1–139.

[WB-P93] Walter, D. E., & V. M. Behan-Pelletier. 1993. Systematics and ecology of Adhaesozetes polyphyllos sp.nov. (Acari: Oribatida: Licneremaeoidea), a leaf-inhabiting mite from Australian rainforests. Canadian Journal of Zoology 71: 1024–1040.

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