Blattaria

 Wood roaches Cryptocercus, copyright David R. Maddison.

Belongs within: Dictyoptera.
Contains: Corydiidae, Blaberidae, Blattellidae, Polyzosteriinae, Blattinae.

The Blattaria include the crown-group cockroaches, with some studies regarding the termites as derived from within this clade. They are characterised by the production of eggs contained within a hard ootheca that is ancestrally deposited free on the ground. The outer ovipositor valves are completely internal, and the central ocellus is reduced (Vršanský 2010).

Members of the Blattaria include the wood roaches Cryptocercus of North America and Asia, which possess wood-digesting gut bacteria and a subsocial lifestyle. The Blattidae, which include some of the more economically significant large cockroaches, possess symmetrical styles in the males and a bivalvular subgenital plate in the females (Roth 1991). The small species of the Australasian genus Tryonicus, which have reduced spination on the femora and short, stout cerci, have historically been treated as part of the Blattidae but are currently placed as their own family. The female subgenital plate may also be bivalvular in the Polyphagidae which are otherwise characterised by a flat anal area in the hind wing (if present), lacking fan-like pleating, and small or no spines on the underside of the mid and hind femora. The Nocticolidae are small, delicate cockroaches that are commonly cavernicolous.

The Jurassic Mesoblattinidae may represent the stem-group for living blattarians (Vršanský et al. 2002).

<==Blattaria [Blaberoidea, Blattellomorpha, Epilampridae]
    |--Cryptocercus Scudder 1862 [Cryptocercidae]V10
    |    |--C. clevelandiGE05
    |    |--C. darwiniGE05
    |    |--C. garciaiGE05
    |    |--C. primariusGE05
    |    |--C. punctulatusGE05
    |    |--C. relictusGE05
    |    `--C. wrightiGE05
    `--+--+--LamproblattaGE05 [LamproblattidaeBP10, Lamproblattinae]
       |  `--PolyphagidaeV10
       |       |  i. s.: ThereaGE05
       |       |         ArenivagaWL09
       |       |           |--A. apachaWL09
       |       |           |--A. grataC90
       |       |           `--A. investigataC90
       |       |         Eremoblatta subdiaphanaC90
       |       |         Tivia australicaM70
       |       |         AustropolyphagaR91a
       |       |         PolyphagoidesR91a
       |       |--LantindiinaeVVR02
       |       |--Polyrhaga Kirby 1904H02 [PolyphaginaeRD77, Polyphagini]
       |       |--AtticolinaeRD77
       |       |--EutyrrhyphaP92 [EuthyrrhaphinaeVVR02]
       |       |    `--E. pacificaP92
       |       `--Vitisma Vršanský 1999 [Vitisminae]V02
       |            `--V. rasnitsyni Vršanský 1999V02
       `--BlattoideaV02
            |--+--BlaberidaeV10
            |  `--BlattellidaeGE05
            |--MesoblattinidaeV02
            |    |--Hispanoblatta sumptuosaVVR02
            |    |--AustroblattulaF71
            |    |--Mesoblattina Geinitz 1880V02
            |    |    `--M. protypa Geinitz 1880V02
            |    `--Artitocoblatta Handlirsch 1906VVR02, V02
            |         |--*A. gossi (Scudder 1886) [=Rithma gossi]V02
            |         `--A. asiaticaVVR02
            `--Blattidae [Blattomorpha]V10
                 |  i. s.: StantoniellaGE05
                 |         Stylopyga orientalisB01
                 |         CelatoblattaR91a
                 |         Shelfordella tartaraH02, BM76
                 |         EuthlastoblattaG37
                 |         Apotrogia Kirby 1900K00
                 |           `--*A. angolensis Kirby 1900K00
                 |         Dorylaea rhombifolia (see below for synonymy)K00
                 |         DeropeltisK00
                 |           |--D. atra Brunn. 1865K00
                 |           |--D. brevicollis (Serv. 1839) [=Kakerlac brevicollis; incl. D. juncea Sauss. 1864]K00
                 |           |--D. capensis (Sauss. 1864) (see below for synonymy)K00
                 |           |--D. distanti Kirby 1900K00
                 |           |--D. erythrocephala (Fabr. 1761) [=Blatta erythrocephala]K00
                 |           |--D. melanophilaK00
                 |           |--D. meridionalisK00
                 |           `--D. similis (Sauss. 1864) [=Ischnoptera similis; incl. Nauphoeta foveolata Walker 1868]K00
                 |--Macrocerca [Macrocercinae]R96
                 |--PolyzosteriinaeR91a
                 `--BlattinaeR91a
Blattaria incertae sedis:
  Loboptera decipiensBM76
  Latiblatella rehniBM76
  TryonicusR91a [TryonicidaeBP10, Tryonicinae]
    `--T. parvusR96
  CorydiidaeH02
  Cainoblattinopsis Ping 1931 [Cainoblattinidae]H02
    `--C. fushunensis Ping 1931H02
  Heterogamia [Heterogamiidae]K00
    `--H. ursina Burm. 1839 (see below for synonymy)K00
  NocticolidaeR91a
    |--NocticolaV10
    |    |--N. australiensisR91a
    |    |--N. babindaensisR91b
    |    |--N. flabella Roth 1991BP10
    |    |--N. rohini (Fernando 1957) [=Paraloboptera rohini]R91b
    |    |--N. simoniR91b
    |    `--N. termitophilaV10
    `--Cardacus willeyiR91b

Deropeltis capensis (Sauss. 1864) [=Polyzosteria capensis; incl. Periplaneta collaris Walk. 1868, Deropeltis flavomarginata Brunn. 1868]K00

Dorylaea rhombifolia [=Blatta rhombifolia, Periplaneta rhombifolia; incl. P. decorata Brunn. 1865, P. heterospila Walk. 1871, P. histrio Sauss. 1864]K00

Heterogamia ursina Burm. 1839 [incl. H. conspersa Brunn. 1865, H. marismortui Jans. 1891, H. syriaca Kruass 1890]K00

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[BM76] Bohart, R. M., & A. S. Menke. 1976. Sphecid Wasps of the World. University of California Press: Berkeley.

[BP10] Bohn, H., M. Picker, K.-D. Klass & J. Colville. 2010. A jumping cockroach from South Africa, Saltoblattella montistabularis, gen. nov., spec. nov. (Blattodea: Blattellidae). Arthropod Systematics and Phylogeny 68 (1): 53–69.

[B01] Bolivar, I. 1901. Orthopterák [Orthoptères]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 223–243. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[C90] Crawford, C. S. 1990. Scorpiones, Solifugae, and associated desert taxa. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 421–475. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[F71] Fletcher, H. O. 1971. Catalogue of type specimens of fossils in the Australian Museum, Sydney. Australian Museum Memoir 13: 1–167.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[G37] Gurney, A. B. 1937. Studies in certain genera of American Blattidae (Orthoptera). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 39 (5): 101–112.

[H02] Hong Y. 2002. Amber Insect of China. Beijing Scientific and Technological Publishing House.

[K00] Kirby, W. F. 1900. Notes on a collection of African Blattidae, chiefly from the Transvaal, formed by Mr. W. L. Distant. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 5: 277–294.

[M70] Mackerras, M. J. 1970. Blattodea (cockroaches). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 262–274. Melbourne University Press.

[P92] Poinar, G. O., Jr. 1992. Life in Amber. Stanford University Press: Stanford.

[R96] Rentz, D. 1996. Grasshopper Country: The abundant orthopteroid insects of Australia. University of New South Wales Press: Sydney.

[RD77] Richards, O. W., & R. G. Davies. 1977. Imms’ General Textbook of Entomology 10th ed. vol. 2. Classification and Biology. Chapman and Hall: London.

[R91a] Roth, L. M. 1991a. Blatttodea. Blattaria (cockroaches). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 1 pp. 320–329. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[R91b] Roth, L. M. 1991b. A new cave-dwelling cockroach from Western Australia (Blattaria: Nocticolidae). Records of the Western Australian Museum 15 (1): 17–21.

[V02] Vršanský, P. 2002. Origin and the early evolution of mantises. AMBA Projekty 6 (1): 1–16.

[V10] Vršanský, P. 2010. Cockroach as the earliest eusocial animal. Acta Geologica Sinica (English Edition) 84 (4): 793–808.

[VVR02] Vršanský, P., V. N. Vishniakova & A. P. Rasnitsyn. 2002. Order Blattida Latreille, 1810. The cockroaches (=Blattodea Brunner von Wattenvill, 1882). In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 263–270. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[WL09] Walter, D. E., E. E. Lindquist, I. M. Smith, D. R. Cook & G. W. Krantz. 2009. Order Trombidiformes. In: Krantz, G. W., & D. E. Walter (eds) A Manual of Acarology 3rd ed. pp. 233–420. Texas Tech University Press.

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