Boinae

Boa constrictor, copyright Alex Figueroa.

Belongs within: Macrostomata.

The Boinae are a primarily Neotropical group of moderate-sized to large snakes. Vertebrae of boines possess paracotylar fossae and foramina; straight, posteromedially angled interzygapophyseal ridges; and a vaulted, bi-angled posterior margin on the neural arch (Head et al. 2009).

<==Boinae
    |--+--Acrantophis madagascariensisVH02
    |  `--Candoia carinataVH02, HB09
    `--Boa Linnaeus 1758VH02, L58
         |--B. canina Linnaeus 1758L58
         |--B. cenchris Linnaeus 1758L58
         |--B. constrictor Linnaeus 1758L58
         |--B. enydris Linnaeus 1758L58
         |--B. hipnale Linnaeus 1758L58
         |--B. hortulana Linnaeus 1758L58
         |--B. murina Linnaeus 1758L58
         |--B. orophias Linnaeus 1758L58
         `--B. scytale Linnaeus 1758L58
Boinae incertae sedis:
  0--Corallus [incl. Xenoboa]K88
  |    |--C. caninusHB09
  |    `--C. enydrisHB09
  `--+--Eunectes murinus Linnaeus 1758K88, S05
     `--EpicratesK88
          |--E. cenchriaK88
          |    |--E. c. cenchriaDS86
          |    `--E. c. gaigeiDS86
          `--+--E. anguliferK88
             `--+--E. striatusK88
                `--+--+--E. chrysogasterK88
                   |  `--E. exsulK88
                   |--+--E. inornatusK88
                   |  `--E. subflavusK88
                   `--+--E. gracilisK88
                      `--+--E. fordiiK88
                         `--E. monensisK88
  Antaresia Wells & Wellington 1984ADD08, C18
    |--A. childreni (Gray 1842) [=Liasis childreni]C18
    |--A. maculosa (Peters 1973) [=Liasis maculosa]C18
    |--A. perthensis (Stull 1932) [=Liasis perthensis]C18
    `--A. stimsoni (Smith 1985) [=Liasis stimsoni]C18
  Bavarioboa hermiRB03
  EnygrusR13
    |--E. asperR13
    |--E. bibroniR13
    |    |--E. b. bibroniR13
    |    `--E. b. australis [=Boa australis]R13
    `--E. carinatusR13
  Sanzinia madagascarensisK88, HB09
  Titanoboa Head, Bloch et al. 2009HB09
    `--*T. cerrejonensis Head, Bloch et al. 2009HB09
  PalaeopythonS12
  Boavus Marsh 1871 [incl. Protagras Cope 1872]SH96
    `--*B. occidentalis Marsh 1871SH96

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[ADD08] Aplin, K., S. Donnellan & J. Dell. 2008. The herpetofauna of Faure Island, Shark Bay, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 75: 39–53.

[C18] Cogger, H. G. 2018. Reptiles and Amphibians of Australia updated 7th ed. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood.

[DS86] Dixon, J. R., & P. Soini. 1986. The Reptiles of the Upper Amazon Basin, Iquitos Region, Peru. Milwaukee Public Museum: Milwaukee.

[HB09] Head, J. J., J. I. Bloch, A. K. Hastings, J. R. Bourque, E. A. Cadena, F. A. Herrera, P. D. Polly & C. A. Jaramillo. 2009. Giant boid snake from the Palaeocene neotropics reveals hotter past equatorial temperatures. Nature 457: 715–717.

[K88] Kluge, A. G. 1988. Parsimony in vicariance biogeography: a quantitative method and a Greater Antillean example. Systematic Zoology 37 (4): 315–328.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[RB03] Rage, J.-C., S. Bajpai, J. G. M. Thewissen & B. N. Tiwari. 2003. Early Eocene snakes from Kutch, western India, with a review of the Palaeophiidae. Geodiversitas 25 (4): 695–716.

[R13] Roux, J. 1913. Les reptiles de la Nouvelle-Calédonie et des îles Loyalty. In: Sarasin, F., & J. Roux (eds) Nova Caledonia: Forschungen in Neu-Caledonian und auf den Loyalty-Inseln. A. Zoologie vol. 1 pt 2 pp. 79–160. C. W. Kreidels Verlag: Wiesbaden.

[S05] Scanlon, J. D. 2005. Cranial morphology of the Plio-Pleistocene giant madtsoiid snake Wonambi naracoortensis. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 50: 139–180.

[S12] Schaal, S. 2012. Messel Pit fossil site—the legacy of the environment and life of the Eocene. In: Talent, J. A. (ed.) Earth and Life: Global biodiversity, extinction intervals and biogeographic perturbations through time pp. 225–236. Springer.

[SH96] Sullivan, R. M., & J. A. Holman. 1996. Squamata. In: Prothero, D. R., & R. J. Emry (eds) The Terrestrial Eocene–Oligocene Transition in North America pp. 354–372. Cambridge University Press.

[VH02] Vidal, N., & S. B. Hedges. 2002. Higher-level relationships of snakes inferred from four nuclear and mitochondrial genes. Comptes Rendus Biologies 325: 977–985.

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