Bolitophagini

Rhipidandrus flabellicornis, copyright Centre for Biodiversity Genomics.

Belongs within: Tenebrionidae.

The Bolitophagini are forest-dwelling tenebrionid beetles that feed and burrow in the fruiting bodies of large fungi (Matthews & Bouchard 2008).

Characters (from Matthews & Bouchard 2008): Oblong-oval, strongly convex, with squamiform setae, often strongly sculptured and tuberculate, fuscous, matt. Total length 3–13 mm. Edge of clypeus feebly produced. Eyes large, oval, minimally excised by frontal canthus. Labrum subquadrate, medial tormal arms transverse, not extended at their mesal extremities and epitorma absent, setal pattern symmetrical. Antennae short to moderate, not or barely reaching base of prothorax, segments gradually and strongly expanding apically to prominent asymmetrical club involving about seven segments, with simple sensilla only. Corpotentorium forming long elevated loop. Mandibles bidentate with long teeth, molar surface with fine striations. Maxilla without lacinial uncus, palpi with apical segment fusiform. Mentum trapezoidal. Pronotum strongly tuberculate with sides serrate. Prosternum very short before coxae. Procoxal cavities closed internally and externally. Mesocoxal cavities partly closed by mesepimeron. Metendosternite without laminae, with short stem. Elytra either without striae and strongly tuberculate, or with nine or 10 striae and carinate, epipleura complete to apex. Wings present, with subcosta and radius fused into thick leading edge and radial cell absent, without medial fleck, with longitudinal apical flecks and long apical membrane occupying about half of wing length, AA4 missing, anal lobe present but not sharply separate from rest of wing. Legs not fossorial, tibiae with longitudinal carinae, subapical tarsomeres very short, obliquely truncate, plantar surfaces with long sparse setae. Tarsal formula 4-4-4 in taxa of small size. Abdomen with defensive gland reservoirs large with narrow necks, without stiffening prongs, without common volume, with apical gland fields. Female tract with single coiled bursa-derived spermatheca. Aedeagus short, with apical piece subequal in length to basal, alae short and acute.

<==Bolitophagini [Bolitophagina, Boliphaginae, Rhipidandrina]B14
    |--Eleates Casey 1886AT02
    |--Bolitotherus Candze 1861 [incl. Phellidius Leconte 1862]AT02
    |    `--B. cornutus (Fabricius 1801)B14
    |--Megeleates Casey 1895AT02
    |    `--M. sequoiarum Casey 1895AT02
    |--Eledona Latreille 1802G20, L02
    |    |--*E. agaricicolaL02 [=Bolitophagus (*Eledona) agaricicolaG20, L02]
    |    `--E. spinulosaR26
    |--Byrsax Pascoe 1860MB08
    |    |--*B. coenosus Pascoe 1860MB08
    |    |--B. egenus Pascoe 1866 [incl. B. coxi Carter 1914]MB08
    |    |--B. macleayi Pascoe 1866MB08
    |    `--B. pinnaticollis Carter 1914MB08
    |--Bolitophagus Illiger 1798AT02
    |    |  i. s.: B. corticola Say 1825AT02
    |    `--B. (Epitragus Latreille 1802)G20, L02
    |         |--*Epitragus’ variegatus [=Helops variegatus]L02
    |         `--B. (E.) fuscusG20
    `--Rhipidandrus LeConte 1862 (see below for synonymy)AT02
         |--*R. flabellicornis (Sturm 1826) [=Xyletinus flabellicornis]MB08
         |--R. caesus Merkl & Kompantseva 1996MB08
         |--R. crowsoni Merkl & Kompantseva 1996MB08
         |--R. micrographus [=*Eutomus micrographus]FS90
         |--R. simpsoni (Waterhouse 1894) [=Cherostus simpsoni]MB08
         |--R. speculifrons (Gebien 1922) (see below for synonymy)MB08
         `--R. walkeri (Waterhouse 1894) [=Cherostus walkeri]MB08

Rhipidandrus LeConte 1862 [incl. Cherostus Waterhouse 1894, Eutomus Lacordaire 1866 non Hope 1838, Heptaphylla Friedenreich 1883]AT02

Rhipidandrus speculifrons (Gebien 1922) [=Cerostus speculifrons; incl. R. dybasi Kulzer 1957, R. scolytoides Chûjô 1985, R. sodalis Kulzer 1957]MB08

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[AT02] Aalbu, R. L., C. A. Triplehorn, J. M. Campbell, K. W. Brown, R. E. Somerby & D. B. Thomas. 2002. Tenebrionidae Latreille 1802. In: Arnett, R. H., Jr, M. C. Thomas, P. E. Skelley & J. H. Frank (eds) American Beetles vol. 2. Polyphaga: Scarabaeoidea through Curculionoidea pp. 463–509. CRC Press.

[B14] Bouchard, P. (ed.) 2014. The Book of Beetles: A lifesize guide to six hundred of nature’s gems. Ivy Press: Lewes (United Kingdom).

[FS90] Fleutiaux, E., & A. Sallé. 1890. Liste des coléoptères de la Guadeloupe et descriptions d’espèces nouvelles. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France, 6e série 9: 351–484.

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 3. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[MB08] Matthews, E. G., & P. Bouchard. 2008. Tenebrionid Beetles of Australia: Descriptions of tribes, keys to genera, catalogue of species. Australian Biological Resources Study: Canberra.

[R26] Risso, A. 1826. Histoire naturelle des principales productions de l’Europe méridionale et particulièrement de celles des environs de Nice et des Alpes maritimes vol. 5. F.-G. Levrault: Paris.

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