Sagrina pulchella, from Cushman (1922).

Belongs within: Bolivinitida.

The Bolivinitidae are a group of primarily biserial Foraminifera known from the Upper Triassic to the present. Members of the type genus Bolivinita have a compressed test that is rectangular in cross-section, with a comma-shaped basal aperture bearing a bordering lip (Loeblich & Tappan 1964).

The bolivinitids
Published 30 October 2021

The Cretaceous was a period of significant innovation in the evolution of Foraminifera with a number of distinct new lineages making their appearance during this period. Among those, appearing in the latter part of the Cretaceous, were the first members of the modern family Bolivinitidae.

Bolivinita costifera, from the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History.

The Bolivinitidae are free-living benthic forams with a calcareous, hyaline (glassy) test. The overall shape of the test is elongate with chambers arranged in biserial coils (that is, there are two chambers per loop). The terminal aperture is usually loop-shaped with a surrounding lip. Inside the chamber, a tooth plate (an inner protrusion of the test) runs from the aperture to the opening of the previous chamber and may protrude through the aperture (Revets 1996).

Representatives of the Bolivinitidae are found in a wide range of depths, from the shallow waters of the ocean to the bathyal zone. They may be among the most abundant forams in areas of low oxygen concentrations and are commonly associated with sustained organic matter input (Erdem & Schönfeld 2017). In other words, these are muck-lovers. Individuals growing in low oxygen conditions tend to show less pronounced surface sculpture on the test than those where the oxygen levels are higher. Conversely, individuals at deeper levels tend to be larger overall than those in shallower waters (Brun et al. 1984). As such, bolivinitids have received their fair share of attention as potential indicators of changes in environmental condition over time.

Systematics of Bolivinitidae

Characters (from Loeblich & Tappan 1964): Test biserial at least in young stage, aperture comma-shaped, parallel to compression of test, basal or terminal, with internal tooth plate.

Bolivinitidae [Bolivinitinae]
    |--Bolivinita Cushman 1927LT64 [BolivinitinaeM13]
    |    |--*B. quadrilatera (Schwager 1866)LT64 [=Textularia quadrilateraH03]
    |    `--B. planataC40
         |--Alectinella Revets 1996M13
         `--Sagrina d’Orbigny in de la Sagra 1839 (see below for synonymy)LT64
              |--*S. pulchella d’Orbigny in de la Sagra 1839 [=Bitubulogenerina pulchella]LT64
              |--S. mauricensis (Howe 1934) (see below for synonymy)LT64
              `--S. vicksburgensis (Howe 1934) [=*Bitubulogenerina vicksburgensis]LT64
Bolivinitidae incertae sedis:
  Brizalina Costa 1856LT64
    |--*B. aenariensis Costa 1856LT64
    |--B. alataJW99
    |--B. pseudopunctataLT64
    `--B. vadescensLT64
  Gabonella de Klasz, Marie & Meijer 1960LT64
    `--*G. elongata de Klasz & Meijer 1960LT64
  Loxostomoides Reiss 1957LT64
    `--*L. applinae (Plummer 1927) [=Bolivina applini]LT64
  Tappanina Montanaro GallitelliLT64
    `--*T. selmensis (Cushman 1933) [=Bolivinita selmensis]LT64
  Altistoma de Klasz & Rérat 1962LT64
    `--*A. scalaris de Klasz & Rérat 1962LT64
  Laterostomella de Klasz & Rérat 1962LT64
    `--*L. guembeliniformis de Klasz & Rérat 1962LT64
  Unicosiphonia Cushman 1935LT64
    `--*U. crenulata Cushman 1935LT64
  Grammostomum Ehrenberg 1839LT64
    |--*G. tenue Ehrenberg 1839LT64
    `--G. macilentum Ehrenberg 1854G-B87
  Rectobolivina Cushman 1927 [incl. Geminaricta Cushman 1936]LT64
    |--*R. bifrons (Brady 1881) [=Sagrina bifrons]LT64
    |--R. columellaris (Brady 1881)A68
    |--R. hungarica [=Bifarina hungarica]LT64
    |--R. raphana (Parker & Jones 1865)A68 [=Uvigerina (Sagrina) raphanusLT64, Siphogenerina raphanusLT64]
    |--R. tombigbeensis [=Bifarina tombigbeensis]LT64
    |--R. vickburgensis [=Bifarina vicksburgensis]LT64
    `--R. virgata (Cushman 1929) [=Bolivinella virgata, *Geminaricta virgata]LT64

Sagrina d’Orbigny in de la Sagra 1839 [=Sagraina Bronn & Roemer 1853; incl. Bitubulogenerina Howe 1934, Tritubulogenerina Howe 1939]LT64

Sagrina mauricensis (Howe 1934) [=Bitubulogenerina mauricensis; incl. *Tritubulogenerina mauricensis Howe 1939]LT64

*Type species of generic name indicated


[AB19] Adl, S. M., D. Bass, C. E. Lane, J. Lukeš, C. L. Schoch, A. Smirnov, S. Agatha, C. Berney, M. W. Brown, F. Burki, P. Cárdenas, I. Čepička, L. Chistyakova, J. del Campo, M. Dunthorn, B. Edvardsen, Y. Eglit, L. Guillou, V. Hampl, A. A. Heiss, M. Hoppenrath, T. Y. James, A. Karnkowska, S. Karpov, E. Kim, M. Kolisko, A. Kudryavtsev, D. J. G. Lahr, E. Lara, L. Le Gall, D. H. Lynn, D. G. Mann, R. Massana, E. A. D. Mitchell, C. Morrow, J. S. Park, J. W. Pawlowski, M. J. Powell, D. J. Richter, S. Rueckert, L. Shadwick, S. Shimano, F. W. Spiegel, G. Torruella, N. Youssef, V. Zlatogursky & Q. Zhang. 2019. Revisions to the classification, nomenclature, and diversity of eukaryotes. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 66: 4–119.

[A68] Albani, A. D. 1968. Recent Foraminiferida of the central coast of New South Wales. AMSA Handbook 1: 1–37.

Brun, L., M. A. Chierici & M. Meijer. 1984. Evolution and morphological variations of the principal species of Bolivinitidae in the Tertiary of the Gulf of Guinea. Géologie Méditerranéenne 11 (1): 13–57.

[C40] Cushman, J. A. 1940. Foraminifera: Their classification and economic use 3rd ed. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

Erdem, Z., & J. Schönfeld. 2017. Pleistocene to Holocene benthic foraminiferal assemblages from the Peruvian continental margin. Palaeontologica Electronica 20.2.35A: 1–32.

[G-B87] Gawor-Biedowa, E. 1987. New benthic foraminifers from the Late Cretaceous of Poland. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 32 (1–2): 49–72.

[H03] Hanagata, S. 2003. Miocene–Pliocene Foraminifera from the Niigata oil-fields region, northeastern Japan. Micropaleontology 49 (4): 293–340.

[JW99] Jian, Z.-M., L.-J. Wang, M. Kienast, M. Sarnthein, W. Kuhnt, H.-L. Lin & P.-X. Wang. 1999. Benthic foraminiferal paleoceanography of the South China Sea over the last 40,000 years. Marine Geology 156: 159–186.

[LT64] Loeblich, A. R., Jr & H. Tappan. 1964. Sarcodina: chiefly “thecamoebians” and Foraminiferida. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt C. Protista 2 vol. 2. The Geological Society of America and The University of Kansas Press.

[M13] Mikhalevich, V. I. 2013. New insight into the systematics and evolution of the Foraminifera. Micropaleontology 59 (6): 493–527.

Revets, S. A. 1996. The generic revision of the Bolivinitidae Cushman, 1927. Cushman Foundation for Foraminiferal Research Special Publication 34: 1–55.

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