Bombini

Bombus mendax, from here.

Belongs within: Corbiculata.

The Bombini, bumble bees, are a group of robust, densely pubescent bees found in Eurasia and the Americas (and introduced elsewhere), typically characterised by a combination of corbiculae on the hind tibiae and hind tibial spurs (Michener 1965). Typical bumble bees belong to the genus Bombus; the genus Psithyrus includes social parasites of Bombus species. Psithyrus species have the hind tibia evenly hairy, thus lacking a corbicula and other structures for carrying pollen.

<==Bombini [Bombi, Bombinae]
    |--PsithyrusE01 [incl. ApathusR35]
    |    |--P. barbutellusR35
    |    |--P. campestrisR35
    |    |--P. insularisS00
    |    |--P. (Metapsithyrus) pieli Maa 1948S72
    |    |--P. quadricolorR35
    |    |--P. rupestrisMS01
    |    `--P. vestalisR35
    `--Bombus Latreille 1802M65 [incl. BremusR35, Calyptapis Cockerell 1906E01]
         |  i. s.: B. agrorumMS01 [=Bremus agrorumR35]
         |         B. alpinusR26
         |         B. arenicola [incl. B. arenicola var. baicalensis]MS01
         |         B. beaticolaS72
         |           |--B. b. beaticolaS72
         |           `--B. b. moshkarareppusS72
         |         B. bimaculatusWL09
         |         B. caliginosusM76
         |         B. carbonarius Menge 1856 (n. d.)E01
         |         B. centralisH02
         |         B. cognatusMS01
         |         B. consobrinusMS01
         |         B. cryptarumHB03
         |         B. distinguendusMS01
         |         B. dumoucheliR90
         |         B. edwardsiiM76
         |         ‘Bremus’ ferviotusR35
         |         *Calyptapis’ florissantensis Cockerell 1906E01
         |         B. fragransMS01
         |         B. honshuensisS72
         |         B. hortorum (Linnaeus 1761)M65 [=Apis hortorumM65, Bremus hortorumR35; incl. Bombus schrimshiranusL49]
         |         B. hyperboreusR13
         |         B. hypnorumHH96
         |         B. hypocritaGOY07
         |           |--B. h. hypocritaGOY07
         |           `--B. h. sapporoensisGOY07
         |         B. impatiensPK17
         |         B. incertusMS01
         |         B. inexspectatusA71
         |         B. italicusR26
         |         B. juxtus Cresson 1878C00
         |         B. kalinowskiiR90
         |         B. kirbyellusR13
         |         B. ligusticusR26
         |         B. luianusCSD10
         |         B. mexicanusB04
         |         B. modestus Eversmann 1852GE05
         |         B. ‘modestus’ Cresson 1863 nec Eversmann 1852 nec Smith 1861GE05
         |         B. ‘muscorum’ Roussy 1937 non Linnaeus 1758E01
         |         B. nevadensisCB73
         |         B. pascuorumHB03
         |         B. pennsylvanicusBS23
         |         B. pratorumRD77 [=Bremus praetorumR35]
         |         B. proavusCSD10
         |         B. proximus Cresson 1863 [incl. B. proximus var. howardi]C00
         |         B. pusillus Menge 1856 (n. d.)E01
         |         ‘Bremus’ rayellusR35
         |         B. ruderatus (Fabricius 1775)M65 (see below for synonymy)
         |         B. rufipesR77
         |         B. rupestrisPK17
         |         B. schrenckiS72
         |         B. sibiricusMS01
         |         B. simulatilisR90
         |         B. sitkensisM76
         |         B. subterraneusM65
         |           |--B. s. subterraneusM65
         |           `--B. s. latreillellus (Kirby 1802) [=Apis latreillella]M65
         |         B. sylvarumR26
         |         B. ternariusS00
         |         B. terricolaS00
         |         B. thoracicusR26
         |         B. trinominatus Dalla Torre 1890 [=B. modestus Smith 1861 non Eversmann 1852]GE05
         |         ‘Bremus’ tunicatusR35
         |         B. vetustusCSD10
         |         B. vosnesenskiiH79
         |         B. (Bombus)PK17
         |           |--*B. (B.) terrestris (Linnaeus 1758)M65 (see below for synonymy)
         |           |--B. (B.) ignitus Smith 1869 (see below for synonymy)S72
         |           |--B. (B.) lapidariusG20
         |           |--B. (B.) muscorum (Linnaeus 1758)G20, E01 [=Apis muscorumE01, Bremus muscorumR35]
         |           `--B. (B.) randeckensisPK17
         |         B. (Adventribombus) unicolorS72
         |         B. (Alpigenobombus) brevicepsS72
         |           |--B. b. brevicepsS72
         |           |--B. b. channicus Gribodo 1891S72
         |           `--B. b. vicinusS72
         |         B. (Hortobombus) supremusS72
         |         B. (Melanobombus) pyrosoma Morawitz 1890 [=B. (Lapidariobombus) pyrrhosoma]S72
         |           |--B. p. pyrosomaS72
         |           `--B. p. hoeneiS72
         |         B. (Pyrobombus)S72
         |           |--B. (P.) flavescens Smith 1852 [=B. (Pratobombus) flavescens; incl. B. flavescens f. geei]S72
         |           |--B. (P.) flavus Friese 1904 (see below for synonymy)S72
         |           `--B. (P.) jonellusS72
         |         B. (Senexibombus)S72
         |           |--B. (S.) bicoloratus (see below for synonymy)S72
         |           |--B. (S.) irisanensisS72
         |           |--B. (S.) kulingensis Cockerell 1917 (see below for synonymy)S72
         |           `--B. (S.) senex [incl. B. senex f. ardentior, B. senex f. pallidithorax, B. senex f. sumatrensis]S72
         |         B. (Thoracobombus) opulentus Smith 1861 [=Megabombus (Agrobombus) opulentus]S72
         |         B. (Tricornibombus)S72
         |           |--B. (T.) atripes Smith 1852 [=Megabombus (T.) atripes]S72
         |           `--B. (T.) imitator Pittioni 1949 (see below for synonymy)S72
         |--B. mendax Gerstäcker 1869CSD10
         `--+--B. ardens Smith 1879CSD10
            `--B. (Diversobombus)S72
                 |--B. (*D.) diversus Smith 1869S72, CSD10
                 |    |--B. d. diversusS72
                 |    `--B. d. tersatusS72
                 |--B. (D.) albidopleuralisS72
                 |--B. (D.) hummeliS72
                 |--B. (D.) montivagusS72
                 |--B. (D.) trifasciatus Smith 1852 (see below for synonymy)S72
                 |--B. (D.) ussurensisS72
                 `--B. (D.) wilmaniS72

Bombus ruderatus (Fabricius 1775)M65 [=Apis ruderataM65, Bremus ruderatusR35; incl. Br. ruderatus var. harrisellusR35]

Bombus (Bombus) ignitus Smith 1869 [incl. B. ignitus var. balteatus Skorikov 1933, B. ignitus var. cancellatus Frison 1935, B. ignitus var. subcollaris Skorikov 1914]S72

*Bombus (Bombus) terrestris (Linnaeus 1758)M65 [=Apis terrestrisM65, Bremus terrestrisR35; incl. Bremus terrestris var. fidensR35, Bombus terrestris var. lucorumMS01, Bo. terrestris var. patagiatusMS01]

Bombus (Diversobombus) trifasciatus Smith 1852 [incl. B. (D.) ningpoensis minshanicus Bischoff 1936, B. ningpoensis Friese 1909, B. (D.) ningpoensis]S72

Bombus (Pyrobombus) flavus Friese 1904 [=B. pratorum flavus; incl. B. (Pratobombus) klapperichi f. flavescentiformis Pittioni 1949, B. (Pr.) klapperichi f. intermedius Pittioni 1949, B. (Pr.) klapperichi Pittioni 1949, B. parthenius var. picipes Richards 1934]S72

Bombus (Senexibombus) bicoloratus [incl. B. bicoloratus f. fulvolateralis, B. bicoloratus f. intermedius non B. klapperichi f. intermedius Pittioni 1949]S72

Bombus (Senexibombus) kulingensis Cockerell 1917 [incl. B. (S.) tajushanensis f. flavior Pittioni 1949, B. (S.) tajushanensis f. nigrofasciatus Pittioni 1949, B. (S.) kulingensis f. quasiflavior Tkalců 1961, B. (S.) tajushanensis Pittioni 1949]S72

Bombus (Tricornibombus) imitator Pittioni 1949 [=Megabombus (T.) imitator; incl. B. (T.) imitator var. flavescens Pittioni 1949 non B. flavescens Smith 1852]S72

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[BS23] Blaimer, B. B., B. F. Santos, A. Cruaud, M. W. Gates, R. R. Kula, I. Mikó, J.-Y. Rasplus, D. R. Smith, E. J. Talamas, S. G. Brady & M. L. Buffington. 2023. Key innovations and the diversification of Hymenoptera. Nature Communications 14: 1212.

[B04] Brown, B. V. 2004. Revision of the subgenus Udamochiras of Melaloncha bee-killing flies (Diptera: Phoridae: Metopininae). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 140: 1–42.

[CSD10] Cardinal, S., J. Straka & B. N. Danforth. 2010. Comprehensive phylogeny of apid bees reveals the evolutionary origins and antiquity of cleptoparasitism. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 107 (37): 16207–16211.

[CB73] Carlson, C. W., & R. W. Brosemer. 1973. Amino acid compositions of cytochrome c from four hymenopteran species: evolutionary significance. Systematic Zoology 22 (1): 77–83.

[C00] Cockerell, T. D. A. 1900. Observations on bees collected at Las Vegas, New Mexico, and in the adjacent mountains. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 5: 401–416.

[E01] Engel, M. S. 2001. A monograph of the Baltic amber bees and evolution of the Apoidea (Hymenoptera). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 259: 1–192.

[GOY07] Goka, K., K. Okabe & M. Yoneda. 2007. Bumblebee commercialization has caused worldwide migration of parasitic mites. In: Morales-Malacara, J. B., V. M. Behan-Pelletier, E. Ueckermann, T. M. Pérez, E. G. Estrada-Venegas & M. Badii (eds) Acarology XI: Proceedings of the International Congress pp. 697–704. Instituto de Biología and Faculdad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Sociedad Latinoamericana de Acarología: México.

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[H02] Habeck, D. H. 2002. Nitidulidae Latreille 1802. In: Arnett, R. H., Jr, M. C. Thomas, P. E. Skelley & J. H. Frank (eds) American Beetles vol. 2. Polyphaga: Scarabaeoidea through Curculionoidea pp. 311–315. CRC Press.

[HB03] Hong, S. G., K. S. Bae, M. Herzberg, A. Titze & M.-A. Lachance. 2003. Candida kunwiensis sp. nov., a yeast associated with flowers and bumblebees. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 53: 367–372.

[H79] Howse, P. E. 1979. The uniqueness of insect societies: aspects of defense and integration. In: Larwood, G., & B. R. Rosen (eds) Biology and Systematics of Colonial Organisms pp. 345–374. Academic Press: London.

[HH96] Husband, R. W., & P. S. Husband. 1996. Studies of Locustacarus spp. (Podapolipidae) tracheal parasites of grasshoppers and bumblebees. In: Mitchell, R., D. J. Horn, G. R. Needham & W. C. Welbourn (eds) Acarology IX vol. 1. Proceedings pp. 335–338. Ohio Biological Survey: Columbus (Ohio).

[L49] Lucas, H. 1849. Exploration Scientifique de l’Algérie pendant les années 1840, 1841, 1842 publiée par ordre du gouvernement et avec le concours d’une commission académique. Sciences physiques. Zoologie. II. Histoire naturelle des animaux articulés. Troisième partie. Insectes (suite). Imprimerie Nationale: Paris.

[M65] Michener, C. D. 1965. A classification of the bees of the Australian and South Pacific regions. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 130: 1–362.

[MS01] Mocsáry, A., & V. Szépligeti. 1901. Hymenopterák [Hymenopteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 121–169. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[M76] Moldenke, A. R. 1976. California pollination ecology and vegetation types. Phytologia 34 (4): 305–361.

[PK17] Peters, R. S., L. Krogmann, C. Mayer, A. Donath, S. Gunkel, K. Meusemann, A. Kozlov, L. Podsiadlowski, M. Petersen, R. Lanfear, P. A. Diez, J. Heraty, K. M. Kjer, S. Klopfstein, R. Meier, C. Polidori, T. Schmitt, S. Liu, X. Zhou, T. Wappler, J. Rust, B. Misof & O. Niehuis. 2017. Evolutionary history of the Hymenoptera. Current Biology 27 (7): 1013–1018.

[R90] Radoszkowski, M. 1890. Communication suivante. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France, 6e série 9: clxxii–clxxv.

[R77] Raven, P. H. 1977. Onagraceae. Flora Malesiana, Series I—Spermatophyta, Flowering Plants 8 (2): 98–113.

[R35] Rayment, T. 1935. A Cluster of Bees: Sixty essays on the life-histories of Australian bees, with specific descriptions of over 100 new species. Endeavour Press: Sydney.

[R13] Reuter, O. M. 1913. Lebensgewohnheiten und Instinkte der Insekten bis zum Erwachen der sozialen Instinkte. R. Friedländer & Sohn: Berlin.

[RD77] Richards, O. W., & R. G. Davies. 1977. Imms’ General Textbook of Entomology 10th ed. vol. 2. Classification and Biology. Chapman and Hall: London.

[R26] Risso, A. 1826. Histoire naturelle des principales productions de l’Europe méridionale et particulièrement de celles des environs de Nice et des Alpes maritimes vol. 5. F.-G. Levrault: Paris.

[S72] Sakagami, S. F. 1972. Bumblee bees collected by the California Academy-Lingnan dawn-redwood expedition to central west China, 1948 (Hymenoptera, Apidae). Pan-Pacific Entomologist 48 (3): 153–174.

[S00] Siddiqi, M. R. 2000. Tylenchida: Parasites of plants and insects 2nd ed. CABI Publishing: Wallingford (UK).

[WL09] Walter, D. E., E. E. Lindquist, I. M. Smith, D. R. Cook & G. W. Krantz. 2009. Order Trombidiformes. In: Krantz, G. W., & D. E. Walter (eds) A Manual of Acarology 3rd ed. pp. 233–420. Texas Tech University Press.

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