Borsoniidae

Bathytoma luhdorfi, photographed by Jan Delsing.

Belongs within: Conoidea.
Contains: Ophiodermella, Pseudotoma, Aphanitoma, Asthenotoma, Borsonella, Cordieria, Filodrillia, Maoritomella, Microdrillia, Typhlomangelia, Genota, Tomopleura, Borsonia (Borsonia), Zemacies, Bathytoma (Bathytoma), Bathytoma (Micantapex).

The Borsoniidae are a diverse group of conoid gastropods primarily united by molecular data (Bouchet et al. 2011).

Characters (from Bouchet et al. 2011): Shell small to large (5–80 mm), fusiform to biconic, sometimes with strong to obsolete columellar pleats. Sculpture usually well developed, axial ribs sometimes obsolete to absent. Siphonal canal short to moderately long. Anal sinus on subsutural ramp, deep. Protoconch when multispiral with up to five whorls, initially smooth and then with arcuate axial riblets, when paucispiral up to two smooth whorls. Operculum with terminal nucleus, fully developed to missing. Radula, if present, of hypodermic marginal teeth that usually have a weakly developed solid basal part, often attached to the ligament. Tooth canal opening (sub)terminally or, sometimes, laterally. At their tip teeth can have weak to rather strong barb(s). Overlapping of tooth edges is weak. Radula occasionally completely absent.

<==Borsoniidae [Borsoniinae, Borsoninae, Pseudotominae, Zemaciinae]BK11
    |--+--MicrodrilliaPK11
    |  `--TyphlomangeliaPK11
    `--+--GenotaPK11
       `--+--+--TomopleuraPK11
          |  `--Borsonia Bellardi 1839PK11, BK11
          |       |  i. s.: B. bifasciata Pease 1860 [=Glyphostoma bifasciatum, Pleurotoma bifasciata]K65
          |       |         B. brasiliana Tippett 1983BC01
          |       |         B. crassicostata Pease 1860 (see below for synonymy)K65
          |       |         B. hirondelleae (Dautzenberg 1891) (see below for synonymy)BW80
          |       |         B. nebulosa Pease 1860K65
          |       |         B. rudisA27
          |       |--B. (Borsonia)BK11
          |       `--B. (Boettgeriola Wenz 1943)BK11 [=Boettgeria Peyrot 1932 non Heynemann in Boettger 1863P66]
          |            |--B. (*B.) gallica Peyrot 1932 [=B. (*Boettgeria) gallica]P66
          |            `--B. (B.) degrangei Peyrot 1932 [=B. (Boettgeria) degrangei]P66
          `--+--ZemaciesPK11
             `--Bathytoma Harris & Burrows 1891PK11, BK11 [=Dolichotoma Bellardi 1875 non Hope 1839P66]
                  |  i. s.: B. hectorguia (Verco 1907) [=Drillia hectorguia]H22
                  |         B. neocaledonica Puillandre et al. 2010BK11
                  |         B. paracanthaH22
                  |         B. tippettiZLK11
                  |--B. (Bathytoma)BK11
                  |--B. (Micantapex)BK11
                  |--B. (Parabathytoma Shuto 1961)BK11
                  |    |--B. (*P.) striatotuberculata (Yokoyama 1928) [=Pleurotoma striatotuberculata]P66
                  |    `--B. (P.) luhdorfi (Lischke 1872) [=Pleurotoma luhdorfi]P66
                  `--B. (Riuguhdrillia Oyama 1951)BK11
                       |--B. (*R.) engonia (Watson 1881) [=Pleurotoma (Genota) engonia, Drillia engonia]P66
                       `--B. (R.) parengonia (Dell 1956) [=Micantapex parengonius]P66
Borsoniidae incertae sedis:
  OphiodermellaBK11
  PseudotomaBR05
  AphanitomaBK11
  AsthenotomaBK11
  BorsonellaBK11
  CordieriaBK11
  FilodrilliaBK11
  Heteroturris Powell 1967BK11
  MaoritomellaBK11
  Darbya Bartsch 1934BK11
    `--*D. lira Bartsch 1934P66
  Borsonellopsis McLean 1971BK11
    `--B. chrysothemis (Dall 1919)BK11
  Glyptaesopus Pilsbry & Olsson 1941BK11
    |--G. cetolaca (Dall 1908) [=Mangelia cetolaca; incl. Aesopus (*Glyptaesopus) xenicus Pilsbry & Lowe 1932]R68
    |--G. oldroydi (Arnold 1903)BK11
    |--G. perornatus (Pilsbry & Olsson 1941)R68
    |--G. polypholus (Pilsbry & Olsson 1941)R68
    `--G. proctorae (Smith 1936)R68
  Tropidoturris Kilburn 1986BK11
    `--T. fossata (Sowerby 1903)BK11
  Apaturris Iredale 1917BK11
    `--*A. expeditionis (Oliver 1915) [=Mitramorpha expeditionis]P66
  Austroturris Laseron 1954BK11
    `--*A. steira (Hedley 1922)P66 [=Filodrillia steiraP66, Maoritomella steiraL54]
  Diptychophlia Berry 1964BK11
    `--*D. occata (Hinds 1844) [=Clavatula occata]P66
  Drilliola Cossmann 1903BK11
    |--*D. emendata (Monterosato 1872) (see below for synonymy)BW80
    |--D. loprestiana (Calcara 1841)BW80 (see below for synonymy)
    |--D. megalacme (Sykes 1906) [=Spirotropis megalacme]BW80
    `--D. pruina (Watson 1881) (see below for synonymy)BW80
  Pulsarella Laseron 1954BK11
    `--*P. cognata (Smith 1877)P66 (see below for synonymy)
  Belaturricula Powell 1951BK11
    |--*B. turrita (Strebel 1908) [=Bela turrita]P66
    `--B. ‘dissimilis’ (Watson 1886) [=Pleurotoma (Surcula) dissimilis non P. dissimilis Edwards 1861]P66
  Paraborsonia Pilsbry 1922BK11
    |--*P. varicosa (Sowerby 1850) [=Mitra varicosa]P66
    |--P. brassoensis (Mansfield 1925) [=Borsonia (Paraborsonia) brassoensis]P66
    |--P. cocoensis (Olsson 1922) [=Borsonia cocoensis]P66
    |--P. cossmanni (Martin 1914) [=Borsonia cossmanni]P66
    `--P. volzi (Martin 1914) [=Borsonia volzi]P66
  Phenatoma Finlay 1924BK11
    |--P. rosea (Quoy & Gaimard 1833)P66 (see below for synonymy)
    |--P. decessor Marwick 1928P66
    |--P. lawsi Powell 1942P66
    |--P. perlata (Suter 1917) [=Bathytoma perlata]P66
    |--P. precursor Powell 1942P66
    `--P. zealandica (Smith 1877) [=Pleurotoma zealandica; incl. Drillia cheesemani Hutton 1878]P66
  Typhlodaphne Powell 1951BK11
    |--*T. purissima (Strebel 1908) [=Bela purissima]P66
    |--T. corpulenta (Watson 1881) [=Pleurotoma (Thesbia) corpulenta]P66
    |--T. filostriata (Strebel 1905) [=Thesbia filostriata]P66
    |--T. platamodes (Watson 1881) [=Pleurotoma (Thesbia) platamodes]P66
    |--T. strebeli Powell 1951P66
    `--T. translucida (Watson 1881) [=Pleurotoma (Thesbia) translucida]P66
  Suavodrillia Dall 1908BK11
    |--*S. kennicottii (Dall 1871)P66 [=Drillia kennicottiiP66, Clathrodrillia (Suavodrillia) kennicottiiO27]
    |--S. bicarinata Ozaki 1958P66
    |--S. declivis (Martens 1880) [=Pleurotoma declivis]P66
    |--S. hertleini Durham 1944P66
    |--S. sagamiana Dall 1925P66
    |--S. sakurai Ozaki 1958P66
    |--S. willetti Dall 1919P66 [=Clathrodrillia (Suavodrillia) willettiO27]
    `--S. yanagawaensis Nomura & Zinbo 1935P66
  ‘Pleurotoma’ syngenes Watson 1881BW80
Nomina nuda: Borsonia haasti Allan 1927A27
             Borsonia huttoni Allan 1927A27
             Borsonia verrucosa Allan 1927A27

Borsonia crassicostata Pease 1860 [=Glyphostoma crassicostatum, Philbertia crassicostata, Pleurotoma crassicostata]K65

Borsonia hirondelleae (Dautzenberg 1891) [=Pleurotoma hirondelleae, P. hirondellei Dautzenberg & Fischer 1896; incl. P. circumcinctum Locard 1897, P. denudatum Locard 1897 non P. denudata Deshayes 1865, P. erraneum Locard 1897, P. scitulinum Locard 1897]BW80

*Drilliola emendata (Monterosato 1872) [=Taranis emendata; incl. T. albatrossi Nordsieck 1971, Pleurotoma emendatum var. atlantica Locard 1897 non Pleurotomella atlantica Locard 1897]BW80

Drilliola loprestiana (Calcara 1841)BW80 [=Pleurotoma loprestianaBW80; incl. Raphitoma barbierii Brusina 1866BW80, P. (Mangelia) comatotropis Dall 1881BW80, Microdrillia comatotropisP66, P. loprestiana var. minor Monterosato 1875 (n. n.) non P. minor Adams 1845BW80, P. tarentini Philippi 1844BW80, P. (Mangelia) tiara Watson 1881BW80, Microdrillia tiaraP66, P. trecchi Testa 1842BW80, P. tricinctum Brugnone 1862BW80]

Drilliola pruina (Watson 1881) [=Pleurotoma (Thesbia) pruina, P. (Pleurotomella) pruina; incl. Typhlomangelia tanneri Verrill & Smith 1884]BW80

Phenatoma rosea (Quoy & Gaimard 1833)P66 [=Pleurotoma roseaP66, Epideira roseaH22; incl. Pl. novaezelandiae Reeve 1843P66, *Phenatoma novaezelandiaeP66, Pl. plicatella Hutton 1886P66]

*Pulsarella cognata (Smith 1877)P66 [=Pleurotoma cognataP66, Asthenotoma cognataL54; incl. Oligotoma poulaensis Jousseaume 1883H22]

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[A27] Allan, R. S. 1927. The geology and palaeontology of the Lower Waihao Basin, south Canterbury, New Zealand. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 265–309.

[BK11] Bouchet, P., Y. I. Kantor, A. Sysoev & N. Puillandre. 2011. A new operational classification of the Conoidea (Gastropoda). Journal of Molluscan Studies 77: 273–308.

[BR05] Bouchet, P., & J.-P. Rocroi. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1–2): 1–397.

[BW80] Bouchet, P., & A. Waren. 1980. Revision of the north-east Atlantic bathyal and abyssal Turridae (Mollusca, Gastropoda). Journal of Molluscan Studies Supplement 8: 1–119.

[BC01] Boyko, C. B. & J. R. Cordeiro. 2001. Catalog of Recent type specimens in the Division of Invertebrate Zoology, American Museum of Natural History. V. Mollusca, part 2 (class Gastropoda [exclusive of Opisthobranchia and Pulmonata], with supplements to Gastropoda [Opisthobranchia], and Bivalvia). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 262: 1–170.

[H22] Hedley, C. 1922. A revision of the Australian Turridae. Records of the Australian Museum 13 (6): 213–359, pls 42–56.

[K65] Kay, E. A. 1965. Marine molluscs in the Cuming collection, British Museum (Natural History) described by William Harper Pease. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History): Zoology Supplement 1: 1–96, 14 pls.

[L54] Laseron, C. F. 1954. Revision of the New South Wales Turridae (Mollusca). Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales: Sydney.

[O27] Oldroyd, I. S. 1927. The Marine Shells of the West Coast of North America vol. 2 pt 1. Stanford University Press: Stanford University (California).

[P66] Powell, A. W. B. 1966. The molluscan families Speightiidae and Turridae: an evaluation of the valid taxa, both Recent and fossil, with lists of characteristic species. Bulletin of the Auckland Institute and Museum 5: 1–184, pls 1–23.

[PK11] Puillandre, N., Y. I. Kantor, A. Sysoev, A. Couloux, C. Meyer, T. Rawlings, J. A. Todd & P. Bouchet. 2011. The dragon tamed? A molecular phylogeny of the Conoidea (Gastropoda). Journal of Molluscan Studies 77: 259–272.

[R68] Radwin, G. E. 1968. The systematic position of Glyptaesopus. Nautilus 82 (1): 18–19.

[ZLK11] Zou, S., Q. Li & L. Kong. 2011. Additional gene data and increased sampling give new insights into the phylogenetic relationships of Neogastropoda, within the caenogastropod phylogenetic framework. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 61: 425–435.

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