Male gaur Bos gaurus, copyright N. A. Naseer.

Belongs within: Bovidae.

The Bovini, cattle and buffalo, are a predominately Eurasian group of large grazing ungulates, with the only living (non-domesticated) species found elsewhere being the North American bison Bison bison and the cape buffalo Syncerus caffer of Africa. The most widely domesticated members of the group include the European cattle Bos taurus, zebu B. indicus and water buffalo Bubalus bubalis. Other locally domesticated species are the gaur Bos gaurus, banteng B. javanicus and yak B. grunniens. The saola Pseudoryx nghetinhensis is a relatively small, straight-horned species found in the Annamite Mountains of Southeast Asia.

Characters (from Gentry 1978): Skull low and wide; horn cores in both sexes emerging transversely from skull; frontals and horn cores with internal sinuses; braincase short, basioccipitals triangular; molars with basal pillars and complicated central cavities, upper molars with prominent outbowed ribs between styles, lower molars without large goat folds.

| i. s.: Poephagus grunniensL50
| Bibos bantengUSDI77
|--+--Pseudoryx Dung, Giao et al. 1993FS15, DG93
| | `--*P. nghetinhensis Dung, Giao et al. 1993DG93
| `--+--+--+--Simatherium kohllarseni Dietrich 1941G78
| | | `--Pelorovis Reck 1928G78
| | | |--P. antiquus (Duvernoy 1851) [incl. Bubalus baini, B. nilssoni]G78
| | | |--P. capensisD07
| | | `--P. oldowayensis Reck 1928 [incl. Bularchus arok]G78
| | `--+--Ugandax gautieri Cooke & Coryndon 1970G78
| | `--+--HomoiocerasG78
| | | |--*H. singae Bate 1949G78
| | | `--H. bainiiWC56
| | `--Syncerus cafferFS15 [incl. Bubalus andersoni Scott 1907G78]
| | |--S. c. cafferUH84
| | `--S. c. nanusUH84
| `--+--ProamphibosG78
| `--+--HemibosG78
| `--BubalusFS15 [incl. Pseudonovibos Peter & Feiler 1994BD01; Pseudonovibovina]
| | i. s.: B. brachycerosB66
| | B. caffer [incl. B. caffer var. aequinoctialis]B66
| | B. palaeindicusK99
| | B. planicerosB66
| |--+--B. mindorensisFS15 [=Anoa mindorensisUSDI77]
| | `--B. palaeokerabauFS15
| `--+--+--B. arnee (Kerr 1792)FS15, GC-BG04
| | `--B. bubalis (Linnaeus 1758)GC-BG04 [incl. *Pseudonovibos spiralis Peter & Feiler 1994BD01]
| `--+--B. depressicornisFS15 [=Anoa depressicornisUSDI77]
| `--B. quarlesiFS15 [=Anoa quarlesiUSDI77]
| |--L. brevicornisDW04
| |--L. falconeriG78
| `--L. syrticus Petrocchi 1956G78
`--Bos Linnaeus 1758FS15, L58
| i. s.: B. atlantinus Blyth 1841B41
| B. bubalis Linnaeus 1758L58
|--+--+--B. bonasus Linnaeus 1758L58 [=Bison bonasusFS15]
| | | |--B. b. bonasusD81
| | | `--‘Bison’ b. caucasicusD81
| | `--B. primigenius Bojanus 1827FS15, GC-BG04 (see below for synonymy)
| | |--+--B. p. primigeniusGC-BG04
| | | `--*B. taurus Linnaeus 1758 [=B. primigenius f. taurus]GC-BG04
| | `--+--B. p. namadicus Falconer 1859GC-BG04
| | `--B. indicus Linnaeus 1758GC-BG04 [=B. taurus indicusVK06]
| `--+--B. sauveliFS15 [=Novibos sauveliDG93]
| `--+--B. javanicusFS15
| | |--B. j. javanicusTB01
| | `--B. j. birmanicusTB01
| `--+--B. frontalis Lambert 1804GC-BG04
| `--B. gaurus Smith 1827FS15, GC-BG04
| |--B. g. gaurusTB01
| `--B. g. readeiTB01
`--+--+--B. grunniens Linnaeus 1766GC-BG04
| `--B. mutus (Przewalski 1883)FS15, GC-BG04 [=B. grunniens mutusGC-BG04]
|--B. alaskensisB61
|--B. antiquusG91
| |--B. a. antiquusG91
| `--B. a. occidentalisG91
|--B. bison (Linnaeus 1758) [=Bos bison]B75
| |--B. b. bisonUH84
| |--B. b. athabascaeUH84
| |--B. b. oreganusD81
| `--B. b. pennsylvanicusD81
|--B. crassicornisB61
|--B. menneriME05
|--B. occidentalisB61
|--B. palaeosinensisDW04
|--B. priscusME05
`--B. schoetensackiME05

Inorganic: Anoa depressicornis minilorientalis Okamura 1987O87
Bos primigenius protominilorientalus Okamura 1987O87

Bos primigenius Bojanus 1827FS15, GC-BG04 [=Bos taurus primigeniusFP64; incl. Bubalus vignardi Gaillard 1934G78]

*Type species of generic name indicated


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[B41] Blyth, E. 1841. Letter. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 9: 63–65.

[B66] Blyth, E. 1866. A note on African buffalos. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 371–373.

[B75] Bowles, J. B. 1975. Distribution and biogeography of mammals of Iowa. Special Publications, The Museum, Texas Tech University 9: 1–184.

[BD01] Brandt, J. H., M. Dioli, A. Hassanin, R. A. Melville, L. E. Olson, A. Seveau & R. M. Timm. 2001. Debate on the authenticity of Pseudonovibos spiralis as a new species of wild bovid from Vietnam and Cambodia. Journal of Zoology 255: 437–444.

[D81] Day, D. 1981. The Doomsday Book of Animals: A unique natural history of three hundred vanished species. Ebury Press: London.

[DW04] Deng T., Wang X., Ni X. & Liu L. 2004. Sequence of the Cenozoic mammalian faunas of the Linxia Basin in Gansu, China. Acta Geologica Sinica (English Edition) 78 (1): 8–14.

[D07] Dixon, D. 2007. The Complete Illustrated Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs & Prehistoric Creatures. Hermes House: London.

[DG93] Dung, V. V., P. M. Giao, N. N. Chinh, D. Tuoc, P. Arctander & J. MacKinnon. 1993. A new species of living bovid from Vietnam. Nature 363: 443–445.

[FS15] Faurby, S., & J.-C. Svenning. 2015. A species-level phylogeny of all extant and late Quaternary extinct mammals using a novel heuristic-hierarchical Bayesian approach. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 84: 14–26.

[FP64] Fisher, J., & R. T. Peterson. 1964. The World of Birds: A comprehensive guide to general ornithology. Macdonald: London.

[G78] Gentry, A. W. 1978. Bovidae. In: Maglio, V. J., & H. B. S. Cooke (eds) Evolution of African Mammals pp. 540–572. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

[GC-BG04] Gentry, A., J. Clutton-Brock & C. P. Groves. 2004. The naming of wild animal species and their domestic derivatives. Journal of Archaeological Science 31: 645–651.

[G91] Groves, C. P. 1991. A Theory of Human and Primate Evolution revised ed. Clarendon Press: Oxford.

[K99] Kennedy, K. A. R. 1999. Paleoanthropology of South Asia. Evolutionary Anthropology 8 (5): 165–185.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[L50] Liu, C.-C. 1950. Amphibians of western China. Fieldiana: Zoology Memoirs 2: 1–400.

[ME05] Moullé, P.-E., A. Echassoux, F. Lacombat, E. Desclaux & S. Bailon. 2005. L’environnement animal des premiers habitants de l’Europe méditerranéenne: les grands mammifères contemporains de l’homme du Vallonnet, données taxonomiques et biostratigraphiques pour la deuxième moitie du Pléistocène inférieur. BAR International Series 1364: 105–113.

[O87] Okamura, C. 1987. New facts: Homo and all Vertebrata were born simultaneously in the former Paleozoic in Japan. Original Report of the Okamura Fossil Laboratory 15: 347–573.

[TB01] Timm, R. M., & J. H. Brandt. 2001. Pseudonovibos spiralis (Artiodactyla: Bovidae): new information on this enigmatic south-east Asian ox. Journal of Zoology 253: 157–166.

[UH84] Underwood, R., & S. J. G. Hall. 1984. Wild cattle and spiral-horned antelopes. In: Macdonald, D. (ed.) All the World’s Animals: Hoofed Mammals pp. 104–113. Torstar Books: New York.

[USDI77] USDI (United States Department of the Interior). 1977. Endangered and threatened wildlife and plants—republication of list of species. Federal Register 42: 36420–36431.

[VK06] Voigt, C. C., & D. H. Kelm. 2006. Host preference of the common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus; Chiroptera) assessed by stable isotopes. Journal of Mammalogy 87 (1): 1–6.

[WC56] Wells, L. H., & H. B. S. Cooke. 1956. Fossil Bovidae from the Limeworks Quarry, Makapansgat, Potgietersrus. Palaeontologia Africana 4: 1–55.

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