Brachiopoda

 Mickwitzia monilifera, from here.

Belongs within: Brachiozoa.
Contains: Linguliformea, Craniiformea, Rhynchonelliformea.

The Brachiopoda are a phylum of animals superficially similar to bivalve molluscs, but with a very different anatomical structure. The valves of the shell are dorsal and ventral in position, with the ventral larger than the dorsal, with a posterior opening between the valves through with emerges the fleshy pedicle in most species (members of the Craniiformea lack a pedicle). The shell contains a large mantle cavity, which is occupied by a feathery feeding structure, the lophophore. Brachiopods were ecologically predominant during the Palaeozoic, but are a relatively minor part of the recent fauna (Prothero 1998).

The Lower Cambrian Mickwitzia possessed an oval to subcircular, ventri-biconvex shell with an elevated submarginal or posteriorly recurved apex on the pedicle valve, and a low submarginal apex on the brachial valve (Rowell 1965). This genus has been identified as a stem-group brachiopod, retaining setigerous tubes passing through the pseudointerarea in the rear of the pedicle valve similar to those found in the tommotiids, a group of likely fossil brachiopod relatives. Such setigerous tubes have been lost in the crown group (Williams & Homer 2002). Brachiopods are also represented in the Lower Cambrian by the genus Salanygolina which shares some features with members of the crown subgroup Rhynchonelliformea (Erwin et al. 2011). Living brachiopods are divided between the Linguliformea and Calciata, with the latter characterised by calcareous shells in contrast to the phosphatic shells of the former (Holmer et al. 1995).

Ptychopeltis incola is an arched, saddle-shaped shell from the Middle Ordovician, originally described as a monoplacophoran mollusc but since re-interpreted as a brachiopod (Rowell 1965).

<==Brachiopoda (see below for synonymy)
    |--Mickwitzia Schmidt 1888WH02, R65 [incl. Causea Wiman 1902R65]
    |    |--*M. monilifera (Linnarsson 1869) [=Lingula monilifera]R65
    |    |--*Causea’ formosa Wiman 1902R65
    |    |--M. muralensisSH09
    |    `--M. occidensSH09
    |--SalanygolinaEL11
    `--+--LinguliformeaWH02
       `--Calciata [Adhaerentia]HP95
            |--CraniiformeaWH02
            `--RhynchonelliformeaWH02
Brachiopoda incertae sedis:
  AraratellaWM03
  Spinocarinifera arcuataCSZ03
  Echinoconchella elegansCSZ03
  *Bruntonites mellingeniCSZ03
  Loriolithyris russillensisBO02
  MalurostrophiaTC71
  Altaethyrella Severgina 1978RZJ04
  Ovalospira Fu 1982RZJ04
  Pectenospira Popov, Nikitin & Sokiran 1999RZJ04
  Muhuathyris circularis Sun, Ma et al. 2004SB04
  AucklandrhynchiaE01
    |--A. lavisE01
    `--A. opuatiaensisE01
  Pleuropugnoides panderiZP86
  Vitiliproductus groberiZP86
  Kwangsirhynchus luwuensisXY86
  Hoskingia nobilisF71
  SulciplicaF71
    |--S. tasmaniensis (Morris in Strzelecki 1845) [=Spirifer tasmaniensis]F71
    `--S. transversa [incl. Spirifer vespertilio Morris in Strzelecki 1845]F71
  Harttites Howell & Knight 1936 [=Harttia Walcott 1884 non Steindachner 1877]F62
    `--*H. matthewi (Walcott 1884) [=*Harttia matthewi]F62
  Cariorhynchus tumidaHou79
  Spinacytia ostiolatusHou79
  Eurekaspirifer pinyonensisN79
  Carinapyga loweryiN79
  Septoliphoria astierianaHol79
  Camarophora globulina Phillips 1834W77
  Amblotrema Rafinesque 1831 [=Amblytrema Agassiz 1847]M65
  Arctitreta Whitfield 1908M65
    `--*A. pearyi Whitfield 1908M65
  Biarea Torbakova 1959M65
  Brachiopus Rafinesque 1831M65
  Bufocephalus Linné 1779M65
  Bursula Herrmannsen 1846M65
  Comelicania Frech 1901M65
    `--*C. megalotis (Stache 1878) [=Athyris megalotis]M65
  Cornwallia Wilson 1932M65
    `--*C. minuta Wilson 1932M65
  Diclipsites Rafinesque 1831M65
  Diclisma Rafinesque 1820M65
  Didymospira Salomon 1895M65
  Diphyites Herrmannsen 1846 [=Diphytes Schröter 1779 (non-binomial)]M65
  Dirinus M’Coy 1844M65
    `--*D. bucklandi M’Coy 1844M65
  Gamdaella Miloradovich 1947M65
  Gasconsia Northrop 1939M65
    `--*G. schucherti Northrop 1939M65
  Gaspesia Clarke 1907M65
    `--*G. aurelia (Billings 1874) [=Orthis aurelia]M65
  Goniclis Rafinesque 1818M65
  Hemisterias Rafinesque 1832M65
  Ivanovia Ivanova 1949 non Khvorova 1946 (ICBN)M65
  Lampas Humphrey 1797 [=Lampus (l. c.)]M65
  Martinigisis Lebedev 1926M65
  Megarites Rafinesque 1820M65
  Mesotreta Kutorga 1848M65
    `--*M. tentorium (Kutorga 1848) [=Siphonotreta tentorium]M65
  Neogypidula Likharev 1934M65
  Peridiolithus Hupsch 1768M65
  Platilites Rafinesque 1820M65
  Pleuranisis Rafinesque 1820M65
  Plicoprothyris Dahmer 1940M65
  Pomatospirella Bittner 1892M65
    `--*P. thecidium (Bittner 1892) [=Spirigera (*Pomatospirella) thecidium]M65
  Reflexa Rotai 1931 non Brachythecium sect. Reflexa Broth. 1908 (ICBN)M65
    `--*R. reflexa Rotai 1931M65
  ‘Rhynchoferella’ Spriestersbach 1942 non Strand 1915M65
  Rictia de Gregorio 1930M65
    `--*R. simplex de Gregorio 1930M65
  Spondylobolus M’Coy 1851 [=Spondilobolus (l. c.), Spondylobus (l. c.)]M65
    `--*S. craniolaris M’Coy 1851M65
  Swantonia Walcott 1905M65
    `--*S. antiquata (Billings 1861) [=Camerella antiquata]M65
  Telistrophis Rafinesque 1832M65
  Venezuelia Weisbord 1926M65
  Virbium deGregorio 1930M65
  Ptychopeltis Perner 1903 [Ptychopeltidae]R65
    `--*P. incola Perner 1903R65
  Quadrisonia lavadamensisLM05
  Eurytreta sublataLM05
  Tullypothyridina venustulaZBB12
  Protodouvillina praedistansTY12
  Xenospirifer gurjevskensisTY12
  Tenuiatrypa subsalaircaTY12
  Pajaudina atlanticaWJ97
  Brochocarina trearnensisW97
  Xystostrophia umbulacrumWBM97
  Cyclacantharia kingorumWBM97
  Phaneropora galatheaePG98
  Daviesiella lochengensisG31

Brachiopoda [Brachionacephala, Brachionopoda, Ecardines, Gastrocaulia, Inarticulata, Lyopomata, Palliobraches, Palliobranchiata, Pleuropygia, Spirobrachiophora, Spirobranchia, Tendinosa, Tretenterata]

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

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[CSZ03] Chen, Z.-Q., G. R. Shi & L.-P. Zhan. 2003. Early Carboniferous athyridid brachiopods from the Qaidam Basin, northwest China. Journal of Paleontology 77: 844–862.

[E01] Eagle, M. K. 2001. A new species of Cottreauaster (Asteroidea: Echinodermata) from the Middle Jurassic of New Zealand. Records of the Auckland Museum 37: 93–100.

[EL11] Erwin, D. H., M. Laflamme, S. M. Tweedt, E. A. Sperling, D. Pisani & K. J. Peterson. 2011. The Cambrian conundrum: early divergence and later ecological success in the early history of animals. Science 334: 1091–1097.

[F62] Fisher, D. W. 1962. Small conoidal shells of uncertain affinities. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt W. Miscellanea: Conodonts, Conoidal Shells of Uncertain Affinities, Worms, Trace Fossils and Problematica pp. W98–W143. Geological Society of America, and University of Kansas Press.

[F71] Fletcher, H. O. 1971. Catalogue of type specimens of fossils in the Australian Museum, Sydney. Australian Museum Memoir 13: 1–167.

[G31] Grabau, A. W. 1931. The Permian of Mongolia: A report on the Permian fauna of the Jisu Honguer limestone of Mongolia and its relations to the Permian of other parts of the world. American Museum of Natural History: New York.

[Hol79] Hölder, H. 1979. Jurassic. In: Robison, R. A., & C. Teichert (eds) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt A. Introduction. Fossilisation (Taphonomy), Biogeography and Biostratigraphy pp. A390–A417. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

[HP95] Holmer, L. E., L. E. Popov, M. G. Bassett & J. Laurie. 1995. Phylogenetic analysis and ordinal classification of the Brachiopoda. Palaeontology 38: 713–741.

[Hou79] House, M. R. 1979. Devonian in the Eastern Hemisphere. In: Robison, R. A., & C. Teichert (eds) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt A. Introduction. Fossilisation (Taphonomy), Biogeography and Biostratigraphy pp. A183–A217. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

[LM05] Lehnert, O., J. F. Miller, S. A. Leslie, J. E. Repetski & R. L. Ethington. 2005. Cambro-Ordovician sea-level fluctuations and sequence boundaries: the missing record and the evolution of new taxa. Special Papers in Palaeontology 73: 117–134.

[M65] Moore, R. C. (ed.) 1965. Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt H. Brachiopoda vol. 2. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas Press: Lawrence (Kansas).

[N79] Norris, A. W. 1979. Devonian in the Western Hemisphere. In: Robison, R. A., & C. Teichert (eds) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt A. Introduction. Fossilisation (Taphonomy), Biogeography and Biostratigraphy pp. A218–A253. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

[PG98] Probert, P. K., & S. L. Grove. 1998. Macrobenthic assemblages of the continental shelf and upper slope off the west coast of South Island, New Zealand. Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand 28: 259–280.

[RZJ04] Rong, J.-Y., R.-B. Zhan & J. Jin. 2004. The Late Odovician and Early Silurian pentameride brachiopod Holorhynchus Kiaer, 1902 from north China. Journal of Paleontology 78 (2): 287–299.

[R65] Rowell, A. J. 1965. Inarticulata. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt H. Brachiopoda vol. 1 pp. H260–H296. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas Press: Lawrence (Kansas).

[SH09] Skovsted, C. B., L. E. Holmer, C. M. Larsson, A. E. S. Högström, G. A. Brock, T. P. Topper, U. Balthasar, S. P. Stolk & J. R. Paterson. 2009. The scleritome of Paterimitra: an early Cambrian stem group brachiopod from South Australia. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B—Biological Sciences 276: 1651–1656.

[SB04] Sun, Y., A. Baliński, X. Ma & Y. Zhang. 2004. New bizarre micro-spiriferid brachiopod from the Early Carboniferous of China. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 49 (2): 267–274.

[TY12] Talent, J. A., Y. A. Yokin, V. N, Yolkina, T. P. Kipriyanova & R. T. Gratsianova. 2012. Changes in the pattern of brachiopod biogeography in northern Asia through early and middle Devonian times. In: Talent, J. A. (ed.) Earth and Life: Global biodiversity, extinction intervals and biogeographic perturbations through time pp. 821–829. Springer.

[TC71] Thomson, K. S., & K. S. W. Campbell. 1971. The structure and relationships of the primitive Devonian lungfish—Dipnorhynchus sussmilchi (Etheridge). Yale University Peabody Museum of Natural History Bulletin 38: 1–109.

[WM03] Webster, G. D., C. G. Maples, R. Mawson & M. Dastanpour. 2003. A cladid-dominated Early Mississippian crinoid and conodont fauna from Kerman Province, Iran and revision of the glossocrinids and rhenocrinids. Journal of Paleontology 77 (Suppl. 3): 1–35.

[W77] White, C. A. 1877. Report upon the invertebrate fossils collected in portions of Nevada, Utah, Colorado, New Mexico, and Arizona, by parties of the expeditions of 1871, 1872, 1873, and 1874. U.S. Geographical Surveys West of the One Hundredth Meridian 4 (1): 1–219, pls 1–21.

[W97] Williams, A. 1997. Shell structure. In: Kaesler, R. L. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt H. Brachiopoda, Revised vol. 1. Introduction pp. 267–320. The Geological Society of America: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

[WBM97] Williams, A., C. H. C. Brunton & D. I. MacKinnon. 1997. Morphology. In: Kaesler, R. L. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt H. Brachiopoda, Revised vol. 1. Introduction pp. 321–422. The Geological Society of America: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

[WH02] Williams, A., & L. E. Holmer. 2002. Shell structure and inferred growth, functions and affinities of the sclerites of the problematic Micrina. Palaeontology 45 (5): 845–873.

[WJ97] Williams, A., M. A. James, C. C. Emig, S. Mackay & M. C. Rhodes. 1997. Anatomy. In: Kaesler, R. L. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt H. Brachiopoda, Revised vol. 1. Introduction pp. 7–188. The Geological Society of America: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

[XY86] Xu H.-K. & Yao Z.-G. 1986. The Lower Devonian and its brachiopods from Lingshan, Guangxi. Acta Palaeontologica Sinica 25 (2): 169–179.

[ZBB12] Zambito, J. J., IV, C. E. Brett & G. C. Baird. 2012. The Late Middle Devonian (Givetian) global Taghanic biocrisis in its type area (northern Appalachian Basin): geologically rapid faunal transitions driven by global and local environmental changes. In: Talent, J. A. (ed.) Earth and Life: Global biodiversity, extinction intervals and biogeographic perturbations through time pp. 677–703. Springer.

[ZP86] Zhang, R., & J. Pojeta Jr. 1986. New bivalves from the Datang Stage, Lower Carboniferous, Guangdong Province, China. Journal of Paleontology 60 (3): 669–679.

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