Brachythecium

Brachythecium rutabulum, copyright Tim Waters.

Belongs within: Brachytheciaceae.

Brachythecium salebrosum: some like it temperate
Published 24 January 2012
Brachythecium salebrosum, photographed in Slovakia by M. Lüth.

Brachythecium salebrosum is a species of moss found in many temperate regions of the world. It often grows in drier habitats than other mosses; in a study of the effects of human disturbance on forest moss communities in Estonia, B. salebrosum made up slightly less than a tenth of the moss flora in unmanaged forests, but accounted for more than a quarter of the flora in managed forests (Vellak & Paal 1999). Brachythecium salebrosum is known from Eurasia, North America, southernmost Africa and Australasia. Interestingly, it hasn’t yet been recorded from South America (Delgadillo 1993), and an explanation for its distribution would need to explain how it came to disperse (or vicariate) between North America and South Africa yet bypass South America and northern Africa. Another oddity in its distribution can be seen in comparison to the similar species Brachythecium rotaeanum: while both species are found in Eurasia and North America, B. salebrosum is more common in the western part of each continent while B. rotaeanum dominates in the east (so as one travels east from Europe, the distribution bands are salebrosumrotaeanumsalebrosumrotaeanum) (Ignatov et al. 2008). Some authors (particularly European ones) have expressed scepticism about the distinction between these two species, but they are distinguished by both morphological and molecular characters according to Ignatov et al. (2008).

Individual leaf of Brachythecium salebrosum, photographed by Russ Kleinman & Karen Blisard.

Distinguishing Brachythecium salebrosum from related species is, admittedly, not a simple task. Specimens of this species can vary quite significantly across their range. Generally, however, B. salebrosum has plicate leaves (i.e. they are folded longitudinally like an accordion) that are more or less falcate in shape with serrated margins. There is a clearly distinct group of small subquadrate cells at the lower corners of the leaf. The spore capsules are held more or less horizontally, and the seta supporting the capsule is generally about two centimetres high (Ignatov et al. 2008).

Systematics of Brachythecium
<==Brachythecium Schimp. in Bruch, Schimp. & Gümbel 1853S04
    |--B. sect. BrachytheciumS04
    |    |--B. campestre (Müll.Hal.) Schimp. in Bruch, Schimp. & Gümbel 1853OZB-O03 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |--B. mildeanum (Schimp.) Schimp. in Milde 1862S04 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |--B. rivulare Schimp. in Bruch, Schimp. & Gümbel 1853S04 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |    |--B. r. var. rivulareD24
    |    |    |--B. r. var. chrysophyllumD24
    |    |    |--B. r. var. latifoliumD24
    |    |    `--B. r. var. tenueD24
    |    `--B. rutabulum (Hedw.) Schimp. in Bruch, Schimp. & Gümbel 1853S04 (see below for synonymy)
    |--B. sect. Albicans Nyholm 1965S04
    |    |--B. albicans (Hedw.) Schimp. in Bruch, Schimp. & Gümbel 1853S04 (see below for synonymy)
    |    `--B. erythrorrhizon Schimp. in Bruch et al. 1853 [=Chamberlania erythrorrhizon]S04
    |--B. sect. Plicata Kindb. 1897S04
    |    |--B. glareosum (Spruce) Schimp. in Bruch, Schimp. & Gümbel 1853S04 (see below for synonymy)
    |    `--B. salebrosum (Weber & Mohr) Schimp. in Bruch, Schimp. & Gümbel 1853S04 (see below for synonymy)
    |--B. sect. Pseudocamptothecium Szafran ex Ochyra, Żarnowiec & Bednarek-Ochyra 2003OZB-O03
    |    `--B. (sect. *P.) geheebii Milde 1869 (see below for synonymy)OZB-O03
    |--B. sect. Reflexa Broth. 1908S04
    |    |--B. glaciale Schimp. in Bruch et al. 1853S04 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |    |--B. g. var. glacialeD24
    |    |    |--B. g. var. dovrense Limpr. 1896 (see below for synonymy)OZB-O03
    |    |    |--B. g. var. gelidum (see below for synonymy)OZB-O03
    |    |    `--B. g. var. subsecundumD24
    |    |--B. reflexum (Starke) Schimp. in Bruch et al. 1853S04 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |    |--B. r. var. reflexumD24
    |    |    `--B. r. var. micropusD24
    |    `--B. starkei (Brid.) Schimp. in Bruch et al. 1853S04 (see below for synonymy)
    |--B. sect. Salebrosa (Limpr.) Broth. in Engl. & Prantl 1901OZB-O03
    |    |--B. capillaceum (Weber & Mohr) Giacom. 1947 (see below for synonymy)OZB-O03
    |    `--B. turgidum (Hartm.) Kindb. 1888 [=Hypnum turgidum]OZB-O03
    `--B. sect. Velutina De Not. 1869S04
         |--B. appleyardiae McAdam & Sm. 1981S04
         |--B. plumosum (Hedw.) Schimp. in Bruch et al. 1853S04 (see below for synonymy)
         |--B. populeum (Hedw.) Schimp. in Bruch et al. 1853S04 (see below for synonymy)
         |--B. trachypodium (Brid.) Schimp. in Bruch et al. 1853S04 (see below for synonymy)
         `--B. velutinum (Hedw.) Schimp. in Bruch et al. 1853S04 (see below for synonymy)
              |--B. v. var. velutinumOZB-O03
              |--B. v. var. salicinum (see below for synonymy)OZB-O03
              `--B. v. var. vagans (see below for synonymy)OZB-O03
Brachythecium incertae sedis:
  B. brachycladumN02
  B. buchananiiN02
  B. curvatulumN02
  B. falcatulumN02
  B. formosanumN02
  B. illecebrum [=Hypnum illecebrum, Scleropodium illecebrum]D24
  B. kamounenseN02
  B. latinervium Hedenäs 1996SK02
  B. longicuspidatumN02
  B. longidensD03b
  B. morenoiD03b
  B. obsoletinerveN02
  B. pachytheceumN02
  B. paradoxum (Hooker & Wilson) Jaeger 1878 [=Hypnum paradoxum]SK02
  B. procumbensN02
  B. sericeo-virensD03b
  B. spegazziniiD03b
  B. spurio-albicansD03b
  B. stereopomaJ87
  B. subpilosumD03b
  B. subplicatumA49
  B. wichuraeN02
  B. zanoniiJ87
Nomina nuda: Brachythecium cuspidarioides Dusén 1903D03b
             Brachythecium majusculum Dusén 1903D03b
             Brachythecium sericeo-nitens Dusén 1903D03a
             Brachythecium subtilicaule Dusén 1903D03b
             Brachythecium turgens Dusén 1903D03b

Brachythecium albicans (Hedw.) Schimp. in Bruch, Schimp. & Gümbel 1853S04 [=Chamberlainia albicans (Hedw.) Rob. 1962SK02, Hypnum albicansD24; incl. Brachythecium albicans var. dumetorumOZB-O03, B. albicans var. julaceumOZB-O03, B. albicans var. macrophyllumOZB-O03]

Brachythecium campestre (Müll.Hal.) Schimp. in Bruch, Schimp. & Gümbel 1853OZB-O03 [=Chamberlainia campestris (Müll.Hal.) Rob. 1962SK02, Hypnum rutabulum var. campestreOZB-O03; incl. Brachythecium campestre f. falcatumOZB-O03, B. schimperiOZB-O03]

Brachythecium capillaceum (Weber & Mohr) Giacom. 1947 [=B. salebrosum var. capillaceum; incl. B. salebrosum var. cylindricum]OZB-O03

Brachythecium geheebii Milde 1869 [=Camptothecium geheebii, Homalothecium geheebii, Hypnum geheebii; incl. Brachythecium laetum]OZB-O03

Brachythecium glaciale Schimp. in Bruch et al. 1853S04 [=Hypnum glacialeD24, Sciuro-hypnum glaciale (Schimp.) Ignatov & Huttunen 2002OZB-O03; incl. Brachythecium glaciale var. laxumOZB-O03, Ptychodium trisulcatumOZB-O03]

Brachythecium glaciale var. dovrense Limpr. 1896 [=Sciuro-hypnum glaciale var. dovrense (Limpr.) Ochyra & Żarnowiec in Ochyra, Żarnowiec & Bednarek-Ochyra 2003]OZB-O03

Brachythecium glaciale var. gelidum [=B. gelidum Bryhn 1899, Sciuro-hypnum glaciale var. gelidum (Limpr.) Ochyra & Żarnowiec in Ochyra, Żarnowiec & Bednarek-Ochyra 2003]OZB-O03

Brachythecium glareosum (Spruce) Schimp. in Bruch, Schimp. & Gümbel 1853S04 [=Hypnum glareosumD24; incl. B. glareosum var. alpinumOZB-O03, H. goeppertianumOZB-O03]

Brachythecium mildeanum (Schimp.) Schimp. in Milde 1862S04 [=B. salebrosum var. mildeanumOZB-O03, Hypnum mildeanumD24; incl. B. mildeanum f. longisetumOZB-O03, B. salebrosum var. palustreS04, B. mildeanum f. robustumOZB-O03, B. rutabulum var. robustumD24]

Brachythecium plumosum (Hedw.) Schimp. in Bruch et al. 1853S04 [=Cirriphyllum plumosumOZB-O03, Hypnum plumosumD24, Sciuro-hypnum plumosum (Hedw.) Ignatov & Huttunen 2002OZB-O03; incl. Brachythecium plumosum f. aquaticumOZB-O03, B. plumosum f. homomallumOZB-O03, B. rivulare f. homomallaD24, B. plumosum f. julaceum non B. albicans var. julaceumOZB-O03, B. kayseri Geh. 1876SK02, B. pseudoplumosumOZB-O03, Hypnum pseudoplumosumSK02]

Brachythecium populeum (Hedw.) Schimp. in Bruch et al. 1853S04 [=Hypnum populeumD24, Sciuro-hypnum populeum (Hedw.) Ignatov & Huttunen 2002OZB-O03; incl. Brachythecium populeum f. amoenumOZB-O03, B. populeum f. attenuatumOZB-O03, B. populeum f. longisetum non B. mildeanum f. longisetumOZB-O03, B. populeum f. majorOZB-O03, B. populeum f. rufescensOZB-O03, B. populeum f. subfalcatumOZB-O03]

Brachythecium reflexum (Starke) Schimp. in Bruch et al. 1853S04 [=Eurhynchium reflexumOZB-O03, Hypnum reflexum D24, Sciuro-hypnum reflexum (Starke) Ignatov & Huttunen 2002OZB-O03; incl. B. reflexum var. subglacialeOZB-O03, B. reflexum var. tromsoeenseOZB-O03]

Brachythecium rivulare Schimp. in Bruch, Schimp. & Gümbel 1853S04 [=Hypnum rivulareD24; incl. B. rivulare var. cataractarumOZB-O03, B. rivulare f. fluitansOZB-O03, B. rivulare f. umbrosumOZB-O03]

Brachythecium rutabulum (Hedw.) Schimp. in Bruch, Schimp. & Gümbel 1853S04 [=Hypnum rutabulumSK02; incl. B. rutabulum f. densumOZB-O03, B. rutabulum var. eurhynchioidesOZB-O03, B. rutabulum var. flavescensOZB-O03, B. rutabulum var. klinggraeffiiOZB-O03, B. rutabulum var. longisetum nec B. mildeanum f. longisetum nec B. populeum f. longisetumOZB-O03, B. novae-valesiae Geh. 1876SK02, B. rutabulum f. plumulosumOZB-O03, B. rutabulum var. turgescensOZB-O03]

Brachythecium salebrosum (Weber & Mohr) Schimp. in Bruch, Schimp. & Gümbel 1853S04 [=Hypnum salebrosumSK02, Chamberlainia salebrosa (Weber & Mohr) Rob. 1962SK02; incl. B. salebrosum f. densum non B. rutabulum f. densumOZB-O03, B. salebrosum var. pratenseOZB-O03, B. salebrosum var. sericeumOZB-O03]

Brachythecium starkei (Brid.) Schimp. in Bruch et al. 1853S04 [=Eurhynchium starkeiOZB-O03, Hypnum reflexum var. starkeiOZB-O03, Sciuro-hypnum starkei (Brid.) Ignatov & Huttunen 2002OZB-O03, Stereodon starkeiOZB-O03; incl. Brachythecium starkei var. alpestreOZB-O03, B. starkei var. complanatumOZB-O03, Hypnum curtumD24, B. starkei var. explanatumOZB-O03, B. starkei var. praelongumOZB-O03, B. starkei var. robustum non B. mildeanum f. robustumOZB-O03]

Brachythecium trachypodium (Brid.) Schimp. in Bruch et al. 1853S04 [=Brachytheciastrum trachypodium (Brid.) Ignatov & Huttunen 2002OZB-O03, Eurhynchium trachypodiumOZB-O03, Hypnum trachypodiumOZB-O03]

Brachythecium velutinum (Hedw.) Schimp. in Bruch et al. 1853S04 [=Brachytheciastrum velutinum (Hedw.) Ignatov & Huttunen 2002OZB-O03, Chamberlainia velutinaS04, Hypnum velutinumD24; incl. Brachythecium velutinum f. intricatumOZB-O03, Hypnum intricatumOZB-O03, Brachythecium velutinum f. praelongum non B. starkei var. praelongumOZB-O03, Brachythecium velutinum var. robustum nec B. mildeanum f. robustum nec B. starkei var. robustumOZB-O03]

Brachythecium velutinum var. salicinum [=Brachythecium salicinum Schimp. in Bruch, Schimp. & Gümbel 1853, Brachytheciastrum velutinum var. salicinum (Schimp.) Ochyra & Żarnowiec in Ochyra, Żarnowiec & Bednarek-Ochyra 2003]OZB-O03

Brachythecium velutinum var. vagans [=Brachythecium vagans Milde 1869, Brachytheciastrum velutinum var. vagans (Milde) Ochyra & Żarnowiec in Ochyra, Żarnowiec & Bednarek-Ochyra 2003; incl. Brachythecium velutinum f. graniticum, Brachythecium tatrae]OZB-O03

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[A49] Allison, K. W. 1949. Description of a new species with notes and localities for some Otago and Southland mosses. Transactions and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New Zealand 77 (2): 278–283.

Delgadillo M., C. 1993. The Neotropical-African moss disjunction. The Bryologist 96 (4): 604–615.

[D24] Dixon, H. N. 1924. The Student’s Handbook of British Mosses 3rd ed. V. V. Sumfield: Eastbourne.

[D03a] Dusén, P. 1903a. The vegetation of western Patagonia. In: Scott, W. B. (ed.) Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia, 1896–1899 vol. 8. Botany pp. 1–34. The University: Princeton (New Jersey).

[D03b] Dusén, P. 1903b. Patagonian and Fuegian mosses. In: Scott, W. B. (ed.) Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia, 1896–1899 vol. 8. Botany pp. 63–126. The University: Princeton (New Jersey).

Ignatov, M. S., I. A. Milyutina & V. K. Bobrova. 2008. Problematic groups of Brachythecium and Eurhynchiastrum (Brachytheciaceae, Bryophyta) and taxonomic solutions suggested by nrITS sequences. Arctoa 17: 113–138.

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum—Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1–136.

[N02] Negi, H. R. 2002. Abundance and diversity of moss communities of Chopta-Tunganath in the Garhwal Himalaya. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 99 (3): 418–433.

[OZB-O03] Ochyra, R., J. Żarnowiec & H. Bednarek-Ochyra. 2003. Census Catalogue of Polish Mosses. Institute of Botany, Polish Academy of Sciences: Cracow.

[S04] Smith, A. J. E. 2004. The Moss Flora of Britain and Ireland 2nd ed. Cambridge University Press.

[SK02] Streimann, H., & N. Klazenga. 2002. Catalogue of Australian Mosses. Flora of Australia Supplementary Series 17. Australian Biological Resources Study: Canberra.

Vellak, K., & J. Paal. 1999. Diversity of bryophyte vegetation in some forest types in Estonia: a comparison of old unmanaged and managed forests. Biodiversity and Conservation 8: 1595–1620.

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