Halimeda tuna, copyright Philippe Bourjon.

Belongs within: Tetraphytae.
Contains: Udoteaceae, Caulerpa, Codium.

The Bryopsidales are a primarily marine group of coenocytic green algae (Norris 2010).

Characters (from Norris 2010): Algae variable in shape and size, ranging from simple (unbranched) to branched and to complex systems of branching tubular siphons or filaments. Occasionally forming globose vesicles; others are of filaments or siphons that are freely branched or formed into thalli with distinctive morphologies. Usually attached by prostrate rhizoids. Transverse septa generally absent in vegetative portions, may be present at base of reproductive sporangia or gametangia. Cells coenocytic with numerous nuclei and chloroplasts that lack or contain pyrenoids. Vegetative portion of thallus sometimes traversed by system of internal strands of cell wall material (trabeculae) forming elaborate network, thought to strengthen outer siphon walls. Two distinctive xanthophylls, siphonein and siphonoxanthein, present.
Vegetative reproduction may be by rhizome-like structures, fragmentation, or propagules. Sporophytic reproduction by multiflagellate zoospores or aplanospores, usually developed within morphologically differentiated sporangia. Sexual reproduction isogamous, anisogamous, or oogamous, with gametangia producing biflagellate gametes.

<==Bryopsidales [Caulerpales, Caulerpeae, Codiales, Derbesiales, Siphonales, Siphoneae]
    |--Halimedineae [Halimedales]N10
    |    |--UdoteaceaeN10
    |    |--CaulerpaceaeN10
    |    |    |--CaulerpaN10
    |    |    `--Caulerpella Prud’homme van Reine & Lokhorst 1992N10
    |    `--HalimedaceaeN10
    |         |--PalaeoporellaEB93
    |         `--Halimeda Lamouroux 1812 [=Halimedea; Halimedaceae]N10
    |              |--H. cuneata Hering in Krauss 1846HS14
    |              |--H. cylindracea Decaisne 1842HL09
    |              |--H. discoidea Decaisne 1842N10
    |              |--H. distorta (Yamada) Hillis-Colinvaux 1968 [=H. incrassata f. distorta Yamada 1941]HL09
    |              |--H. incrassata (Ellis) Lamouroux 1816HS14
    |              |--H. lacunalis Taylor 1950HS14
    |              |--H. macroloba Decaisne 1841HL09
    |              |--H. macrophysa Askenasy 1888HL09
    |              |--H. minima (Taylor) Colinvaux 1968 [=H. opuntia f. minima Taylor 1950]HL09
    |              |--H. opuntia (Linnaeus) Lamouroux 1816N10 [=Corallina opuntia Linnaeus 1758HL09]
    |              |--H. simulans Howe 1907HS14
    |              |--H. soltanensis Poncet 1989VH01
    |              |--H. taenicola Taylor 1950HS14
    |              |--H. tuna (Ellis & Solander) Lamouroux 1816HS14
    |              `--H. velasquezii Taylor 1962HS14
         |--Derbesia Solier 1846 [incl. Halicystis Areschoug 1850; Derbesiaceae, Halicystaceae]N10
         |    |--D. hollenbergii Taylor 1945N10
         |    |--D. marina (Lyngbye) Solier 1846N10 (see below for synonymy)
         |    |--D. pacifica Jao 1937S57
         |    |--D. tenuissima (Moris & De Notaris) Crouan & Crouan 1867 [incl. Halicystis parvula]N10
         |    |--D. turbinata Howe & Hoyt 1916N10
         |    `--D. vaucheriaeformis (Harvey) Agardh 1887N10
         `--Bryopsidaceae [Bryopsideae]N10
              |--Bryopsidella Feldmann ex Rietema 1975N10
              |    |--C. paspaloides Bory de Saint-Vincent 1828BS-V28
              |    `--C. phleoides Bory de Saint-Vincent 1828BS-V28
              |    |--‘Alcyonium’ bursa Linnaeus 1758BS-V28, L58
              |    |--S. commune Bory de Saint-Vincent 1828 [incl. Lamarckia vermilara]BS-V28
              |    `--‘Fucus’ simpliciusculusBS-V28
              |--Pseudobryopsis hainanensis Tseng 1936HS14
              `--Bryopsis Lamouroux 1809N10
                   |--B. arbusculaBS-V28
                   |--B. corticulans Setchell in Collins, Holden & Setchell 1899N10
                   |--B. hypnoides Lamouroux 1809N10
                   |--B. indica Gepp & Gepp 1908HL09
                   |--B. maximaJLG03
                   |--B. muscosa Lamouroux 1809N10
                   |--B. pennata Lamouroux 1809 [=B. plumosa var. pennata (Lamouroux) Børgesen 1911]N10
                   |    |--B. p. var. pennataN10
                   |    |--B. p. var. minor Agardh 1887 [=B. pennatula Agardh 1847]N10
                   |    `--B. p. var. secunda (Harvey) Collins & Hervey 1917HS14
                   |--B. plumosa (Hudson) Agardh 1822N10
                   |--B. rosaeBS-V28
                   |--B. salvadoreana Dawson 1961N10
                   `--B. vestita Agardh 1877L27

Bryopsidales incertae sedis:
  Pseudocodium [Pseudocodiaceae]HJ08
    `--P. devriesii Weber-van Bosse 1896HJ08
  Blastophysa Reinke 1889 [Chaetosiphonaceae]HL09
    `--B. rhizopus Reinke 1889HL09

Derbesia marina (Lyngbye) Solier 1846N10 [=Vaucheria marina Lyngbye 1819N10, Ectosperma marinaBS-V28; incl. Gastridium ovale Lyngbye 1819N10, Halicystis ovalis (Lyngbye) Areschoug 1850N10, Valonia ovalisS57]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BS-V28] Bory de Saint-Vincent, J. B. 1828. Voyage Autour du Monde, Exécuté par Ordre du Roi, Sur la Corvette de Sa Majesté, La Coquille, pendant les années 1822, 1823, 1824 et 1825. Botanique. Cryptogamie. Arthus Bertrand: Paris.

[EB93] Edwards, D., J. G. Baldauf, P. R. Brown, K. J. Dorning, M. Feist, L. T. Gallagher, N. Grambast-Fessard, M. B. Hart, A. J. Powell & R. Riding. 1993. ‘Algae’. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 15–40. Chapman & Hall: London.

[HJ08] Huisman, J. M., D. S. Jones, F. E. Wells & T. Burton. 2008. Introduced marine biota in Western Australian waters. Records of the Western Australian Museum 25 (1): 1–44.

[HL09] Huisman, J. M., F. Leliaert, H. Veerbruggen & R. A. Townsend. 2009. Marine benthic plants of Western Australia’s shelf-edge atolls. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 77: 50–87.

[HS14] Huisman, J. M., & A. Sampey. 2014. Kimberley marine biota. Historical data: marine plants. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 84: 45–67.

[JLG03] Jacobsen, S., K. Lüning & F. Goulard. 2003. Circadian changes in relative abundance of two photosynthetic transcripts in the marine macroalga Kappaphycus alvarezii (Rhodophyta). Journal of Phycology 39: 888–896.

[L27] Laing, R. M. 1927. A reference list of New Zealand marine algae. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 126–185.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[NW04] Nitecki, M. H., B. D. Webby, N. Spjeldnaes & Zhen Y.-Y. 2004. Receptaculitids and algae. In: Webby, B. D., F. Paris, M. L. Droser & I. G. Percival (eds) The Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event pp. 336–347. Columbia University Press.

[N10] Norris, J. N. 2010. Marine algae of the northern Gulf of California: Chlorophyta and Phaeophyceae. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 94: 1–276.

[S57] Scagel, R. F. 1957. An annotated list of the marine algae of British Columbia and northern Washington (including keys to genera). National Museum of Canada Bulletin 150: 1–289.

[VH01] Vachard, D., M. Hauser, R. Martini, L. Zaninetti, A. Matter & T. Peters. 2001. New algae and problematica of algal affinity from the Permian of the Aseelah Unit of the Batain Plain (East Oman). Geobios 34 (4): 375–404.

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