Northern red-billed hornbill Tockus erythrorhynchus, copyright Derek Keats.

Belongs within: Coraciimorphae.

The Bucerotidae, hornbills, are birds of the Old World tropics that bear enormous down-curved bills, usually surmounted by a horny casque (Austin 1961).

Characters (from Austin 1961): Bill enormous, down-curved, usually surmounted by a horny casque, bill and casque usually hollow or filled with comb of cells, often deeply sculptured and chiseled, edges of bill serrated. Eyelashes well developed. Coloured patches of skin may be present around eyes and throat. Feathers coarse, loose-webbed; wings strong; tail long, usually rounded. Legs typically short; feet broad-soled, stout, three front toes partially joined.

<==Bucerotidae [Buceridae, Bucerotides]
    |  i. s.: Berenicornis comatusPT03, FP64
    |         RhyticerosPT03
    |         Rhinoplax vigilJT12
    |         BycanistesJT12
    |           |--B. albotibialisJT12
    |           |--B. cristatusK08
    |           |--B. cylindricusJT12
    |           `--B. fistulatorJT12
    |--Bucorvus Lesson 1830BKB15, B94 [incl. Bucorax Sundevall 1849B94; Bucoracidae, Bucorvidae]
    |    |--B. abyssinicusBKB15
    |    |--B. brailloni Brunet 1971U93
    |    |--B. caferJT12
    |    `--B. leadbeateriBKB15
    `--+--Tockus Lesson 1830BKB15, B94 [Tockidae]
       |    |  i. s.: T. bradfieldiJT12
       |    |         T. hartlaubiJT12
       |    |         T. hemprichiiJT12
       |    |         T. pallidirostrisJT12
       |    |--+--T. nasutusBKB15
       |    |  `--+--T. alboterminatusBKB15
       |    |     `--T. fasciatusBKB15
       |    `--+--T. camurusBKB15
       |       `--+--+--T. deckeniBKB15
       |          |  |--T. jacksoniJT12
       |          |  `--T. leucomelasBKB15
       |          `--+--T. flavirostrisBKB15
       |             `--+--T. erythrorhynchusBKB15
       |                `--T. monteiriJT12
       `--+--+--Buceros Linnaeus 1758BKB15, B94
          |  |    |  i. s.: B. homraiW66
          |  |    |         B. hydrocoraxJT12
          |  |    |--B. vigilBKB15
          |  |    `--+--‘Aceros’ comatusBKB15
          |  |       `--+--B. bicornis Linnaeus 1758BKB15, L58
          |  |          `--B. rhinoceros Linnaeus 1758BKB15, L58
          |  `--+--AnorrhinusBKB15
          |     |    |--A. galeritusBKB15
          |     |    `--+--A. austeniBKB15
          |     |       `--A. tickelliBKB15
          |     `--AnthracocerosBKB15
          |          |--A. albirostrisBKB15
          |          |--A. convexusM89
          |          |--A. coronatusJT12
          |          |--A. marcheiJT12
          |          |--A. malayanusBKB15
          |          `--A. montaniJT12
          `--+--+--Tropicranus albocristatusJT12 [=Tockus albocristatusBKB15]
             |  `--CeratogymnaBKB15
             |       |  i. s.: C. elataJT12
             |       |--C. atrataBKB15
             |       `--+--C. bucinatorBKB15 [=Bycanistes bucinatorJT12]
             |          `--+--C. brevisBKB15 [=Bycanistes brevisJT12]
             |             `--C. subcylindricaBKB15 [=Bycanistes subcylindricusJT12]
                  |  i. s.: A. everettiJT12
                  |         A. leucocephalusJT12
                  |         A. narcondamiYZ02
                  |--A. nipalensisBKB15 [incl. A. leucostigma Salvad. 1888S89]
                  `--+--+--A. cassidixBKB15
                     |  `--+--A. subruficollisBKB15
                     |     `--+--A. plicatusBKB15
                     |        `--+--A. undulatusBKB15
                     |           `--OcycerosBKB15
                     |                |--O. birostrisJT12
                     |                |--O. gingalensisBKB15
                     |                `--O. griseusJT12
                     `--+--A. corrugatusBKB15
                        `--+--A. waldeniBKB15
                                |--P. affinisJT12
                                |--P. exarhatusJT12
                                |--P. manillaeBKB15
                                |--P. mindorensisJT12
                                |--P. paniniBKB15
                                |    |--P. p. paniniHSS13
                                |    `--P. p. ticaensisHSS13
                                `--P. samarensisJT12

*Type species of generic name indicated


Austin, O. L., Jr. 1961. Birds of the World: A survey of the twenty-seven orders and one hundred and fifty-five families. Paul Hamlyn: London.

[B94] Bock, W. J. 1994. History and nomenclature of avian family-group names. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 222: 1–281.

[BKB15] Burleigh, J. G., R. T. Kimball & E. L. Braun. 2015. Building the avian tree of life using a large-scale, sparse supermatrix. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 84: 53–63.

[FP64] Fisher, J., & R. T. Peterson. 1964. The World of Birds: A comprehensive guide to general ornithology. Macdonald: London.

[HSS13] Hirschfeld, E., A. Swash & R. Still. 2013. The World’s Rarest Birds. Princeton University Press: Princeton (New Jersey).

[JT12] Jetz, W., G. H. Thomas, J. B. Joy, K. Hartmann & A. Ø. Mooers. 2012. The global diversity of birds in space and time. Nature 491: 444–448.

[K08] Kellogg, V. L. 1908. Wissenschaftliche Ergebnisse der Schwedischen Zoologischen Expedition nach dem Kilimandjaro, dem Meru und den Umgebenden Massaisteppen Deutsch-Ostafrikas 1905–1906, 15. Corrodentia, 4. Mallophaga. Almqvist & Wiksells Boktryckeri-A. B.: Uppsala.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[M89] Modigliani, E. 1889. Materiali per la fauna erpetologica dell’isola Nias. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a, 7: 113–124.

[PT03] Prum, R. O., & R. Torres. 2003. Structural colouration of avian skin: Convergent evolution of coherently scattering dermal collagen arrays. Journal of Experimental Biology 206: 2409–2429.

[S89] Salvadori, T. 1889. Viaggio di Leonardo Fea nella Birmania e nelle regioni vicine. XIX.—Uccelli raccolti nei Monti Carin a nord-est di Tounghoo, nel Pegù presso Rangoon e Tounghoo e nel Tenasserim presso Malewoon. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a, 7: 369–438.

[U93] Unwin, D. M. 1993. Aves. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 717–737. Chapman & Hall: London.

[W66] Walden, A. 1866. Notes on birds collected in Tennasserim and in the Andaman Islands. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 537–556.

[YZ02] Yahya, H. S. A., & A. A. Zarri. 2002. Status, ecology and behaviour of Narcondam hornbill (Aceros narcondami) in Narcondam Island, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 99 (3): 434–445.

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