Bufo

Mating pair of common toads Bufo bufo, copyright Quartl.

Belongs within: Bufonidae.

Bufo is a genus of toads historically used to cover most members of the family but more recently restricted to Palaearctic relatives of the common toad B. bufo.

<==Bufo Laurenti 1768 [incl. Calamita Oken 1816 (nom. inv.), Chascax Ritgen 1828 (n. o.), Torrentophryne]FG06
|--B. raddei (Strauch 1876)PW11, FG06 (see below for synonymy)
`--+--+--B. bufo (Linnaeus 1758)PW11, FG06 [=Rana bufoK08; incl. B. priscus Špinar et al. 1993RR00]
| | |--B. b. bufoCER68
| | |--B. b. formosusCER68
| | `--B. b. wrighti Schmidt & Liu 1940L50
| `--B. verrucosissimus (Pallas 1814)PW11, FG06
`--+--+--B. tuberospiniusPW11
| `--+--B. aspinius (Yang, Liu & Rao 1996)PW11, FG06 [=Torrentophryne aspiniaFG06]
| `--B. cryptotympanicus Liu & Hu 1962PW11, FG06
`--+--+--B. bankorensis Barbour 1908PW11, FG06
| `--B. gargarizans Cantor 1842PW11, FG06 (see below for synonymy)
`--+--B. stejnegeri Schmidt 1931PW11, FG06
|--+--B. japonicus Temminck & Schlegel 1838PW11, FG06 [=B. vulgaris japonicusL50]
| `--B. torrenticola Matsui 1976PW11, FG06
`--+--B. tibetanus Zarevskij 1926PW11, FG06
`--B. tuberculatus Zarevskij 1926PW11, FG06

Bufo incertae sedis:
*B. vulgaris (Laurenti 1768) [=Rana vulgaris]FG06
B. abei Baldissera, Caramaschi & Haddad 2004 [=Chaunus abei]FG06
B. achalensis Cei 1972 [=Chaunus achalensis]FG06
B. ailaoanus Kou 1984FG06
B. albus Ratnikov 1993RR00
B. alienus Tihen 1962RR00
B. amabilis Pramuk & Kadivar 2003 [=Chaunus amabilis]FG06
B. anderssoni Melin 1941 [=Rhaebo anderssoni]FG06
B. andrewsi Schmidt 1925FG06 [=B. bufo andrewsiL50]
B. arabicus Heyden 1827FG06
B. arborescandens Duellman & Schulte 1992 [=Chaunus arborescandens]FG06
B. asmarae Tandy, Bogart et al. 1982 [=Amietophrynus asmarae]FG06
B. aucoinae O’Neill & Mendelson 1994 [=Cranopsis aucoinae]FG06
B. beddomii Günther 1876FG06
B. beiranus Loveridge 1932 [=Poyntonophrynus beiranus]FG06
B. belogoricus Ratnikov 1993RR00
B. bergi Céspedez 2000 [=Chaunus bergi]FG06
B. blanfordii Boulenger 1882 [=Amietophrynus blanfordii]FG06
B. blombergi Myers & Funkhouser 1951 [=Rhaebo blombergi]FG06
B. buchneri Peters 1882 [=Amietophrynus buchneri]FG06
B. caeruleostictus Günther 1859 [=Rhaebo caeruleostictus]FG06
B. campi Brattstrom 1955RR00
B. cataulaciceps Schwartz 1959 [=Peltophryne cataulaciceps]FG06
B. cavifrons Firschein 1950 [=Cranopsis cavifrons]FG06
B. chudeaui Chabanaud 1919 [=Amietophrynus chudeaui]FG06
B. claviger Peters 1863 [=Ingerophrynus claviger]FG06
B. columbiensisW06
B. corynetes Duellman & Ochoa-M. 1991 [=Chaunus corynetes]FG06
B. cristatus Wiegmann 1833 [=Cranopsis cristata]FG06
B. cristiglans Inger & Menzies 1961 [=Amietophrynus cristiglans]FG06
B. cyphosus Ye 1977 [=Duttaphrynus cyphosus]FG06
B. danielae Perret 1977 [=Amietophrynus danielae]FG06
B. diptychus Cope 1862 [=Chaunus diptychus]FG06
B. djohongensis Hulselmans 1977 [=Amietophrynus djohongensis]FG06
B. dodsoni Boulenger 1895FG06
B. dorbignyi Duméril & Bibron 1841FG06 [=B. granulosus dorbignyiDF88, Chaunus dorbignyiFG06]
B. fernandezae Gallardo 1957 [=Chaunus fernandezae]FG06
B. fissipes Boulenger 1903 [=Chaunus fissipes]FG06
B. fluviaticus Schwartz 1972 [=Peltophryne fluviatica]FG06
B. fractus Schwartz 1972 [=Peltophryne fracta]FG06
B. fuliginosus de Witte 1932 [=Amietophrynus fuliginosus]FG06
B. funereus Bocage 1866 [=Amietophrynus funereus]FG06
B. gallardoi Carrizo 1992 [=Chaunus gallardoi]FG06
B. gemmifer Taylor 1940 [=Cranopsis gemmifer]FG06
B. gnustae Gallardo 1967 [=Chaunus gnustae]FG06
B. grandisonae Poynton & Haacke 1993 [=Poyntonophrynus grandisonae]FG06
B. gymnauchenB28
B. henseli Lutz 1934 [=Chaunus henseli]FG06
B. hibbardi Taylor 1942RR00
B. hoeschi Ahl 1934 [=Poyntonophrynus hoeschi]FG06
B. holdridgei Taylor 1952 [=Cranopsis holdridgei]FG06
B. holmani Parmley 1992RR00
‘Rhaebo’ hypomelas Boulenger 1913FG06
B. inca Stejneger 1913 [=Chaunus inca]FG06
B. jimi Stevaux 2002 [=Chaunus jimi]FG06
B. justinianoi Harvey & Smith 1994 [=Chaunus justinianoi]FG06
B. kabischi Herrmann & Kühnel 1997FG06
B. kassasii Baha El Din 1993 [=Amietophrynus kassasii]FG06
B. kavangensis Poynton & Broadley 1988 [=Poyntonophrynus kavangensis]FG06
B. kelloggi Taylor 1938 [=Anaxyrus kelloggi]FG06
B. kerinyagae Keith 1968 [=Amietophrynus kerinyagae]FG06
B. kotagamai Fernando, Dayawansa & Siriwardhane 1994FG06
B. kuhrei Holman 1973RR00
B. kumquat Das & Lim 2001 [=Ingerophrynus kumquat]FG06
B. langanoensis Largen, Tandy & Tandy 1978 [=Amietophrynus langanoensis]FG06
B. latastii Boulenger 1882 [=Pseudepidalea latastii]FG06
B. lentiginosusW06
B. leucomyos McCranie & Wilson 2000 [=Cranopsis leucomyos]FG06
B. linquensis Yang 1977RR00
B. lughensis Loveridge 1932 [=Poyntonophrynus lughensis]FG06
B. luristanicus Schmidt 1952 [=Pseudepidalea luristanica]FG06
B. majorCER68
B. mexicanus Brocchi 1879 [=Anaxyrus mexicanus]FG06
B. microtympanum Boulenger 1882 [=Duttaphrynus microtympanum]FG06
B. minshanicus Stejneger 1926FG06 [=B. bufo minshanicusL50]
B. musicus [=Rana musicus]J23
B. noellerti Manamendra-Arachchi & Pethiyagoda 1998 [=Duttaphrynus noellerti]FG06
B. obstetricansBr00
B. olivaceus Blanford 1874FG06
B. ornatus Spix 1824 [=Chaunus ornatus]FG06
B. pageoti Bourret 1937FG06
B. paracnemisCER68
B. parkeri Loveridge 1932 [=Poyntonophrynus parkeri]FG06
B. parvus Boulenger 1887 [=Ingerophrynus parvus]FG06
B. pentoni Anderson 1893FG06
B. periglenes Savage 1967 [=Cranopsis periglenes]FG06
B. peripatetes Savage 1972 [=Cranopsis peripatetes]FG06
B. perplexus Taylor 1943 [=Cranopsis perplexa]FG06
B. perreti Schiøtz 1963 [=Amietophrynus perreti]FG06
B. pisanoi Casamiquela 1967 (n. d.)Ba00
B. polycercusPB27
B. pisinna Mendelson, Williams et al. 2005 [=Cranopsis pisinna]FG06
B. planus Ratnikov 1993RR00
B. pliocompactilis Wilson 1968RR00
B. pombali Baldissera, Caramaschi & Haddad 2004 [=Chaunus pombali]FG06
B. porteri Mendelson, Williams et al. 2005 [=Cranopsis porteri]FG06
B. praevius Tihen 1951RR00
B. pseudoraddei Mertens 1971 [=Pseudepidalea pseudoraddei]FG06
B. pygmaeus Myers & Carvalho 1952 [=Chaunus pygmaeus]FG06
B. quadriporcatus Boulenger 1887 [=Ingerophrynus quadriporcatus]FG06
B. quechua Gallardo 1961 [=Chaunus quechua]FG06
B. reesi Poynton 1977 [=Amietophrynus reesi]FG06
B. repentinus Tihen 1962H00
B. rexroadensis Tihen 1962RR00
B. rubescens Lutz 1925 [=Chaunus rubescens]FG06
B. rubropunctatus Guichenot 1848 [=Chaunus rubropunctatus]FG06
B. rumbolli Carrizo 1992 [=Chaunus rumbolli]FG06
B. scorteccii Balletto & Cherchi 1970FG06
B. signiferus Mendelson, Williams et al. 2005 [=Cranopsis signifera]FG06
B. silentvalleyensis Pillai 1981FG06
B. simus Schmidt 1857FG06
B. spiculatus Mendelson 1997 [=Cranopsis spiculata]FG06
B. spinosus Daudin 1803FG06 [=B. bufo spinosusM55]
B. spongifrons Tihen 1962RR00
‘Bombinator’ strumosus Merrem 1820 [=*Chascax strumosus]FG06
B. sumatranus Peters 1871FG06
B. superciliaris Boulenger 1888 [=Amietophrynus superciliaris]FG06
B. surdus Boulenger 1891 [=Pseudepidalea surda]FG06
B. suspectus Tihen 1962 [incl. B. valentinensis Estes & Tihen 1964]RR00
B. taiensis Rödel & Ernst 2000 [=Amietophrynus taiensis; incl. B. amieti Tandy & Perret 2000]FG06
B. taxkorensis Fei 1999 [=Pseudepidalea taxkorensis]FG06
B. tihamicus Balletto & Cherchi 1973FG06
B. tiheni Auffenberg 1957RR00
B. togoensis Ahl 1924 [=Amietophrynus togoensis]FG06
B. trifoliumCER68
B. turkanae Tandy & Feener 1985 [=Amietophrynus turkanae]FG06
B. tutelarius Mendelson 1997 [=Cranopsis tutelaria]FG06
B. typhoniusFG06
B. urunguensis Loveridge 1932 [=Amietophrynus urunguensis]FG06
B. valhallae Meade-Waldo 1909FG06
B. velatusPHC04
B. villiersi Angel 1940 [=Amietophrynus villiersi]FG06
B. vittatus Boulenger 1906 [=Amietophrynus vittatus]FG06
B. wolongensis Herrmann & Kühnel 1997FG06

Bufo gargarizans Cantor 1842PW11, FG06 [=B. bufo gargarizansL50; incl. B. vulgaris var. asiatica Steindachner 1869L50, B. bufo asiaticusL50]

Bufo raddei Strauch 1876PW11, FG06 [=B. raddii (l. c.)L50, Pseudepidalea raddeiFG06; incl. B. brevipes Zarevsky 1925L50, B. nouettei Mocquard 1910L50, B. raddei var. pleskei Bedriaga 1898L50, B. raddei var. przewalskii Bedriaga 1898L50]

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[Ba00] Báez, A. M. 2000. Tertiary anurans from South America. In: Heatwole, H., & R. L. Carroll (eds) Amphibian Biology vol. 4. Palaeontology. The evolutionary history of amphibians pp. 1388–1401. Surrey Beatty & Sons.

[Br00] Brongniart, A. 1800. Essai d’une classification naturelle des reptiles. IIe partie. Formation et disposition des genres. Bulletin des Sciences, par la Societé Philomathique de Paris 2 (36): 89–91.

[CER68] Cei, J. M., V. Erspamer & M. Roseghini. 1968. Taxonomic and evolutionary significance of biogenic amines and polypeptides in amphibian skin. II. Toads of the genera Bufo and Melanophryniscus. Systematic Zoology 17 (3): 232–245.

[DF88] Delvinquier, B. L. J., & W. J. Freeland. 1988. Observations on Zelleriella antilliensis (Protozoa: Opalinata) from the cane toad Bufo marinus in Australia. Australian Journal of Zoology 36: 317–333.

[FG06] Frost, D. R., T. Grant, J. Faivovich, R. H. Bain, A. Haas, C. F. B. Haddad, R. O. de Sá, A. Channing, M. Wilkinson, S. C. Donnellan, C. J. Raxworthy, J. A. Campbell, B. L. Blotto, P. Moler, R. C. Drewes, R. A. Nussbaum, J. D. Lynch, D. M. Green & W. C. Wheeler. 2006. The amphibian tree of life. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 297: 1–370.

[H00] Holman, J. A. 2000. Pleistocene Amphibia: evolutionary stasis, range adjustments, and recolonization patterns. In: Heatwole, H., & R. L. Carroll (eds) Amphibian Biology vol. 4. Palaeontology. The evolutionary history of amphibians pp. 1445–1458. Surrey Beatty & Sons.

[J23] James, E. 1823. Account of an Expedition from Pittsburgh to the Rocky Mountains, performed in the years 1819 and ’20, by order of the Hon. J. C. Calhoun, sec’y of war: under the command of Major Stephen H. Long. From the notes of Major Long, Mr. T. Say, and other gentlemen of the exploring party vol. 1. H. C. Carey & I. Lea: Philadelphia.

[K08] Korsós, Z. 2008. History of the Herpetological Collection of the Hungarian Natural History Museum. Annales Historico-Naturales Musei Nationalis Hungarici 100: 37–93.

[L50] Liu, C.-C. 1950. Amphibians of western China. Fieldiana: Zoology Memoirs 2: 1–400.

[M55] Mertens, R. 1955. Die Amphibien und Reptilien der Insel Elba. Senckenbergiana Biologica 36: 287–296.

[PHC04] Pauly, G. B., D. M. Hillis & D. C. Cannatella. 2004. The history of a Nearctic colonization: molecular phylogenetics and biogeography of the Nearctic toads (Bufo). Evolution 58 (11): 2517–2535.

[PB27] Pilsbry, H. A., & J. Bequaert. 1927. The aquatic mollusks of the Belgian Congo, with a geographical and ecological account of Congo malacology. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 53 (2): 69–602, pls 10–77.

[PW11] Pyron, R. A., & J. J. Wiens. 2011. A large-scale phylogeny of Amphibia including over 2800 species, and a revised classification of extant frogs, salamanders, and caecilians. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 61: 543–583.

[RR00] Roček, Z., & J.-C. Rage 2000. Tertiary Anura of Europe, Africa, Asia, North America, and Australia. In: Heatwole, H., & R. L. Carroll (eds) Amphibian Biology vol. 4. Palaeontology. The evolutionary history of amphibians pp. 1332–1387. Surrey Beatty & Sons.

[W06] Werner, F. 1906. Die nördlichsten Reptilien und Batrachier. In: Römer, F., & F. Schaudinn (eds) Fauna Arctica. Eine Zusammenstellun der arktischen Tierformen, mit besonder Berücksichtigung des Spitzbergen-Gebietes auf Grund der Ergebnisse der Deutschen Expedition in das Nördliche Eismeer im Jahre 1898 vol. 4 pp. 527–544. Gustav Fischer: Jena.

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