Thoroughwax Bupleurum rotundifolium, copyright Nancy J. Ondra.

Belongs within: Apioideae.

Bupleurum is a genus of mostly perennial herbs found primarily in the northern temperate zone.

Characters (from Flora of China): Herbs perennial, rarely annual, glabrous. Rootstock usually short, woody. Stem alternate or dichotomously branched, green or glaucous, base with or without fibrous remnant sheaths. Leaves entire, petioles sheathing; blade membranous, herbaceous or coriaceous, usually with parallel venation, base usually tapering into petiole. Cauline leaves often sessile, clasping, auriculate or perfoliate. Inflorescence loose, umbels compound, terminal and lateral; bracts several, conspicuous, often similar to uppermost leaves; rays few to many; bracteoles several, conspicuous. Calyx teeth obsolete. Petals yellow, greenish-yellow, tinged purple or purple, oblong to orbicular, apex narrowly inflexed. Stylopodium conic, low-conic or discoid; styles short, often reflexed. Fruit oblong to ovoid-oblong or ellipsoid, slightly laterally compressed, mericarps subpentagonal (rarely rounded) in cross section; ribs 5, filiform, prominent or obscure; vittae 1–3(–6) in each furrow, 2–6(–8) on commissure, sometimes obscure. Seed face plane. Carpophore 2-cleft to base.

<==Bupleurum Linnaeus 1753PC85 (see below for synonymy)
    |--B. rotundifoliumDK-DW00
    `--+--B. chinenseDK-DW00
       `--B. ranunculoidesDK-DW00
Bupleurum incertae sedis:
  B. candoliiO88
  B. falcatum ssp. falcatumO88
    |--B. f. ssp. f. var. falcatumO88
    `--B. f. ssp. f. var. gracillimumO88
  B. gracilePT98
  B. graminifoliumC55
  B. lancifoliumH93
  B. longicauleO88
  B. praealtumH91
  B. rigidumR-RR-GM-S98
  B. salicifoliumP02
  B. trichopodum Boissier & Spruner 1884PL04

Bupleurum Linnaeus 1753PC85 [incl. OdontitesDK-DW00, TenoriaDK-DW00; Bupleuraceae, Bupleureae, Bupleurinae, Bupleurineae, Bupleuroideae]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[C55] Candolle, A. de. 1855. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 1. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[DK-DW00] Downie, S. R., D. S. Katz-Downie & M. F. Watson. 2000. A phylogeny of the flowering plant family Apiaceae based on chloroplast DNA rpl16 and rpoC1 intron sequences: towards a suprageneric classification of subfamily Apioideae. American Journal of Botany 87 (2): 273–292.

[H93] Hickman, J. C. (ed.) 1993. The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California. University of California Press: Berkeley (California).

[H91] Hubálek, Z. 1991. Biogeographic indication of natural foci of tick-borne infections. In: Dusbábek, F., & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 255–260. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[O88] Ohba, H. 1988. The alpine flora of the Nepal Himalayas: an introductory note. In: Ohba, H., & S. B. Malla (eds) The Himalayan Plants vol. 1. The University Museum, University of Tokyo, Bulletin 31: 19-46.

[PT98] Panitsa, M., & D. Tzanoudakis. 1998. Contribution to the study of the Greek flora: flora and vegetation of the E Aegean islands Agathonisi and Pharmakonisi. Willdenowia 28: 95–116.

[P02] Perry, R. N. 2002. Hatching. In: Lee, D. L. (ed.) The Biology of Nematodes pp. 147–169. Taylor & Francis: Florence (Kentucky).

[PC85] Pimenov, M. G., & L. Constance. 1985. Nomenclature of suprageneric taxa in Umbelliferae/Apiaceae. Taxon 34 (3): 493–528.

[PL04] Pohl, G., & I. Lenski. 2004. Zur Verbreitung und Vergesellschaftung von Pennisetum orientale Rich. in Nordeuböa (Griechenland) (Poaceae, Paniceae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 83 (2): 209–223.

[R-RR-GM-S98] Ramil-Rego, P., M. Rodríguez-Guitián & C. Muñoz-Sobrino. 1998. Sclerophyllous vegetation dynamics in the north of the Iberian peninsula during the last 16,000 years. Global Ecology and Biogeography Letters 7: 335–351.

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