Bursa cubaniana, copyright Jacksonville Shell Club.

Belongs within: Tonnoidea.

The Bursidae, frog shells, are a group of marine gastropods that are most commonly found in shallow water among coral or rocks. The shell is usually heavy and strongly ornamented, commonly with a warty appearance that gives rise to the vernacular name. They may be distinguished from related, similar shells among the tritons and trumpets by the presence of a strong notch at the posterior end of the aperture (Wilson & Gillett 1971).

Characters (from Wilson & Gillett 1971): Shell usuall heavy, strongly nodulose or spiny, covered with calcareous growths; varices strong; anterior canal short; posterior canal represented by deep notch at posterior end of aperture; operculum horny.

    |--Hanaibursa aequilana (Parona 1909)TTE93
    |--Tutufa Jousseaume 1881 [Tutufinae]BR05
    |    |--T. (Tutufa)W93
    |    |    |--*T. (T.) bubo (Linnaeus 1758)BR17 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |    |--T. (T.) bufo (Röding 1798) [incl. T. rubeta lissostoma Smith 1914]W93
    |    |    |--T. (T.) oyamai Habe 1973W93
    |    |    `--T. (T.) tenuigranosa (Smith 1914)W93
    |    `--T. (Tutufella Beu 1981)BC01 [=Lampas Schumacher 1817 nec Humphrey 1797 nec de Montfort 1808W93]
    |         |--T. (T.) rubeta (Linnaeus 1758)W93 [=Murex rana rubetaW93, Bursa rubetaWG71; incl. *Lampas hiansW93]
    |         `--T. (T.) nigrita Mühlhäusser & Blöcher 1979BC01
    |--Bufonaria Schumacher 1817 [incl. Bursina Oyama 1964, Chasmotheca Dall 1904]W93
    |    |--B. echinata [incl. *B. spinosa Schumacher 1817]W93
    |    |--B. bufo (Bruguière 1792)H14
    |    |--B. californica (Hinds 1843) [=Bursa (Bufonaria) californica]O27
    |    |--B. cristinae Parth 1989BC01
    |    |--B. crumena (Lamarck 1816)MG-H11
    |    |    |--B. c. crumenaW93
    |    |    `--B. c. cavitensis (Beck in Reeve 1844)W93
    |    |--B. foliata (Broderip 1825) [=*Chasmotheca foliata]W93
    |    |--B. fernandesi Beu 1977ES88
    |    |--B. margaritula (Deshayes 1832) [incl. Gyrineum pacator Iredale 1931]W93
    |    |--*Bursina’ nobilisW93
    |    |--B. rana (Linnaeus 1758)MG-H11
    |    |--B. subgranosa (Sowerby 1836)W93
    |    `--B. thersites (Redfield 1846)W93
    `--Bursa Röding 1798 (see below for synonymy)W93
         |  i. s.: B. bitubercularis (Lamarck 1822) [=Ranella bitubercularis]H09
         |         B. caelata (Broderip 1833)EO65
         |         B. corrugata (Reeve 1844)S11
         |         B. cruentata (Sowerby 1835)W93
         |         B. fuscocostata Dkr. 1862C64
         |         B. humilis Beu 1981MG-H11
         |         B. lamarckii (Deshayes 1853)BW09
         |         B. lampas (Linnaeus 1758) [=Murex lampas]H09
         |         B. latitudo Garrard 1961WG71
         |           |--B. l. latitudo [incl. B. latitudo wolfei Beu 1980]W93
         |           `--B. l. natalense Coelho & Mathews 1970W93
         |         B. lividaSP72
         |         B. rana (Linnaeus 1758)WG71 [=Murex ranaH09; incl. B. cavitensis Reeve 1843WG71]
         |         B. ranelloides (Reeve 1844) [=*Tritonoranella ranelloides]W93
         |         B. rhodostoma (Sowerby 1835)WBS-S15 [=*Lampadopsis rhodostomaW93]
         |         B. rosa Perry 1811 [incl. B. siphonata Reeve 1844]WG71
         |         B. saundersi Adegoke 1977TTE93
         |         *Bufonariella’ scrobiculatorW93
         |         B. tenuisculpta (Dautzenberg & Fisher 1906)S11 [=B. ranelloides tenuisculptaW93]
         |         B. thomae (Orbigny 1842)S11 [=Ranella thomaeMP65, B. rhodostoma thomaeW93]
         |         B. tuberosissima (Reeve 1844)WBS-S15
         |         B. venustula (Reeve 1844) [=Ranella venustula]H09
         |         B. verrucosa (Sowerby 1825) [=*Annaperenna verrucosa]W93
         |--B. (Bursa)BC01
         |    |--*B. (B.) bufonia (Gmelin 1791)BR17 (see below for synonymy)
         |    |--B. (B.) davidboschi Beu 1986BC01
         |    |--B. (B.) granifera [=Ranella granifera]O27
         |    |--B. (B.) lucaensis Parth 1991BC01
         |    `--B. (B.) grayana (Dunker 1868) [incl. B. pacamoni Matthews & Coelho 1971]BC01
         |--B. (Colubrellina Fischer 1884)BC01, WG71
         |    |--B. condita (Gmelin 1791) [incl. *Colubrellina candista]W93
         |    `--B. (C.) quirihorai Beu 1986BC01
         `--B. (Dulcerana Iredale 1931)WG71
              |--*Dulcerana’ graniferaW93
              |--B. (D.) cubaniana (Orbigny 1842)BC01, S11 (see below for synonymy)
              `--B. (D.) granularis (Röding 1798)BW09, WG71 (see below for synonymy)

Bursa Röding 1798 [=Pseudobursa Rovereto 1899; incl. Annaperenna Iredale 1936, Bufonariella Thiele 1929, Lampadopsis Jousseaume 1881, Tritonoranella Oyama 1964; Bursinae]W93

*Bursa (Bursa) bufonia (Gmelin 1791)BR17 [=Murex bufoniusBR17, *Pseudobursa bufonisW93; incl. Bursa dunkeri Kira 1961W93, B. mammata Röding 1798W93, B. monitata Röding 1798BR17]

Bursa (Dulcerana) cubaniana (Orbigny 1842)BC01, S11 [=B. granularis cubanianaBC01; incl. B. cubaniana var. intermedia Usticke 1959BC01, B. corrugata var. lineata Usticke 1959BC01]

Bursa (Dulcerana) granularis (Röding 1798)BW09, WG71 [=Colubrellina (D.) granularisWG71; incl. C. affinis Broderip 1832WG71, Bursa affinisW93, C. semigranosa Lamarck 1822WG71]

*Tutufa (Tutufa) bubo (Linnaeus 1758)BR17 [=Murex buboBR17, Bursa buboWG71; incl. B. rubeta gigantea Smith 1914WG71, T. lampas Linnaeus 1758WG71]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BR05] Bouchet, P., & J.-P. Rocroi. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1–2): 1–397.

[BR17] Bouchet, P., J.-P. Rocroi, B. Hausdorf, A. Kaim, Y. Kano, A. Nützel, P. Parkhaev, M. Schrödl & E. E. Strong. 2017. Revised classification, nomenclator and typification of gastropod and monoplacophoran families. Malacologia 61 (1–2): 1–526.

[BC01] Boyko, C. B., & J. R. Cordeiro. 2001. Catalog of Recent type specimens in the Division of Invertebrate Zoology, American Museum of Natural History. V. Mollusca, part 2 (class Gastropoda [exclusive of Opisthobranchia and Pulmonata], with supplements to Gastropoda [Opisthobranchia], and Bivalvia). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 262: 1–170.

[BW09] Bryce, C., & C. Whisson. 2009. The macromolluscs of Mermaid (Rowley Shoals), Scott and Seringapatam Reefs, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 77: 177–208.

[C64] Carpenter, P. P. 1864. Supplementary report on the present state of our knowledge with regard to the Mollusca of the west coast of North America. Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 33: 517–686.

[EO65] Emerson, W. K., & W. E. Old Jr. 1965. New molluscan records for the Galapagos Islands. Nautilus 78 (4): 116–120.

[ES88] Emerson, W. K., & W. E. Sage III. 1988. A new species of Vasum (Gastropoda: Turbinellidae) from off Somalia. Nautilus 102 (1): 36–39.

[H09] Hedley, C. 1909. The Marine Fauna of Queensland: Address by the President of Section D. Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science: Brisbane.

[H14] Hosie, A. M. 2014. Review of the stalked barnacle genus Koleolepas (Cirripedia: Thoracica: Koleolepadidae), with new records from Australian waters. Records of the Western Australian Museum 29 (1): 1–9.

[MG-H11] McEnnulty, F. R., K. L. Gowlett-Holmes, A. Williams, F. Althaus, J. Fromont, G. C. B. Poore, T. D. O’Hara, L. Marsh, P. Kott, S. Slack-Smith, P. Alderslade & M. V. Kitahara. 2011. The deepwater megabenthic invertebrates on the western continental margin of Australia (100–1100 m depths): composition, distribution and novelty. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 80: 1–191.

[MP65] Merrill, A. S., & R. E. Petit. 1965. Mollusks new to South Carolina. Nautilus 79 (2): 58–66.

[O27] Oldroyd, I. S. 1927. The Marine Shells of the West Coast of North America vol. 2 pt 2. Stanford University Press: Stanford University (California).

[S11] Simone, L. R. L. 2011. Phylogeny of the Caenogastropoda (Mollusca), based on comparative morphology. Arquivos de Zoologia 42 (4): 161–323.

[SP72] Smythe, K. R., & W. W. A. Phillips. 1972. Some observations on the fauna of the Maldive Islands (Indian Ocean) part VIII. Marine shells. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 69 (2): 290–296.

[TTE93] Tracey, S., J. A. Todd & D. H. Erwin. 1993. Mollusca: Gastropoda. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 131–167. Chapman & Hall: London.

[WBS-S15] Willan, R. C., C. Bryce & S. M. Slack-Smith. 2015. Kimberley marine biota. Historical data: molluscs. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 84: 287–343.

[W93] Wilson, B. 1993. Australian Marine Shells vol. 1. Prosobranch Gastropods. Part One. Odyssey Publishing: Kallaroo (Western Australia).

[WG71] Wilson, B. R., & K. Gillett. 1971. Australian Shells: illustrating and describing 600 species of marine gastropods found in Australian waters. A. H. & A. W. Reed: Sydney.

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