Buthoidea

Durango bark scorpion Centruroides suffusus, copyright Tomascastelazo.

Belongs within: Orthosterni.
Contains: Microtityus, Buthinae, Tityus.

The Buthoidea are a group of scorpions that lack ventral trichobothria on the patella of the chela (Soleglad & Fet 2001). Members are currently divided between the cosmopolitan Buthidae and the Madagascan Microcharmidae though it has been suggested that the latter represents a subgroup of the former.

<==Buthoidea
|–Microcharmidae SF01
`–Buthidae [Androctonini, Androctonoidae, Buthoidae, Centruridae, Centrurini] B-TN08
|  i. s.: Charmus laneus K92
|         Uroplectes J98
|           |–U. emiliae (Werner 1916) [=Lychas emiliae] J98
|           `–U. occidentalis L49
|         Microtityus B-TN08
|         Lissothus SF01
|         Karasbergia S-BF04
|         Microbuthus S-BF04
|         Orthochirus SF01
|         Zabius SF01
|         Pakistanorthochirus SF01
|         Baloorthochirus SF01
|         Orthochiroides SF01
|         Apistobuthus SF01
|         Razianus SF01
|         Palaeolychas balticus Lourenço & Weitschat 1996 S-BF04
|         Palaeotityobuthus longiaculeus Lourenço & Weitschat 2000 S-BF04
|         Palaeoprotobuthus pusillus Lourenço & Weitschat 2000 S-BF04
|         Palaeoakentrobuthus knodeli Lourenço & Weitschat 2000 S-BF04
|         Palaeoananteris ribnitiodamgartensis Lourenço & Weitschart 2001 S-BF04
|         Grosphus hirtus Kraepelin 1901 AS-N08
|         Stenochirus Karsch 1892 K92
|           `–*S. sarasinorum Karsch 1892 K92
|         Rhopalurus Thorell 1876 B-TN08
|           `–R. rochai (Borelli 1910) SS08
|         Centrurus B06 [Centrurinae K77]
|           |–C. degeeri T89
|           |–C. nitidus T89
|           |–C. tenuis T89
|           `–C. vittatus B06
|         Ananteris Thorell 1891 B-TN08 [Ananterinae K77]
|           |–*A. balzanii Thorell 1891 B-T08
|           |–A. arcadioi Botero-Trujillo 2008 B-T08
|           |–A. ashmolei Lourenço 1981 B-T08
|           |–A. charlescorfieldi Lourenço 2001 AO02
|           |–A. columbiana Lourenço 1991 B-TN08
|           |–A. cussinii Borelli 1910 B-T08
|           |–A. dorae Botero-Trujillo 2008 B-T08
|           |–A. ehrlichi Lourenço 1994 B-T08
|           |–A. gorgonae Lourenço & Flórez 1989 B-T08
|           |–A. leilae Lourenço 1999 B-T08
|           |–A. myriamae Botero-Trujillo 2007 B-T08
|           |–A. pydanieli Lourenço 1982 L-M-HG08
|           `–A. tolimana Teruel & García 2007 B-T08
|–+–Hottentotta trilineatus SF15
|  `–+–Androctonus Ehrenberg 1828 SF15, SO18
|     |    |–A. australis (Linnaeus 1758) GE02
|     |    `–A. bicolor SF01
|     `–Mesobuthus Vachon 1950 SF15, GK04
|          |  i. s.: M. martensii SF15
|          |–M. caucasicus (Nordmann 1840) GK04
|          |–M. eupeus (Koch 1839) GK04
|          `–+–M. cyprius Gantenbein & Kropf 2000 GK04
|             `–M. gibbosus (Brullé 1832) GK04
`–+–Buthinae SF15
`–+–Parabuthus SF15
|    |–P. brevimanus [=Buthus brevimanus] P01
|    |–P. cristatus Pocock 1901 P01
|    |–P. granulatus (Ehrenberg 1831) [incl. P. granulatus bergeri Werner 1916] J98
|    |    |–P. g. granulatus P01
|    |    `–P. g. fuscus Pocock 1901 P01
|    |–P. laevifrons (Simon 1888) [incl. P. ibelli Werner 1916] J98
|    `–P. transvaalicus SF15
`–+–Tityus SF15
`–Centruroides Marx 1890 SF15, B-TN08
|–C. exilicauda (Wood 1863) SS08
|–C. gracilis (Latreille 1804) SS08
|–C. hentzi CS90
|–C. hoffmanni Armas 1996 S-LFP13
|–C. limpidus WS10
|–C. margaritatus (Gervais 1841) AO02
|–C. nigrimanus (Pocock 1898) C-MF13
|–C. nigrovariatus (Pocock 1898) S-LFP13
|–C. nitidus [incl. C. beynai] SF01
|–C. sculpturatus M-RL88
|–C. suffusus Pocock 1902 C-MF13
`–C. vittatus (Say 1821) S00

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[AO02] Acosta, L. E., & J. A. Ochoa. 2002. Lista de los escorpiones bolivianos (Chelicerata: Scorpiones), con notas sobre su distribución. Revista de la Sociedad Entomológica Argentina 61 (3–4): 15–23.

[AS-N08] Aguiar, A. P. N., P. L. Santana-Neto, J. R. B. Souza & C. M. R. de Albuquerque. 2008. Relationship between litter characteristics and female size in Tityus stigmurus (Scorpiones, Buthidae). Journal of Arachnology 36 (2): 464–467.

[B06] Banks, N. 1906. Arachnida from the Bahamas. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 22: 185–189.

[B-T08] Botero-Trujillo, R. 2008. The scorpion genus Ananteris in Colombia: comments on the taxonomy and description of two new species (Scorpiones, Buthidae). Journal of Arachnology 36 (2): 287–299.

[B-TN08] Botero-Trujillo, R., & J. A. Noriega. 2008. First record of the scorpion genus Microtityus from Colombia, with the description of a new species (Scorpiones, Buthidae). Journal of Arachnology 36 (2): 259–266.

[CS90] Corey, D. T., & I. J. Stout. 1990. Ground surface arachnids in sandhill communities of Florida. Journal of Arachnology 18: 167–172.

[C-MF13] Cupul-Magaña, F. G., & O. F. Francke. 2013. Tres especies de alacranes (Scorpiones: Buthidae y Vaejovidae) embotellados en mezcal mexicano. Revista Ibérica de Aracnología 22: 123–124.

[GK04] Gantenbein, B., & P. D. Keightley. 2004. Rates of molecular evolution in nuclear genes of east Mediterranean scorpions. Evolution 58 (11): 2486–2497.

[GE02] Giribet, G., G. D. Edgecombe, W. C. Wheeler & C. Babbitt. 2002. Phylogeny and systematic position of Opiliones: a combined analysis of chelicerate relationships using morphological and molecular data. Cladistics 18: 5–70.

[J98] Jäger, P. 1998. Das Typenmaterial der Spinnentiere (Arachnida: Acari, Amblypygi, Araneae, Opiliones, Pseudoscorpiones, Scorpiones, Uropygi) aus dem Museum Wiesbaden. Jahrbuecher des Nassauischen Vereins fuer Naturkunde 119: 81–91.

[K92] Karsch, F. 1892. Arachniden von Ceylon und von Minikoy gesammelt von den Herren Doctoren P. und F. Sarasin. Berliner Entomologische Zeitschrift 36 (2): 267–310.

[K77] Koch, L. E. 1977. The taxonomy, geographic distribution and evolutionary radiation of Australo-Papuan scorpions. Records of the Western Australian Museum 5 (2): 83–367.

[L49] Lawrence, R. F. 1949. A collection of Opiliones and scorpions from north-east Angola made by Dr. A. de Barros Machados in 1948. Diamang Publicações Culturais 1949: 1–20.

[L-M-HG08] Lo-Man-Hung, N. F., T. A. Gardner, M. A. Ribeiro-Júnior, J. Barlow & A. B. Bonaldo. 2008. The value of primary, secondary, and plantation forests for Neotropical epigeic arachnids. Journal of Arachnology 36 (2): 394–401.

[M-RL88] Meyer-Rochow, V. B., & A. R. Liddle. 1988. Structure and function of the eyes of two species of opilionid from New Zealand glow-worm caves (Megalopsalis tumida: Palpatores, and Hendea myersi cavernicola: Laniatores). Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B—Biological Sciences 233: 293–319.

[P01] Pocock, R. I. 1901. Descriptions of some new African Arachnida. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 7: 284–288.

[S-BF04] Santiago-Blay, J. A., V. Fet, M. E. Soleglad & P. R. Craig. 2004. The second Cretaceous scorpion specimen from Burmese amber (Arachnida: Scorpiones). Journal of Systematic Palaeontology 2 (2): 147–152.

[S-LFP13] Santibáñez-López, C. E., O. F. Francke & L. Prendini. 2013. Systematics of the keyserlingii group of Diplocentrus Peters, 1861 (Scorpiones: Diplocentridae), with descriptions of three new species from Oaxaca, Mexico. American Museum Novitates 3777: 1–47.

[SS08] Sarmento, S. M. N., A. M. de Souza, M. V. Meiado & C. M. R. de Albuquerque. 2008. Notes on the life history traits of Rhopalurus rochai (Scorpiones, Buthidae) under different feeding regimes. Journal of Arachnology 36 (2): 476–479.

[SF15] Sharma, P. P., R. Fernández, L. A. Esposito, E. González-Santillán & L. Monod. 2015. Phylogenomic resolution of scorpions reveals multilevel discordance with morphological phylogenetic signal. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B—Biological Sciences 282: 20142953.

[S00] Shultz, J. W. 2000. Skeletomuscular anatomy of the harvestman Leiobunum aldrichi (Weed, 1893) (Arachnida: Opiliones: Palpatores) and its evolutionary significance. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 128: 401–438.

[SF01] Soleglad, M. E., & V. Fet. 2001. Evolution of scorpion orthobothriotaxy: a cladistic approach. Euscorpius 1: 1–38.

[SO18] Šťáhlavský, F., V. Opatova, P. Just, L. N. Lotz & C. R. Haddad. 2018. Molecular technique reveals high variability of 18S rDNA distribution in harvestmen (Opiliones, Phalangiidae) from South Africa. Comparative Cytogenetics 12 (1): 41–59.

[T89] Thorell, T. 1889. Viaggio di Leonardo Fea in Birmania e regioni vicine. XXI.—Aracnidi Artrogastri Birmani raccolti da L. Fea nel 1885–1887. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a, 7: 521–729.

[WS10] Wang, M., S. Sun, C. Li & X. Shen. 2010. Distinctive mitochondrial genome of the calanoid copepod Calanus sinicus, a useful molecular marker for phylogenetic and population studies. In: China-Russia Bilateral Symposium: Proceedings of the China-Russia Bilateral Symposium of “Comparison on Marine Biodiversity in the Northwest Pacific Ocean”, 10–11 October 2010, Qingdao (China) pp. 187–192. Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences; A. V. Zhirmunsky Institute of Marine Biology, Far East Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

Last updated: 16 June 2020.

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