Caeciliidae

Mexican caecilian Dermophis mexicanus, copyright Wouter Beukema.

Belongs within: Gymnophiona.

The Caeciliidae are a pantropical group of caecilians in which a true tail is absent (Frost et al. 2006).

Characters (from Frost et al. 2006): Tail absent; premaxillae and nasal bones fused; septomaxillae usually reduced or absent; pterygoid absent; basiptergygoid process usually large; fused third and fourth ceratobranchials greatly expanded; vent usually circular or transverse, not longitudinally oriented.

Caeciliidae [Caeciliadae, Caeciliaidae, Caecilinia]FG06
|--Scolecomorphinae [Scolecomorphidae]PW11
| |--Crotaphatrema Nussbaum 1985FG06
| | |--C. bornmuelleriJWC07
| | |--C. lamotteiT93
| | `--C. tchabalmbaboensisFG06
| `--Scolecomorphus Boulenger 1883FG06
| |--S. kirkiiJWC07
| |--S. uluguruensisJWC07
| `--S. vittatusFG06
`--+--HerpelinaePW11
| |--Herpele Peters 1880FG06
| | `--H. squalostomaFG06
| `--Boulengerula Tornier 1896PW11, FG06
| |--B. boulengeriPW11
| `--+--B. taitanaPW11
| `--B. uluguruensisPW11
`--Caeciliinae [Dermophiinae, Typhlonectidae, Typhlonectinae]PW11
| i. s.: Nectocaecilia Taylor 1968FG06
| Potomotyphlus Taylor 1968 [Potamotyphloidea]FG06
| `--P. kaupiiJWC07
| Atretochoana Nussbaum & Wilkinson 1995FG06
| `--A. eiseltiFG06
|--+--Chthonerpeton Peters 1880PW11, FG06
| | `--C. indistinctumPW11
| `--+--Typhlonectes Peters 1880PW11, FG06
| | |--T. compressicaudaJWC07
| | `--T. natansFG06
| `--Caecilia Linnaeus 1758FG06
| | i. s.: C. albiventrisT93
| | C. glutinosa Linnaeus 1758L58
| |--C. tentaculata Linnaeus 1758PW11, L58
| `--+--C. volcaniPW11
| `--Oscaecilia Taylor 1968PW11, FG06 [Oscaecilioidae]
| |--O. bassleriJWC07
| `--O. ochrocephalaJWC07
`--+--+--Gegeneophis Peters 1880PW11, FG06
| | |--G. carnosusT93
| | |--G. ramaswamiiFG06
| | `--G. seshachariPW11
| `--+--Hypogeophis Peters 1880PW11, FG06
| | `--H. rostratusFG06
| `--+--Praslinia Boulenger 1909PW11, FG06
| | `--P. cooperiHNM93
| `--Grandisonia Taylor 1968PW11, FG06 [Grandisoniinae]
| |--G. alternansPW11
| `--+--G. brevisPW11
| `--+--G. larvataPW11
| `--G. sechellensisPW11
`--+--+--Leutkenotyphlus Taylor 1968PW11, FG06
| | `--L. brasiliensisPW11
| `--Siphonops Wagler 1828 [Siphonopina]FG06
| |--S. hardyiPW11
| `--+--S. annulatusPW11
| `--S. paulensisPW11
`--+--Geotrypetes Peters 1880PW11, FG06 [Geotrypetoidae]
| `--G. seraphiniFG06
`--+--Schistometopum Parker 1941PW11, FG06
| |--S. gregoriiJWC07
| `--S. thomensePW11
`--+--Gymnopis Peters 1874PW11, FG06 [Gymnopiilae]
| `--G. multiplicataJWC07
| |--G. m. multiplicataJWC07
| `--G. m. proximaJWC07
`--Dermophis Peters 1880PW11, FG06
| i. s.: D. glandulosusJWC07
| D. occidentalisJWC07
|--D. parvicepsPW11
`--+--D. mexicanusPW11
`--D. oaxacaePW11

Caeciliidae incertae sedis:
Afrocaecilia Taylor 1968 [Afrocaeciliiti]FG06
`--A. taitanaJWC07
Brasilotyphlus Taylor 1968 [Brasilotyphlili]FG06
Microcaecilia Taylor 1968FG06
Mimosiphonops Taylor 1968FG06
Parvicaecilia Taylor 1968FG06
Pseudosiphonops Taylor 1968 [Pseudosiphonopiti]FG06
Idiocranium Parker 1936FG06
Indotyphlus Taylor 1960 [Indotyphlinae]FG06
Sylvacaecilia Wake 1987FG06
Pseudotyphlonectes Lescure, Renous & Gasc 1986 [Pseudotyphlonectini]FG06
Apodops pricei Estes & Wake 1972M93

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[FG06] Frost, D. R., T. Grant, J. Faivovich, R. H. Bain, A. Haas, C. F. B. Haddad, R. O. de Sá, A. Channing, M. Wilkinson, S. C. Donnellan, C. J. Raxworthy, J. A. Campbell, B. L. Blotto, P. Moler, R. C. Drewes, R. A. Nussbaum, J. D. Lynch, D. M. Green & W. C. Wheeler. 2006. The amphibian tree of life. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 297: 1–370.

[HNM93] Hedges, S. B., R. A. Nussbaum & L. R. Maxson. 1993. Caecilian phylogeny and biogeography inferred from mitochondrial DNA sequences of the 12S rRNA and 16S rRNA genes (Amphibia, Gymnophiona). Herpetological Monographs 7: 64–76.

[JWC07] Jenkins, F. A., Jr, D. M. Walsh & R. L. Carroll. 2007. Anatomy of Eocaecilia micropodia, a limbed caecilian of the Early Jurassic. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology 158 (6): 285–366.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[M93] Milner, A. R. 1993. Amphibian-grade Tetrapoda. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 665–679. Chapman & Hall: London.

[PW11] Pyron, R. A., & J. J. Wiens. 2011. A large-scale phylogeny of Amphibia including over 2800 species, and a revised classification of extant frogs, salamanders, and caecilians. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 61: 543–583.

[T93] Trueb, L. 1993. Patterns of cranial diversity among the Lissamphibia. In: Hanken, J., & B. K. Hall (eds) 1993. The Skull vol. 2. Patterns of Structural and Systematic Diversity pp. 255–343. The University of Chicago Press.

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