Caecilius

 Caecilius fuscopterus, copyright Christophe Quintin.

Belongs within: Caeciliusidae.

Caecilius is a widespread genus of barklice that has historically been poorly defined. Caecilius sensu stricto is probably restricted to the Old World but numerous New World species have also been assigned to the genus in the past (New & Lienhard 2007). The type species C. fuscopterus is widespread in the Palaearctic and bears fore wings crossed by a broad longitudinal brown band leaving two colorless marginal bands in the apical half (Lienhard 1998).

Characters (from New & Lienhard 2007): Antennae with first two flagellar segments little, if any, broader than succeeding segments; distal inner labral sensilla type 1; labral stylets absent; clypeal shelf narrow or inermediate; hind margin of vertex usually not flattened, not extended behind eyes; fore wing vein Cu1 branched, cell r5 scarcely widened distally; male with median lobe of endophallus undivided, no sclerites in membrane above endophallus; female with spermathecal duct with sheath.

<==Caecilius Curtis 1837Y02 [incl. Mepachycera Enderlein 1925L02]
    |--C. fuscopterus (Latreille 1799)L98 (see below for synonymy)
    |--C. caligonus groupM93
    |    |--C. caligonusM93
    |    |--C. difficilisM93
    |    `--C. indicator Mockford 1969M93
    |--C. posticus groupM93
    |    |--C. claripennisM93
    |    `--C. posticus Banks 1914M93
    |--C. fasciatusM93
    |    |--C. albiceps Pearman 1934M93, B55
    |    |--C. distinctus Mockford 1966M93
    |    |--C. nadleri Mockford 1966M93
    |    `--C. totonacus Mockford 1966M93
    |--C. africanus groupL98
    |    |--C. africanus Ribaga 1911 [incl. Mepleres angolensis Badonnel 1955]M93
    |    |--C. antillanus Banks 1938M93
    |    |--C. caboverdensis Meinander 1966 [incl. C. arundinis Lienhard 1981]L98
    |    |--C. insularum Mockford 1966M93
    |    |--C. koriflae Arahou 1984L98
    |    |--C. pilipennis Lienhard 1996L98
    |    `--C. varians Badonnel 1955M93, B55
    |--C. confluens groupL98
    |    |--C. confluens (Walsh 1863) [=Psocus confluens; incl. C. umbrosus Banks 1914]M93
    |    |--C. despaxi Badonnel 1936L98
    |    |--C. fortunatus Enderlein 1929L98
    |    |--C. gonostigma Enderlein 1906M93
    |    |--C. graminis Mockford 1966M93
    |    |--C. gynapterus Tetens 1891L98
    |    |--C. piceus Kolbe 1882 (see below for synonymy)L98
    |    `--C. rhenanus Tetens 1891 (see below for synonymy)L98
    `--C. subflavus groupM93
         |--C. biminiensisM93
         |--C. caribensisM93
         |--C. flavibrunneus Mockford 1969M74
         |--C. incoloratus Mockford 1969M93
         |--C. juniperorum Mockford 1969M93
         |--C. olitoriusM93
         |--C. pallidobrunneusM93
         |--C. pulchellus Mockford 1974M74
         |--C. subflavus Aaron 1886M93
         `--C. veracruzensisM93
Caecilius incertae sedis:
  C. abiectus Costa 1885 (n. d.)L98
  C. acrorbiculatus Li 2002L02
  C. albonigrus Thornton 1984NL07
  C. ambiguusB55
  C. ampullaceus Li 2002L02
  C. andromimus Badonnel 1955B55
  C. angustipennisB55
  C. angustiplumalus Li 1995 [=Valenzuela angustiplumalus]L02
  C. anothylacus Li 2002L02
  C. apiciglobosus Li 2002L02
  C. arcuatus Li 2002L02
  C. aridus (Hagen 1858)L02
  C. australis Smithers 1993L02
  C. badiostigma Thornton 1981L02
  C. baeonaevus Li 2002L02
  C. baishanzuicus Li 1995 [=Valenzuela baishanzuicus]L02
  C. bannaicus Li 2002L02
  C. basidentatus Enderlein 1907E07
  C. biahuashanicus Li 2002L02
  C. bicarinatus Li 2002L02
  C. bicolorinervus Li 1993 [=Valenzuela bicolorinervus]L02
  C. bicolorus Li 1993 [=Valenzuela bicolorus]L02
  C. bicruris Li 2002 [=C. bicuris]L03
  C. bifoliolatus Li 1993 [=Valenzuela bifoliolatus]L02
  C. biviminalis Li 1992L02
  C. borealis Li 2002L02
  C. brunneimaculatus Li 1993 [=Valenzuela brunneimaculatus]L02
  C. brunneistigmus Li 2002L02
  C. brunneonitens Pearman 1932 [incl. C. enigmaticus Badonnel 1946]B55
  C. cabrerai Navás 1920 (n. d.)L98
  C. callianthus Li 2002L02
  C. calvatus Li 2002L02
  C. calycinus Li 2002L02
  C. carneangularis Li 1997L02
  C. ceratostictus Li 2002 [=C. ceratostictous]L03
  C. cerinifullus Li 2002L02
  C. changbaishanensis Li 2002L02
  C. chilozonus Li 1995 [=Valenzuela chilozonus]L02
  C. chrysopterus Li 1997 [=Valenzuela chrysopterus]L02
  C. citrinus Li 1995 [=Valenzuela citrinus]L02
  C. clayae New & Thornton 1975L02
  C. colossostigmus Li 2002L02
  C. columbianus Badonnel 1986B86
  C. confuscus Banks 1937L02
  C. congolensis Badonnel 1946B55
  C. connveaus Li 2002L02
  C. corniculatus Li 1993L02
  C. cornospilus Li 2002L02
  C. cornutus Navás 1915 (n. d.)L98
  C. corsicus Kolbe 1882 (n. d.)L98
  C. craspedodrmus Li 2002L02
  C. cuboideus Li 1995L03, L02 [=C. cuboides (l. c.)L03, Valenzuela cuboidesL02]
  C. cuneatus Li 2002L02
  C. cuspidatus Li 1997 [=Valenzuela cuspidatus]L02
  C. cylindostigmus Li 2002L02
  C. cyrtospilus Li 1999L02
  C. dahli Badonnel 1963 [incl. C. ambulans Lienhard 1981]L98
  C. dayongicus Li 1992 [=Valenzuela dayongicus]L02
  C. delamarei Badonnel 1949B49
  C. delicatulus Li 1992 [=Valenzuela delicatulus]L02
  C. dicornis Li 1997L03, L02 [=C. bicornis (l. c.)L03, Valenzuela bicornisL02]
  C. dinghuiensis New 1991L02
  C. diploideus Li 1999L03, L02 [=C. diploides (l. c.)L03]
  C. divulgatus Li 2002L02
  C. dundoensis Badonnel 1955B55
  C. emeishanensis Li 2002L02
  C. ephippioideus Li 2002L02
  C. equivocatusL02
  C. erythrostigmus Li 1993L03 [=C. erythrostigmaL03, Valenzuela erythrostigmusL02]
  C. erythrozonalis Li 1993 [=Valenzuela erythrozonalis]L02
  C. estriatus Li 1997 [=Valenzuela estriatus]L02
  C. excavatus Li 1993 [=Valenzuela excavatus]L02
  C. exilis Li 2002L02
  C. exquisitus Li 2002L02
  C. extenuatus Li 2002L02
  C. ferreus Li 1993L02
  C. fibris Li 2002L02
  C. flavidorsalis Okamoto 1910L02
  C. flavipennis Costa 1885 (n. d.)L98
  C. florinaevus Li 1993L02
  C. foramilulosus Li 1995 [=Valenzuela foramilulosus]L02
  C. forficatus Li 2002L02
  C. fraternus Banks 1937L02
  C. fuligineneurus Li 1997 [=Valenzuela fuligineneurus]L02
  C. furcimaculatus Li 2002L02
  C. fusicangularis Li 1995 [=Valenzuela fusicangularis]L02
  C. genospilus Li 2002L02
  C. gilvusB55
  C. glossopterusB55
  C. gonostigmus Enderlein 1906L02
  C. gracilentus Li 1997 [=Valenzuela gracilentus]L02
  C. grandivalvus Li 1999L02
  C. guangxiensis Li 2002L02
  C. guilinensis Li 2002L02
  C. guizhouicus Li 2002L02
  C. gutianshanicus Li 1995 [=Valenzuela gutianshanicus]L02
  C. hainanensis New 1991L02
  C. hapalotrichus Li 2002L02
  C. hebetatus Li 1995L02
  C. hengshanicus Li 2002L02
  C. heptimacularus Li 1999L02
  C. hornei Vaughan, Thornton & New 1989NL07
  C. huangi Li 1999L02
  C. huazhongicus Li 2002L02
  C. hubeiensis Li 1997 [=Valenzuela hubeiensis]L02
  C. hyalinonemus Li 2002L02
  C. hyalinulus Li 2002L02
  C. hylophilus Li 2002L02
  C. hyperozonalis Li 2002L02
  C. hypozonalis Li 2002L02
  C. immensifascus Li 2002 [=C. platytaenius Li 1995 non C. platytaenus Li 1992, Valenzuela platytaenius]L03
  C. immensus Li 2002L02
  C. inclinans Li 2002L02
  C. incurviusculus Li 1995 [=Valenzuela incurviusculus]L02
  C. indecorus Li 2002L02
  C. infurcus Li 2002L02
  C. inquinatus Enderlein 1902E07
  C. interruptusB55
  C. isochasialis Li 1995 [=Valenzuela isochasialis]L02
  C. japanus Enderlein 1906L02
  C. jilinensis Li 2002 [=C. jilinsnsis]L03
  C. jinganicus Li 2002L02
  C. jinggangshanicus Li 2002L02
  C. jini Li 2002L02
  C. jinxiuensis Li 2002L02
  C. jiugongshanicus Li 2002L02
  C. kansuensis Enderlein 1936L02
  C. lateralis Badonnel 1955B55
  C. laterimacularis Li 2002 [=C. latermacularis (l. c.)]L03
  C. latissimus Li 2002L02
  C. lazikoensis Li 2002L02
  C. leptopterus Li 2002L02
  C. linearis Li 2002L02
  C. linguipennisB55
  C. liui Li 2002L02
  C. liupanshanicus Li 2002L02
  C. loculatus Li 2002L02
  C. longiansatus Li 2002 [=C. longisansalus]L03
  C. longiantennus Li 2002L02
  C. longiglobis Li 2002L02
  C. longlingensis Li 2002L02
  C. loratus Li 1992L02
  C. loteolus Li 2002L02
  C. luachimensis Badonnel 1955B55
  C. lundensis Badonnel 1955B55
  C. luojiashanicus Li 2002L02
  C. machadoi Badonnel 1955B55
  C. macromelaus Li 1993L02
  C. magnivalvus Li 2002L02
  C. malleatus Li 2002L02
  C. manubriatus Li 2002L02
  C. marcidus Banks 1937NL07
  C. marginalis Badonnel 1955B55
  C. marginilacutus Li 1999L02
  C. martensi New 1983L02
  C. mecodactylus Li 2002L02
  C. mecostigmus Li 2002L02
  C. medimacularis Li 1997 [=Valenzuela medimacularis]L02
  C. medivittatus Li 1992L03 [incl. C. brunneolus Li 1995L02, C. platytaenus Li 1992L03, C. platytaenius (l. c.)L03]
  C. medogensis Li 2002L02
  C. megalocystis Li 1995 [=Valenzuela megalocystis]L02
  C. megalodichotomus Li 1997 [=Valenzuela megalodichotomus]L02
  C. meridionalis Li 2002L02
  C. metasequoiae Li 1997 [=Valenzuela metasequoiae]L02
  C. microcystus Li 1995 [=Valenzuela microcystus]L02
  C. mixtus Li 2002L02
  C. mokotensisB55
  C. muggenbergi Enderlein 1903L02
  C. multimaculatus Li 1991 [=Valenzuela multimaculatus]L02
  C. myriospilus Li 2002L02
  C. nanningensis Li 2002L02
  C. nanyuensis Li 2002L02
  C. nebuloides (Mockford 1999) (see below for synonymy)L02
  C. nebulosus Navás 1909 (n. d.)L98
  C. obliquus Li 1992 [=Valenzuela obliquus]L02
  C. ochroleucus Li 1993 [=Valenzuela ochroleucus]L02
  C. octofarius Li 2002L02
  C. oculatus Kolbe 1884 (n. d.)L98
  C. oegospilus Li 2002L02
  C. okamotoi Banks 1910L02
  C. optilohyalinus Li 2002L02
  C. oxyopterus Li 2002L02
  C. pacificus Smithers & Thornton 1974L02
  C. pakistanensis Badonnel 1981L02
  C. pallicornis Badonnel 1955B55
  C. pallidusB55
  C. paramonus Badonnel 1986B86
  C. parbatensis New 1983L02
  C. parifurcus Li 2002L02
  C. parvulus (Banks 1920) [=Dypsocus parvulus, *Mepachycera parvula]NL07
  C. patellaris Li 1992 [=Valenzuela patellaris]L02
  C. paurosphaerus Li 2002 [=C. paurophaerus]L03
  C. pectinatus Badonnel 1955B55
  C. persimilaris (Thornton & Wong 1966) [=Fuelleborniella persimilaris; incl. C. dolichostigmus Li 1992]L02
  C. petchkovskya Badonnel 1955B55
  C. phaeocephalus Li 1995 [=Valenzuela phaeocephalus]L02
  C. phaeopterus Li 1997 [=Valenzuela phaeopterus]L02
  C. phaeozanalis Li 1995L03, L02 [=C. phaeozonalis (l. c.)L03, Valenzuela phaeoconalisL02]
  C. pinalis Li 2002L02
  C. plagioerythrinus Li 1993 [=Valenzuela plagioerythrinus]L02
  C. plagosus Banks 1937NL07
  C. platostigmus Li 1993L02
  C. plautifascus Li 2002L02
  C. plautus Li 2002L02
  C. plumimaculatus Li 2002L02
  C. podacromelas Enderlein 1906L02
  C. psaronicircularis Li 2002L02
  C. psicensis Badonnel 1931B55
  C. pugioniformis Li 1995 [=Valenzuela pugioniformis]L02
  C. punctulosus Li 2002 [=C. punctalosus]L03
  C. purpureus Li 1993 [=Valenzuela purpureus]L02
  C. pycnacanthus Li 1997 [=Valenzuela pycnacanthus]L02
  C. qiannaniensis Li 2002L02
  C. qingchengshanicus Li 2002L02
  C. qinlingensis Li 2002L02
  C. qiongshanensis Li 2002 [=C. qiongshanicus (l. c.), C. qiongshaniensis]L03
  C. quadraticellus Li 2002L02
  C. quadriglobis Li 2002L02
  C. quadrimaculatus Li 1993 [=Valenzuela quadrimaculatus]L02
  C. quaterimaculus Li 2002 [=C. quaterimaclus]L03
  C. quaternatus Li 1993 [=Valenzuela quaternatus]L02
  C. reductus Banks 1920NL07
  C. replcatus Li 2002L02
  C. resupinatus Li 2002L02
  C. rubicundus Li 1995 [=Coryphosmila rubicundus]L02
  C. sagittalis Li 2002L02
  C. scalpratus Li 2002L02
  C. scitulus Li 2002L02
  C. shanjinicus Li 2002L02
  C. shanxiensis Li 2002L02
  C. shennongjiaicus Li 2002L02
  C. shixingensis Li 1993 [=Valenzuela shixingensis]L02
  C. shouothylacus Li 2002L02
  C. sigmoideus Li 2002L02
  C. signatipennis Enderlein 1907E07
  C. similaris Banks 1937L02
  C. similisB55
  C. sinuatus Li 2002L02
  C. solus Li 2002L02
  C. sordidus Li 1997L02
  C. spadicitaensis Li 1995L02
  C. spiciformis Li 2002L02
  C. spiloerythrinus Li 1993 [=Valenzuela spiloerythrinus]L02
  C. spissicornisB55
  C. stenopterus Li 1993 [=Valenzuela stenopterus]L02
  C. stenostigmus Li 1995L02
  C. stigmaticus Okamoto 1910L02
  C. stigmatophorus Li 2002L02
  C. stolidus Li 2002L02
  C. striolatus Li 1995 [=Valenzuela striolatus]L02
  C. subundulatus Li 1995 [=Valenzuela subundulatus]L02
  C. sulciformis Li 1992 [=Valenzuela sulciformis]L02
  C. suturalis Badonnel 1955B55
  C. terminatus Li 2002L02
  C. terrestris Li 2002L02
  C. tongshanicus Li 2002L02
  C. trifolius Li 1999L02
  C. trigonus Li 1997 [=Valenzuela trigonus]L02
  C. trimaculatus Li 1992 [=Valenzuela trimaculatus]L02
  C. trinatus Li 2002L02
  C. tripunctatus Li 2002L02
  C. trullatus Li 2002L02
  C. truncatulus Li 2002L02
  C. tuberculatusB86
  C. uncinellus Li 2002L02
  C. unus Li 2002L02
  C. vilhenai Badonnel 1955B55
  C. vitellinus Li 1993 [=Valenzuela vitellinus]L02
  C. wudangshanicus Li 2002L02
  C. wui Li 1995 [=Valenzuela wui]L02
  C. wulingshanicus Li 2002L02
  C. wuxiaensis Li 1997 [=Valenzuela wuxiaensis]L02
  C. wuyishanicus Li 1999L02
  C. xanthochilus Li 2002L02
  C. ximaicus Li 2002L02
  C. yadongicus Li 2002L02
  C. yigongensis Li 2002L02
  C. yoshizawai Mockford 2003M03
  C. zhamogensis Li 2002L02
  C. zhangliangi Li 2002L02
  C. zhejiangicus Li 1995 [=Valenzuela zhejiangicus]L02
  C. zhuangshani Li 2002 [=C. zhongshani]L03

Caecilius fuscopterus (Latreille 1799)L98 [=Psocus fuscopterusL98; incl. C. fuscopterus var. affinis Kolbe 1880L98, Psocus fenestratus Curtis 1837L98, *C. fenestratusNL07, C. fuscopterus var. tonkinensis Enderlein 1903L98, Psocus vittatus Dalman 1823L98]

Caecilius nebuloides (Mockford 1999) [=Valenzuela nebuloides, C. nebulosus Li 1992 nec Navás 1909 nec Mockford 1969]L02

Caecilius piceus Kolbe 1882 [incl. C. piceus var. megastylus Reuter 1893, C. piceus ab. pedunculata Priesner 1926 non C. atricornis ab. pedunculatus Enderlein 1903]L98

Caecilius rhenanus Tetens 1891 [incl. C. ademimensis Badonnel 1945, C. piceus var. brevipennis Enderlein 1903, C. ferrugineus Badonnel 1945, C. kolbei Tetens 1891]L98

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[B49] Badonnel, A. 1949. Psocoptères de la Cote d’Ivoire. Mission Paulian-Delamare (1945). Revue Française d’Entomologie 16: 20–46.

[B55] Badonnel, A. 1955. Psocoptères de l’Angola. Diamang Publicações Culturais 26: 11–267.

[B86] Badonnel, A. 1986. Psocoptères de Colombie (Insecta, Psocoptera). Spixiana 9 (2): 179–223.

[E07] Enderlein, G. 1907. Wissenschaftliche Ergebnisse der Schwedischen Zoologischen Expedition nach dem Kilimandjaro, dem Meru und den Umgebenden Massaisteppen Deutsch-Ostafrikas 1905–1906 vol. 15. Corrodentia pt 2. Copeognatha. Almqvist & Wiksells Boktryckeri-A. B.: Uppsala.

[L02] Li F. 2002. Psocoptera of China vol. 1. Science Press: Beijing.

[L98] Lienhard, C. 1998. Faune de France. France et Régions Limitrophes. 83. Psocoptères Euro-Méditerranéens. Fédération Française des Sociétés de Sciences Naturelles: Paris.

[L03] Lienhard, C. 2003. Nomenclatural amendments concerning Chinese Psocoptera (Insecta), with remarks on species richness. Revue Suisse de Zoologie 110 (4): 695–721.

[M74] Mockford, E. L. 1974. Records and descriptions of Cuban Psocoptera. Entomologica Americana 48 (2): 103–215.

[M93] Mockford, E. L. 1993. North American Psocoptera (Insecta). Sandhill Crane Press, Inc.

[M03] Mockford, E. L. 2003. New species and records of Psocoptera from the Kuril Islands. Mitt. Mus. Nat.kd. Berl., Dtsch. Entomol. Z. 50 (2): 191–230.

[NL07] New, T. R., & C. Lienhard. 2007. The Psocoptera of Tropical South-east Asia. Brill: Leiden.

[Y02] Yoshizawa, K. 2002. Phylogeny and higher classification of suborder Psocomorpha (Insecta: Psocodea: ‘Psocoptera’). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 136: 371–400.

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