Caelifera

 Hooded pygmy grasshopper Paratettix cucullatus, copyright Stephen Cresswell.

Belongs within: Panelcanida.
Contains: Tridactyloidea, Eumastacoidea, Pyrgomorphidae, Acridoidea, Acrydiinae.

The Caelifera, including the short-horned grasshoppers, are a clade of orthopterans characterised by the reduction of the antennae. As well as the true grasshoppers of the Acridomorpha, this clade includes the pygmy grasshoppers of the Tetrigidae, small and camouflaged grasshoppers characterised by the posterior extension of the pronotum to the extent that it overlaps with the dorsal surface of the abdomen (Rentz 1996). Acridomorphs include Pneumora, a South African genus with relatively small hind legs and a greatly inflated abdomen in the males with stridulatory ridges on the second tergum (Richards & Davies 1977). The Locustopsoidea are a Mesozoic group of grasshoppers that may include the ancestors of the Acridomorpha and Tetrigidae (Gorochov & Rasnitsyn 2002).

Characters (from Rentz 1996): Antennae rather robust, thread-like, rarely with more than 30 segments, usually shorter than body length. Mandibles chewing-type, usually symmetrical, with greatly enlarged, heavy molar teeth. Thoracic segments generally not concealed by pronotum. Tarsi typically with three or fewer segments; fore tibiae lacking auditory receptors. Fan of hind wing confined to anal lobe. Base of abdomen with lateral auditory tympana. Ovipositor short, usually stout, composed of four main independent valves. Male subgenital plate formed from ninth sternum, lacking styles; phallic structures including aedeagus. Three pairs of gastric caeca present at junction of fore- and mid-gut.

<==Caelifera [Acridina, Acrydiana]
    |  i. s.: Eolocustopsis Riek 1976BN02
    |         Triassolocusta leptopteraR70
    |--+--DzhajloutshellidaeGR02
    |  `--TridactyloideaGR02
    `--+--LocustopsoideaGR02
       |    |--LocustavidaeGR02
       |    |    |--Locustavus Sharov 1968BR05
       |    |    |--Mesacridites Riek 1954BR05
       |    |    |    `--*M. elongata Riek 1954BR05
       |    |    `--Ferganopsis Sharov 1968BR05
       |    |         `--*F. lanceolatus Sharov 1968BR05
       |    `--Locustopsidae [Locustopseidae]GR02
       |         |  i. s.: AraripelocustinaeGR02
       |         |         Zeunerella arboreaRJ93
       |         |--Praelocustopsis mirabilis Sharov 1968BN02
       |         `--+--Plesioschwinzia thalassophila Zessin 1988BN02
       |            `--Locustopsis [Locustopsinae]BN02
       |                 `--L. karatavica Sharov 1968BN02
       |--Acridomorpha [Pamphagoidea]E00
       |    |  i. s.: OmalotettixE00
       |    |--EumastacoideaE00
       |    `--+--TanaocerusSH72 [Tanaoceridae, TanaoceroideaE00]
       |       |    `--T. koebeleiSH72
       |       |--TrigonopterygoideaE00
       |       |    |--TrigonopterygidaeE00
       |       |    `--XyronotidaeE00
       |       |         |--Xyronotus aztecusE00
       |       |         `--Azyronotus cantralliE00
       |       `--+--+--PyrgomorphidaeE00
       |          |  `--AcridoideaGR02
       |          `--PneumoraL02 [PneumoridaeE00, Pneumoroidea]
       |               |--P. inanisL02
       |               |--P. papillosaL02
       |               |--P. sexguttataG20
       |               `--P. variolosaL02
       `--Tetrigidae [Acrydiidae, Tettigidae, Tetrigoidea]GR02
            |  i. s.: Prototetrix reductaGR02
            |         Vingselina brunneriR91
            |         Euparatettix tricarinatusSLH18
            |         Hedotettix amplusSLH18
            |         PeluscaSLH18
            |         Succinotettix chopardiP92
            |--CladonotinaeR96
            |--MetrodorinaeR96
            |--AcrydiinaeRD77
            |--ScelimeninaeR96
            |    |--Loxilobus [Criotettigini]SLH18
            |    `--Scelimena [Scelimenini]SLH18
            |         |--S. erimetaSLH18
            |         `--S. kempiSLH18
            |--BatrachideinaeP03
            |    |--Batrachidea mucronataSLH18
            |    |--TettigideaP03
            |    |    |--T. hancocki Bruner 1910R18
            |    |    `--T. lateralisP03
            |    `--Saussurella Bolivar 1887 [incl. Cassitettix Yin 1984, Cassitettinae, Cassitettini]P03
            |         |--S. cuculliferaP03
            |         |--S. inelevataP03
            |         `--*Cassitettix’ longiptera Yin 1984P03
            `--TetriginaeP03
                 |--Mishtshenkotetrix transsylvanicaP03
                 |--Coptotettix gibbusR96
                 |--Tetrix Latreille 1802L02
                 |    |--T. bipunctata [=Acrydium bipunctatum]L02
                 |    |--T. ornataP03
                 |    |--T. subulataP03 [=Acrydium subulatumL02; incl. A. granulatumP03]
                 |    |--T. tenuicornisK09
                 |    `--T. undulataK08
                 `--ParatettixP03
                      |--P. albolimbatusR96
                      |--P. argillaceusR91
                      |--P. cucullatusP03
                      |--P. femoralisZ94
                      |--P. nigrescensZ94
                      |--P. schochiSLH18
                      `--P. texanusD51

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[BN02] Béthoux, O., & A. Nel. 2002. Venation pattern and revision of Orthoptera sensu nov. and sister groups. Phylogeny of Palaeozoic and Mesozoic Orthoptera sensu nov. Zootaxa 96: 1–88.

[BR05] Béthoux, O., & A. J. Ross. 2005. Mesacridites Riek, 1954 (Middle Triassic; Australia) transferred from Protorthoptera to Orthoptera: Locustavidae. Journal of Paleontology 79 (3): 607–610.

[D51] Dobzhansky, T. 1951. Genetics and the Origin of Species 3rd ed. Columbia University Press: New York.

[E00] Eades, D. C. 2000. Evolutionary relationships of phallic structures of Acridomorpha (Orthoptera). Journal of Orthoptera Research 9: 181–210.

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[GR02] Gorochov, A. V., & A. P. Rasnitsyn. 2002. Superorder Gryllidea Laicharting, 1781 (=Orthopteroidea Handlirsch, 1903). In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 293–303. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[K08] Köhler, G. 2008. Populationsstudien aus Gemeinen Grashüpfer, Chorthippus parallelus (Zetterstedt), entlang eines Höhengradienten im Mittleren Erzgebirge. Mauritiana 20 (2): 349–370.

[K09] Köhler, G. 2009. Heuschrecken (Saltatoria) und Ohrwürmner (Dermaptera) im Immissionsgebiet des Düngemittelwerkes Steudnitz/Thüringen—eine Langzeitstudie (1978–2001). Mauritiana 20 (3): 601–646.

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 3. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[P03] Podgornaya, L. I. 2003. Morphology of the male genitalia in tetrigids (Orthoptera, Tetrigidae) and change of rank of the subfamily Cassitettinae Yin, 1984. Entomologicheskoe Obozrenie 82 (1): 86–89 (translated: Entomological Review 83 (1): 1–3).

[P92] Poinar, G. O., Jr. 1992. Life in Amber. Stanford University Press: Stanford.

[R18] Rehn, J. A. G. 1918. On a collection of Orthoptera from the State of Pará, Brazil. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 70: 144–236, pls 1–2.

[R91] Rentz, D. C. F. 1991. Orthoptera (grasshoppers, locusts, katydids, crickets). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 1 pp. 369–393. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[R96] Rentz, D. 1996. Grasshopper Country: The abundant orthopteroid insects of Australia. University of New South Wales Press: Sydney.

[RD77] Richards, O. W., & R. G. Davies. 1977. Imms’ General Textbook of Entomology 10th ed. vol. 2. Classification and Biology. Chapman and Hall: London.

[R70] Riek, E. F. 1970. Fossil history. In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 168–186. Melbourne University Press.

[RJ93] Ross, A. J., & E. A. Jarzembowski. 1993. Arthropoda (Hexapoda; Insecta). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 363–426. Chapman & Hall: London.

[SH72] Schroeter, G. L., & G. M. Hewitt. 1972. Cytology of some California grasshoppers. 1. Taxonomic considerations (Orthoptera: Acridoidea). Pan-Pacific Entomologist 48 (1): 27–36.

[SLH18] Seeman, O. D., E. E. Lindquist & R. W. Husband. 2018. A new tribe of tarsonemid mites (Trombidiformes: Heterostigmata) parasitic on tetrigid grasshoppers (Orthoptera). Zootaxa 4418 (1): 1–54.

[Z94] Zhang, Z.-Q. 1994. Neothrombiidae (Acari: Trombidioidea) of the world: systematic review with a phylogenetic analysis and descriptions of two new genera. Oriental Insects 28: 205–237.

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