Caelopyginae

Female Metarthrodes longipes, copyright Edelcio Muscat.

Belongs within: Gonyleptidae.

The Caelopyginae are a group of gonyleptid harvestmen with a wide, medially depressed eyemound found in the Atlantic and Araucaria forests of southern Brazil (Pinto-da-Rocha 2002).

Characters (from Pinto-da-Rocha 2002): Body subrectangular or pyriform. Scent glands with two external openings (ozopores) on each side. Eye mound wide, with a median depression, with one low tubercle near each eye (rarely smooth or with one pair of large tubercles). Dorsal scute with four grooves (three areas). Area I divided. Area III with two spines with blunt apex (rarely more acute) or two tubercles. Posterior margin of dorsal scute, from straight to concave. Pedipalp with femur thin, cylindrical (smaller than length of dorsal scute), without wide ventral setae; patella without prolateral seta; tibia mesal IiIi, ectal IIi/IiIi/IiiIi; tarsus longer than tibia, biconvex, with two ventral rows of wide setae, ecta II, mesal II (rarely I). Tarsus with more than six segments; III–IV with semispherical articles, distitarsus I 3-segmented, II 4- or 5-segmented (rarely 3-), with a dense scopula. Claws bipectinate. Tarsal process present and long. Penis with ventral process of glans long and thin; dorsal process absent; basal lobe of ventral plate forward; 3–4 pairs of distal setae of ventral plate longer than other; two short setae behind distal group of setae (sometimes a little above the long ones; rarely absent); one intermediary seta (between the long and the basal groups); 3–4 pairs of long basal setae, the basal one reduced, absent or long. Yellow to greenish coloured, with or without white spots or dots on dorsal scute, free tergites and dorsal and ventral anal opercula.

<==Caelopyginae [Caelepiginas, Caelopyginas, Coelopyginae, Coelopyginas, Coelopygoidae, Dasypoleptinae]
    |  i. s.: Proampheres Roewer 1913P-R02
    |           `--*P. serratus (Kollar in Koch 1839)P-R02 (see below for synonymy)
    |--+--Caelopygus Koch 1839 (see below for synonymy)P-R02
    |  |    |--*C. elegans (Perty 1833) (see below for synonymy)P-R02
    |  |    `--C. melanocephalus Kollar in Koch 1839P-R02 (see below for synonymy)
    |  `--Ampheres Koch 1839P-R02 (see below for synonymy)
    |       |  i. s.: *A. spinipes (Perty 1833) [=Gonyleptes spinipes]P-R02
    |       |--A. leucopheus (Mello-Leitão 1922)P-R02 (see below for synonymy)
    |       `--+--A. tocantinus Roewer 1943P-R02
    |          `--+--A. fuscopunctatus (Soares 1942) [=*Pizaius fuscopunctatus; incl. Zalonius spinipes Soares 1944]P-R02
    |             `--A. luteus (Giltay 1928) [=*Prosodreana lutea]P-R02
    `--+--Metampheres Roewer 1913P-R02
       |    `--*M. albimarginatus Roewer 1913P-R02
       `--+--Metarthrodes Roewer 1913P-R02 (see below for synonymy)
          |    |--M. bimaculatus Roewer 1913P-R02 (see below for synonymy)
          |    `--+--M. albotaeniatus (Mello-Leitão 1942) (see below for synonymy)P-R02
          |       `--+--+--M. hamatus Roewer 1931 [=Ampheres hamatus]P-R02
          |          |  `--+--M. laetabundus (Sørensen 1884) (see below for synonymy)P-R02
          |          |     `--M. xango Pinto-da-Rocha 2002P-R02
          |          `--+--*M. leucopygus Roewer 1913 (see below for synonymy)P-R02
          |             `--+--M. longipes (Soares 1944) [=Exochobunus longipes]P-R02
          |                |--M. nigrigranulatus Roewer 1913P-R02 (see below for synonymy)
          |                `--M. pulcherrimus (Mello-Leitão 1931) [=*Exochobunus pulcherrimus]P-R02
          `--+--Arthrodes Koch 1839P-R02
             |    `--*A. xanthopygus Kollar in Koch 1839 (see below for synonymy)P-R02
             `--+--Pristocnemus Koch 1839P-R02, KA-Z11 (see below for synonymy)
                |    |--*P. pustulatus Kollar in Koch 1839 [=Pristocnemis (l. c.) pustulatus]P-R02
                |    `--+--P. farinosus (Mello-Leitão 1922)P-R02 (see below for synonymy)
                |       `--+--P. albimaculatus (Roewer 1913)P-R02 (see below for synonymy)
                |          `--P. perlatus (Giltay 1928) [=Metarthrodes perlatus, Ampheres perlatus]P-R02
                `--+--Garatiba Mello-Leitão 1940P-R02
                   |    |--*G. bisignata Mello-Leitão 1940 [=Zalonius bisignatus]P-R02
                   |    `--G. bocaina Pinto-da-Rocha 2002P-R02
                   `--Thereza Roewer 1943P-R02 [incl. Dasypoleptes Mello-Leitão 1949P-R02, Dasypoletes (l. c.)K03]
                        |--T. speciosa (Roewer 1913) (see below for synonymy)P-R02
                        `--+--*T. albiornata Roewer 1943P-R02 (see below for synonymy)
                           |--T. amabilis Pinto-da-Rocha 2002P-R02
                           `--T. poranga Pinto-da-Rocha 2002P-R02

Ampheres Koch 1839P-R02 [incl. Caelopygulus Roewer 1931P-R02, Coelopygulus (l. c.)K03, Metampheroides Mello-Leitão 1941P-R02, Pizaius Soares 1942P-R02, Prosodreana Giltay 1928P-R02, Zalonius Mello-Leitão 1936P-R02, Zaloous (l. c.)P-R02]

Ampheres leucopheus (Mello-Leitão 1922)P-R02 [=Coelopygus leucopheusP-R02, *Caelopygulus leucopheusP-R02, Metarthrodes leucopheusP-R02; incl. Ampheres gracilis Soares & Soares 1945P-R02, Metarthrodes pardalis Piza 1943P-R02, Metarthrodes pictus Mello-Leitão 1935 (n. n.)K03, *Zalonius punctatus Mello-Leitão 1936P-R02, *Metampheroides serrinus Mello-Leitão 1941P-R02, Varzellinia serrinaP-R02, Metarthrodes triangularis Roewer 1931P-R02, Ampheres triangularisP-R02]

*Arthrodes xanthopygus Kollar in Koch 1839 [=Caelopygus xanthopygus, A. acanthopygus (l. c.); incl. Ca. macracanthus Kollar in Koch 1839, Ca. macrocanthus (l. c.), Coelopygus macrocanthus (l. c.), Ca. pseudomacrocanthus Soares & Soares 1954]P-R02

Caelopygus Koch 1839 [=Coeelopygus (l. c.), Coelopygus; incl. Heterarthrodes Mello-Leitão 1935, Liarthrodes Mello-Leitão 1922]P-R02

*Caelopygus elegans (Perty 1833) [=Gonyleptes elegans, Coelopygus elegans; incl. *Heterarthrodes alvimi Mello-Leitão 1935, Arthrodes alvimi, Caelopygus granulatus Bertkau 1880, Liarthrodes granulosus Mello-Leitão 1932, *L. tetramaculatus Mello-Leitão 1922, Liarthrodes quadrimaculatus (l. c.)]P-R02

Caelopygus melanocephalus Kollar in Koch 1839P-R02 [=Coelopygus melanocephalusP-R02; incl. Metarthrodes melanacanthus Roewer 1913P-R02, Ampheres melanacanthusP-R02, Metartrrodes (l. c.) melanacanthusK03]

Metarthrodes Roewer 1913P-R02 [=Metarthorodes (l. c.)K03; incl. Exochobunus Mello-Leitão 1931P-R02, Heterampheres Mello-Leitão 1935P-R02, Kapichaba Mello-Leitão 1942P-R02, Varzellinia Mello-Leitão 1942P-R02]

Metarthrodes albotaeniatus (Mello-Leitão 1942) [=*Kapichaba albotaeniata; incl. Zalonius albivittatus Mello-Leitão 1944]P-R02

Metarthrodes bimaculatus Roewer 1913P-R02 [=Ampheres bimaculatusP-R02; incl. M. rosae Mello-Leitão 1942K03, A. rosaiP-R02, M. rosaiP-R02]

Metarthrodes laetabundus (Sørensen 1884) [=Caelopygus laetabundus, Coelopygus laetabundus, Co. loetabundus (l. c.); incl. Metarthrodes circumscriptus Roewer 1931, Ampheres circumscriptus]P-R02

*Metarthrodes leucopygus Roewer 1913 [=Ampheres leucopygus; incl. *Varzellinia leucopyga Mello-Leitão 1942 non Metarthrodes leucopygus Roewer 1913]P-R02

Metarthrodes nigrigranulatus Roewer 1913P-R02 [=Ampheres nigrigranulatusP-R02, A. nigrimaculatus (l. c.)K03; incl. Heterampheres octomaculatus Mello-Leitão 1935 (n. n.)K03, *H. variabilis Mello-Leitão 1935P-R02, Ampheres variabilisP-R02]

Pristocnemus Koch 1839P-R02, KA-Z11 [=Peristocnemis (l. c.)P-R02, Pristocnemis (l. c.)KA-Z11, Pristocnemys (l. c.)P-R02; incl. Stenoprostygnus Piza 1940P-R02]

Pristocnemus albimaculatus (Roewer 1913)P-R02 [=Metarthrodes albimaculatusP-R02, Ampheres albimaculatusP-R02, Eubulus lunatus Sørensen in Roewer 1943 (n. n.)K03]

Pristocnemus farinosus (Mello-Leitão 1922)P-R02 [=Metarthrodes farinosusP-R02, Ampheres farinosusP-R02, Metarthodes (l. c.) farinosusK03; incl. *Stenoprostygnus mamillatus Piza 1940P-R02, Metarthrodes mamillatusP-R02, Metarthrodes massarti Giltay 1928P-R02, Ampheres pizae Roewer 1943P-R02]

*Proampheres serratus (Kollar in Koch 1839)P-R02 [=Ampheres serratusP-R02, Phalacus bimaculatus Sørensen in Roewer 1943 (n. n.)K03]

*Thereza albiornata Roewer 1943P-R02 [=Varzellinia albiornataK03; incl. *Dasypoleptes guttulatus Mello-Leitão 1949P-R02, V. radagasioi Soares & Soares 1945P-R02]

Thereza speciosa (Roewer 1913) [=Metarthrodes speciosus, Ampheres speciosus; incl. Zalonius pulcherrimus Soares 1944]P-R02

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[K03] Kury, A. B. 2003. Annotated catalogue of the Laniatores of the New World (Arachnida, Opiliones). Revista Ibérica de Aracnología, volumen especial monográfico 1: 1–337.

[KA-Z11] Kury, A. B., & M. A. Alonso-Zarazaga. 2011. Addenda and corrigenda to the “Annotated catalogue of the Laniatores of the New World (Arachnida, Opiliones)”. Zootaxa 3034: 47–68.

[P-R02] Pinto-da-Rocha, R. 2002. Systematic review and cladistic analysis of the Brazilian subfamily Caelopyginae (Opiliones: Gonyleptidae). Arquivos de Zoologia, Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo 36: 357–464.

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