Taiwan slug snake Pareas formosensis, from Snakes of Taiwan.

Belongs within: Macrostomata.
Contains: Viperidae, Colubridae, Elapidae, Lamprophiinae.

The Colubroidea are a large clade including nearly 2500 living snake species, including all venomous snakes. Members of the Colubroidea possess supralabial secretory serous cells in the mouth (Vidal & Hedges 2002) and lightly-built, elongate vertebrae with narrow centra (Rage et al. 2003). Living colubroids have traditionally been divided between the family Colubridae, whose members lack differentiated fangs in the front of the mouth, and the front-fanged families Atractaspididae, Viperidae and Elapidae; however, phylogenetic analyses indicate that the ‘Colubridae’ are paraphyletic relative to the other families.

<==Caenophidia [Colubroidea]VH02
    |  i. s.: Vectophis Rage & Ford 1980RB03
    |           `--V. wardi Rage & Ford 1980RB03
    |         Headonophis Holman 1993RB03
    |           `--H. harrisoni Holman 1993RB03
    |         RussellophisB93 [RussellophiidaeRB03]
    |         AnomalophisB93 [AnomalophiidaeRB03]
    |           `--A. bolcensis (Massalongo 1859)B93
    |--Pareatidae [Pareatinae, Pareatini]HB09
    |    |--Aplopeltura boaVH02
    |    `--PareasVH02
    |         |--P. carinatusVH02
    |         |--P. formosensisI92
    |         |--P. iwasakii (Maki 1937)I92
    |         |--P. komaiiI92
    |         |--P. laevis [=Leptognathus laevis]C07
    |         `--P. nuchalisVH02
       |    |--NigerophiidaeB93
       |    |    |  i. s.: ‘Nessovophis’ zhylga Averianov 1997RB03
       |    |    |--Nigerophis mirus Rage 1975B93
       |    |    `--Woutersophis novus Rage 1980B93
       |    `--Acrochordidae [Acrochordoidea]AZ06
       |         |--ChersydrusR88
       |         `--Acrochordus Hornstedt 1787C18
       |              |--A. arafurae McDowell 1979C18
       |              |--A. dehmi Hoffstetter 1964RB03
       |              |--A. granulatus (Schneider 1799)C18
       |              `--A. javanicusGWN71
       `--+--Xenodermatidae [Xenodermatinae]HB09
          |    |--Xenodermus javanicusVH02
          |    `--+--Stoliczkaia borneensisVH02
          |       `--AchalinusVH02
          |            |--A. formosanusI92
          |            |    |--A. f. formosanusI92
          |            |    `--A. f. chigirai Ota & Toyama 1989I92
          |            |--A. rufescensVH02
          |            `--A. werneri van Denburgh 1912I92
                |  `--+--ElapidaeHB09
                |     `--LamprophiinaeHB09
                `--+--Erpeton Lacépède 1801VH02, L01
                   |    `--*E. tentaculatum Lacépède 1801L01, VH02, L01
                      |    |--*E. enhydrisVH02
                      |    `--E. plumbeaVH02
                      `--Homalopsidae [Homalopsinae]HB09
                           |--Homalopsis buccataVH02
                           |--Fordonia Gray 1842C18
                           |    `--F. leucobalia (Schlegel 1837)C18
                           |--Pseudoferania Ogilby 1890C18
                           |    `--P. polylepis (Fischer 1886) [incl. Hypsirhina macleayi, P. polylepis macleayi]C18
                           |--Cerberus Cuvier 1829C18
                           |    |--C. australis (Gray 1842) [=C. rynchops australis]C18
                           |    `--C. rynchopsC18
                           `--Myron Gray 1849C18
                                |--M. resetari Murphy 2011C18
                                `--M. richardsonii Gray 1849C18

*Type species of generic name indicated


[AZ06] Apesteguía, S. & H. Zaher. 2006. A Cretaceous terrestrial snake with robust hindlimbs and a sacrum. Nature 440: 1037–1040.

[B93] Benton, M. J. 1993. Reptilia. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 681–715. Chapman & Hall: London.

[C07] Cadle, J. E. 2007. The snake genus Sibynomorphus (Colubridae: Dipsadinae: Dipsadini) in Peru and Ecuador, with comments on the systematics of Dipsadini. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology 158 (5): 183–284.

[C18] Cogger, H. G. 2018. Reptiles and Amphibians of Australia updated 7th ed. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood.

[GWN71] Gorman, G. C., A. C. Wilson & M. Nakanishi. 1971. A biochemical approach towards the study of reptilian phylogeny: evolution of serum albumin and lactic dehydrogenase. Systematic Zoology 20 (2): 167–185.

[HB09] Head, J. J., J. I. Bloch, A. K. Hastings, J. R. Bourque, E. A. Cadena, F. A. Herrera, P. D. Polly & C. A. Jaramillo. 2009. Giant boid snake from the Palaeocene neotropics reveals hotter past equatorial temperatures. Nature 457: 715–717.

[I92] Iwahashi, J. (ed.) 1992. Reddo Deeta Animaruzu: a pictorial of Japanese fauna facing extinction. JICC: Tokyo.

[L01] Lacépède, C. 1801. Sur un nouveau genre de serpent. Bulletin des Sciences, par la Societé Philomathique de Paris 2 (46): 169.

[RB03] Rage, J.-C., S. Bajpai, J. G. M. Thewissen & B. N. Tiwari. 2003. Early Eocene snakes from Kutch, western India, with a review of the Palaeophiidae. Geodiversitas 25 (4): 695–716.

[R88] Rieppel, O. 1988. The classification of the Squamata. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Phylogeny and Classification of the Tetrapods vol. 1. Amphibians, Reptiles, Birds pp. 261–293. Clarendon Press: Oxford.

[VH02] Vidal, N., & S. B. Hedges. 2002. Higher-level relationships of caenophidian snakes inferred from four nuclear and mitochondrial genes. Comptes Rendus Biologies 325: 987–995.

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