Dwarf poinciana Caesalpinia pulcherrima, copyright Atamari.

Belongs within: Leguminosae.
Contains: Mimosoideae, Cassia.

The Caesalpinieae are a pantropical group of trees and climbers commonly bearing bipinnate leaves. Recent phylogenetic analysis indicates they may be paraphyletic to the ‘mimosoid’ clade, historically recognised as the subfamily Mimosoideae (Kyalangalilwa et al. 2013).

Characters (from Flora of China): Leaves bipinnate or rarely pinnate. Flowers bisexual or unisexual, actinomorphic or zygomorphic. Receptacle discoid. Sepals (3–)5(or 6), inserted on margin of receptacle, often unequal, lowest larger, on outside, hooded or navicular. Petals usually 5, rarely 4, slightly unequal. Stamens (4–)10(–20), free, subequal; anthers basifixed or dorsifixed, opening by lateral slits. Ovary or ovary stipe inserted at base of receptacle; ovules 2 to numerous, rarely 1.

    |  i. s.: Cenostigma Tulasne 1843WL09
    |           |--C. macrophyllum Tulasne 1843 [incl. C. angustifolium Tulasne 1843, C. gardnerianum Tulasne 1843]WL09
    |           `--C. tocantinum Ducke 1915WL09
    |         Pachyelasma tessmanniiKB13
    |--+--+--+--Dinizia excelsaCP13
    |  |  |  `--+--Dimorphandra conjugataKB13
    |  |  |     `--Mora gonggrijpiiCP13
    |  |  `--+--+--Arapatiella psilophyllaCP13
    |  |     |  `--Jacqueshuberia brevipesKB13
    |  |     `--+--+--PeltophorumKB13
    |  |        |  |    |--P. dubiumKB13
    |  |        |  |    `--P. pterocarpumP88
    |  |        |  `--Bussea perrieriKB13
    |  |        `--+--ParkinsoniaKB13
    |  |           |    |--P. aculeataLK14
    |  |           |    `--P. floridaKB13
    |  |           `--+--DelonixKB13
    |  |              |    |--D. elataKB13
    |  |              |    `--D. regiaLK14
    |  |              `--Lemuropisum eduleKB13
    |  `--+--+--Moldenhawera brasiliensisCP13
    |     |  `--Diptychandra aurantiacaCP13
    |     `--+--MimosoideaeCP13
    |        `--ErythrophleumCP13
    |             |--E. chlorostachysLK14
    |             |--E. laboucheriiC16
    |             `--E. suaveolensCP13
            |--C. bonducB00
            |--C. cristaB00
            |--C. decapetalaH06
            |--C. ferreaB00
            |--C. gilliesii [=Poinciana gilliesii]H93
            |--C. majorSR07
            |--C. marginata [incl. Cenostigma sclerophyllum Malme 1900]WL09
            |--C. merxmuelleranaCV06
            |--C. mexicanaB00
            |--C. oppositifoliaH03
            |--C. pacifica (Knowlton) Brown 1956 [=Quercus pacifica Knowlton 1900]B56
            |--C. pearsoniiCV06
            |--C. pecorae Brown 1956B56
            |--C. praecoxO06
            |--C. pulcherrimaVHK02
            |--C. sappanK03
            |--C. sepiariaJ87
            |--C. spinosaOA02
            `--C. virgata [incl. Hoffmannseggia microphylla]H93

*Type species of generic name indicated


[B00] Braby, M. F. 2000. Butterflies of Australia: their identification, biology and distribution vol. 2. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood (Victoria).

[B56] Brown, R. W. 1956. New items in Cretaceous and Tertiary floras of the western United States. Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences 46 (4): 104–108.

[C16] Cambage, R. H. 1916. Notes on the native flora of tropical Queensland. Journal and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New South Wales 49 (3): 389–447, pls 57–61.

[CP13] Cardoso, D., R. T. Pennington, L. P. de Queiroz, J. S. Boatwright, B.-E. Van Wyk, M. F. Wojciechowski & M. Lavin. 2013. Reconstructing the deep-branching relationships of the papilionoid legumes. South African Journal of Botany 89: 58–75.

[CV06] Craven, P., & P. Vorster. 2006. Patterns of plant diversity and endemism in Namibia. Bothalia 36 (2): 175–189.

[H03] Heads, M. 2003. Ericaceae in Malesia: vicariance biogeography, terrane tectonics and ecology. Telopea 10 (1): 311–449.

[H06] Henderson, L. 2006. Comparisons of invasive plants in southern Africa originating from southern temperate, northern temperate and tropical regions. Bothalia 36 (2): 201–222.

[H93] Hickman, J. C. (ed.) 1993. The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California. University of California Press: Berkeley (California).

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum—Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1–136.

[K03] Kulip, J. 2003. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal and other useful plants of Muruts in Sabah, Malaysia. Telopea 10 (1): 81–98.

[KB13] Kyalangalilwa, B., J. S. Boatwright, B. H. Daru, O. Maurin & M. van der Bank. 2013. Phylogenetic position and revised classification of Acacia s.l. (Fabaceae: Mimosoideae) in Africa, including new combinations in Vachellia and Senegalia. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 172: 500–523.

[LK14] Lyons, M. N., G. J. Keighery, L. A. Gibson & T. Handasyde. 2014. Flora and vegetation communities of selected islands off the Kimberley coast of Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 81: 205–244.

[OA02] Ochoa, J. A., & L. E. Acosta. 2002. Orobothriurus atiquipa, a new bothriurid species (Scorpiones) from Lomas in southern Peru. Journal of Arachnology 30: 98–103.

[O06] Outes, F. F. 1906. Instrumentos y armas neolíticos de Cochicó (Provincia de Mendoza). Anales del Museo Nacional de Buenos Aires, serie 3, 6: 277–286.

[P88] Polunin, I. 1988. Plants and Flowers of Malaysia. Times Editions: Singapore.

[SR07] Sankar, R. V., K. Ravikumar, N. M. Ganesh Babu & D. K. Ved. 2007. Botany of Anapady MPCA, Palghat district, Kerala with special emphasis on species of conservation concern. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49: 165–172.

[VHK02] Verma, M., M. Hayat & S. I. Kazmi. 2002. The species of Elasmus from India (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Eulophidae). Oriental Insects 36: 245–306.

[WL09] Warwick, M. C., & G. P. Lewis. 2009. A revision of Cenostigma (Leguminosae—Caesalpinioideae—Caesalpinieae), a genus endemic to Brazil. Kew Bulletin 64 (1): 135–146.

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