Leucosolenia botryoides, photographed by Bernard Picton.

Belongs within: Porifera.
Contains: Pharetronida.

Calcarea, the calcareous sponges, is a group of sponges characterised by the possession of calcitic spicules secreted intercellularly within an organic sheath, and the absence of distinct microscleres (Botting & Butterfield 2005).

<==Calcispongia [Calcarea, Calcispongiae]AS12
    `--+--Calcinea [Stellispongiida]AS12
       |    |--Murrayona [Murrayonida]AS12
       |    |    `--M. phanolepis Kirkpatrick 1911JG19
       |    |--Camarocladiidae [Solenida]RB93
       |    |--LabetidaRB93
       |    |    |--Protosycon [Grantiidae]RB93
       |    |    |    `--P. punctta (Goldfuss 1833)RB93
       |    |    `--Leuconia [Leuconiidae]RB93
       |    |         |--L. niveaM01
       |    |         `--L. walfordia (Hinde 1883)RB93
       |    |--HeteractinidaRB93
       |    |    |  i. s.: EiffelospongiaBB05
       |    |    |--WewokellidaeRB93
       |    |    |    |--Asteractinella expansa Hinde 1888RB93
       |    |    |    `--Talpaspongia clavata King 1943RB93
       |    |    |--AstraeospongiidaeRB93
       |    |    |    |--Jawonyia gurumal Kruse 1987RB93
       |    |    |    |--Wagima galbanyin Kruse 1987RB93
       |    |    |    `--AstraeospongiumRB93
       |    |    `--Eiffeliidae [Octactinellida]RB93
       |    |         |--Zangerlispongia richardsoni Rigby & Nitecki 1975RB93
       |    |         `--Eiffelia Walcott 1920 (see below for synonymy)CA06
       |    |              |--*E. globosa Walcott 1920CA06
       |    |              `--E. araniformis (Mizzarzhevsky 1981)RB93
       |    `--ClathrinidaFS14
       |         |  i. s.: ClathrinaEL11
       |         |           |--C. cerebrumC-SC03
       |         |           |--C. clathrusT10
       |         |           `--C. coriaceaF79
       |         |--LeucettidaeFS14
       |         |    |--Leucetta chagosensisEL11, PP15
       |         |    `--Pericharax heteroraphis Poléjaeff 1883FS14
       |         `--Dendya [Soleneiscidae]FS14
          |    |--Sycetta strobilusH04
          |    `--Sycon Risso 1826EL11, R26
          |         |--S. calcaravisF79
          |         |--S. ciliatumPP15
          |         |--S. coactumPP15
          |         |--S. defendensF79
          |         |--S. faulkneri Ilan, Gugel et al. 2003BJ06
          |         |--S. humboldti Risso 1826R26
          |         |--S. poireti Risso 1826R26
          |         `--S. raphanusPP15
               |  i. s.: ProtoleuconEL11
               |         GrantiopsisAS12
               |         ParalurillaAS12
               |         VosmacropsisAS12
               |         SycettusaAS12
               |         HeteropiidaeAS12
               |         StaurorrhaphidaeAS12
               |         MinchinellidaeAS12
               `--LeucosoleniaEL11 [LeucosolenidaAB19]
                    |--L. blancaF79
                    |--L. botryoidesF79
                    |--L. cavataF79
                    |--L. complicataF79
                    |--L. cordataF79
                    |--L. osculumF79
                    `--L. variabilisT10
Calcispongia incertae sedis:
  Poliopogon amadovT10
    |--S. ciliataF79
    `--S. okadaiF79
    |--A. pinusH04
    `--A. sertulariaH04
  Ascilla gracilisH04
  Syculmis synaptaH04
  Sycurus primitivusH04
  Sycodendron ampullaH04
  Sycarium elegansH04
  Sycortis quadrangulataH04
  Sycandra compressaH04
  Sycaltis perforataH04
  Petrobiona massilianaPP64

Eiffelia Walcott 1920 [incl. Actinoites Duan 1984, Lenastella Missarzhevsky in Missarzhevsky & Mambetov 1981, Niphadus Duan 1984]CA06

*Type species of generic name indicated


[AB19] Adl, S. M., D. Bass, C. E. Lane, J. Lukeš, C. L. Schoch, A. Smirnov, S. Agatha, C. Berney, M. W. Brown, F. Burki, P. Cárdenas, I. Čepička, L. Chistyakova, J. del Campo, M. Dunthorn, B. Edvardsen, Y. Eglit, L. Guillou, V. Hampl, A. A. Heiss, M. Hoppenrath, T. Y. James, A. Karnkowska, S. Karpov, E. Kim, M. Kolisko, A. Kudryavtsev, D. J. G. Lahr, E. Lara, L. Le Gall, D. H. Lynn, D. G. Mann, R. Massana, E. A. D. Mitchell, C. Morrow, J. S. Park, J. W. Pawlowski, M. J. Powell, D. J. Richter, S. Rueckert, L. Shadwick, S. Shimano, F. W. Spiegel, G. Torruella, N. Youssef, V. Zlatogursky & Q. Zhang. 2019. Revisions to the classification, nomenclature, and diversity of eukaryotes. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 66: 4–119.

[AS12] Adl, S. M., A. G. B. Simpson, C. E. Lane, J. Lukeš, D. Bass, S. S. Bowser, M. W. Brown, F. Burki, M. Dunthorn, V. Hampl, A. Heiss, M. Hoppenrath, E. Lara, E. Le Gall, D. H. Lynn, H. McManus, E. A. D. Mitchell, S. E. Mozley-Stanridge, L. W. Parfrey, J. Pawlowski, S. Rueckert, L. Shadwick, C. L. Schoch, A. Smirnov & F. W. Spiegel. 2012. The revised classification of eukaryotes. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 59 (5): 429–493.

[BJ06] Barnich, R., & D. Janussen. 2006. Die Typen und Typoide des Naturmuseums Senckenberg, Nr. 86. Type catalogue of the Porifera in the collections of the Senckenberg Museum in Frankfurt am Main, Germany. Senckenbergiana Biologica 86 (2): 127–144.

[BB05] Botting, J. P., & N. J. Butterfield. 2005. Reconstructing early sponge relationships by using the Burgess Shale fossil Eiffelia globosa, Walcott. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 102: 1554–1559.

[C-SC03] Cavalier-Smith, T., & E. E.-Y. Chao. 2003. Phylogeny of Choanozoa, Apusozoa, and other Protozoa and early eukaryote megaevolution. Journal of Molecular Evolution 56: 540–563.

[CA06] Clausen, S., & J. J. Álvaro. 2006. Skeletonized microfossils from the Lower–Middle Cambrian transition of the Cantabrian Mountains, northern Spain. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 51 (2): 223–238.

[EL11] Erwin, D. H., M. Laflamme, S. M. Tweedt, E. A. Sperling, D. Pisani & K. J. Peterson. 2011. The Cambrian conundrum: early divergence and later ecological success in the early history of animals. Science 334: 1091–1097.

[FS14] Fromont, J., & A. Sampey. 2014. Kimberley marine biota. Historical data: sponges (Porifera). Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 84: 69–100.

[FV09] Fromont, J., & M. A. Vanderklift. 2009. Porifera (sponges) of Mermaid, Scott and Seringapatam Reefs, north Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 77: 89–103.

[F79] Fry, W. G. 1979. Taxonomy, the individual and the sponge. In: Larwood, G., & B. R. Rosen (eds) Biology and Systematics of Colonial Organisms pp. 49–80. Academic Press: London.

[H04] Haeckel, E. 1899–1904. Kunstformen der Natur. Bibliographisches Institut: Leipzig und Wien.

[JG19] James, D. J., P. T. Green, W. F. Humphreys & J. C. Z. Woinarski. 2019. Endemic species of Christmas Island, Indian Ocean. Records of the Western Australian Museum 34 (2): 55–114.

[ME94] Maybury, C. A., & K. R. Evans. 1994. Pennsylvanian phylloid algae interpreted as shallow-water xenophyophores. Lethaia 27: 29–33.

[M01] M’Intosh, W. C. 1901. The coloration of marine animals. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 7: 221–240.

[PP64] Peres, J. M., & J. Picard. 1964. Nouveau manuel de bionomie benthique de la mer Mediterranee. Recueil des Travaux de la Station Marine d’Endoume, Bulletin 31 (27): 5–137.

[PP15] Pisani, D., W. Pett, M. Dohrmann, R. Feuda, O. Rota-Stabelli, H. Philippe, N. Lartillot & G. Wörheide. 2015. Genomic data do not support comb jellies as the sister group to all other animals. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 112 (50): 15402–15407.

[RB93] Rigby, J. K., G. E. Budd, R. A. Wood & F. Debrenne. 1993. Porifera. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 71–99. Chapman & Hall: London.

[R26] Risso, A. 1826. Histoire naturelle des principales productions de l’Europe méridionale et particulièrement de celles des environs de Nice et des Alpes maritimes vol. 5. F.-G. Levrault: Paris.

[T10] Taylor, T. G. 1910. The Archaeocyathinae from the Cambrian of South Australia with an account of the morphology and affinities of the whole class. Memoirs of the Royal Society of South Australia 2 (2): 55–188.

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