Scorpidium scorpioides, photographed by K. H. Harms.

Belongs within: Hypnales.

The Calliergonaceae are a family of mosses found in damp habitats. Previously included in the Amblystegiaceae, they were separated on the basis of a molecular analysis by Vanderpoorten et al. (2002). Morphological synapomorphies of the family are that the leaves have the basal alar cells inflated, linear to shortly rectangular, rarely with a few cells quadrate, and the presence of pseudoparaphyllia, with all pseudoparaphyllia broader than in other families, triangular or ovate to suborbicular, and often very irregular in outline (Vanderpoorten et al. 2002). A well-supported clade in the molecular analysis united the taxa studied except ‘Hygrohypnum’ ochraceum and Scorpidium; inclusion of the latter two taxa in a broader clade was less well supported molecularly. Members of the type genus Calliergon are tall and often robust mosses found in bogs or on the ground; they have firm, patent or imbricate leaves (Dixon 1924).

<==Calliergonaceae [Calliergonoideae]
    |--‘Hygrohypnum’ ochraceum (Turner ex Wilson) Loeske 1903VH02, S04 (see below for synonymy)
    `--+--Scorpidium (Schimp.) Limpr. 1899VH02, SK02
       |    |--S. cossonii (Schimp.) Hedenäs 1989S04 (see below for synonymy)
       |    |--S. revolvens (Sw.) Hedenäs 1989S04 (see below for synonymy)
       |    `--S. scorpioides (Hedw.) Limpr. 1899SK02 (see below for synonymy)
       |         |--S. s. var. scorpioidesD24
       |         `--‘Hypnum’ s. var. angustifoliumD24
       `--+--Hamatocaulis Hedenäs 1989VH02, S04
          |    `--*H. vernicosus (Mitt.) Hedenäs 1989OZB-O03, S04 (see below for synonymy)
          `--+--Warnstorfia Loeske 1908VH02, S04
             |    |  i. s.: W. procera [=Drepanocladus exannulatus var. procerus]OZB-O03
             |    |--W. subg. WarnstorfiaOZB-O03
             |    |    |--W. exannulata (Schimp.) Loeske in Nitardy 1907OZB-O03, S04 (see below for synonymy)
             |    |    |    |--W. e. var. exannulata [incl. Hypnum fluitans var. pinnatum]D24
             |    |    |    |    |--W. e. var. e. f. exannulataD24
             |    |    |    |    `--‘Hypnum exannulatum’ var. e. f. stenophylloidesD24
             |    |    |    |--‘Hypnum exannulatum’ var. falcifolium (see below for synonymy)D24
             |    |    |    |    |--H. e. var. f. f. falcifoliumD24
             |    |    |    |    `--H. e. var. f. f. viridisD24
             |    |    |    `--W. e. var. nigricans (Brid.) Ochyra 1995OZB-O03
             |    |    |--W. pseudostraminea (Müll.Hal.) Tuom. & Kop. 1979OZB-O03 (see below for synonymy)
             |    |    `--W. trichophylla (Warnst.) Tuom. & Kop. 1979 (see below for synonymy)OZB-O03
             |    `--W. subg. Sarmentypnum (Tuomikoski & Koponen) Ochyra in Ochyra, Żarnowiec & Bednarek-Ochyra 2003 (see below for synonymy)OZB-O03
             |         `--W. sarmentosa (Wahlenb.) Hedenäs 1993OZB-O03, S04 (see below for synonymy)
             `--+--Calliergon (Sull.) Kindb. 1894VH02, SK02
                |    |--C. cordifolium (Hedw.) Kindb. 1894S04 (see below for synonymy)
                |    |--C. giganteum (Schimp.) Kindb. 1894S04 (see below for synonymy)
                |    |--C. megalophyllum Mikut. 1908 (nom. cons. prop.) (see below for synonymy)OZB-O03
                |    `--C. richardsonii (Mitt.) Kindb. 1897OZB-O03 (see below for synonymy)
                `--+--‘Warnstorfia’ fluitans (Hedw.) Loeske in Nitardy 1907VH02, S04 (see below for synonymy)
                   |    |--W. f. var. fluitansD03
                   |    |--‘Hypnum’ f. var. anglicum [incl. Amblystegium fluitans var. holtii]D24
                   |    |--‘Hypnum’ f. var. arnelliiD24
                   |    |--‘Hypnum’ f. var. atlanticumD24
                   |    |--‘Hypnum’ f. var. falcatum nec H. falcatum nec H. elodes var. falcatumD24
                   |    |--‘Hypnum’ f. var. gracile non H. gracileD24
                   |    |--‘Hypnum’ f. var. jeanbernati [incl. H. fluitans var. paludosum]D24
                   |    |--‘Hypnum’ f. var. laculosaD03
                   |    |--‘Hypnum’ f. var. robertsiaeD24
                   |    |--‘Hypnum’ f. var. setiformeD24
                   |    `--‘Hypnum’ f. var. squalidum Ren. & Dixon 1901D24
                   `--+--Loeskypnum badiumVH02
                      `--Straminergon Hedenäs 1993VH02, SK02
                           `--*S. stramineum (Brid.) Hedenäs 1993OZB-O03, S04 (see below for synonymy)

Calliergon cordifolium (Hedw.) Kindb. 1894S04 [=Hypnum cordifoliumD24, Acrocladium cordifoliumS04, Amblystegium cordifoliumD24; incl. Calliergon cordifolium f. angustifoliumOZB-O03, C. cordifolium f. fontinaloidesOZB-O03]

Calliergon giganteum (Schimp.) Kindb. 1894S04 [=Hypnum giganteumD24, Acrocladium giganteumS04, Amblystegium giganteumD24; incl. Calliergon giganteum f. brevifolium non C. cuspidatum f. brevifoliumOZB-O03, C. giganteum f. dendroidesOZB-O03, C. giganteum f. immersumOZB-O03]

Calliergon megalophyllum Mikut. 1908 (nom. cons. prop.) [=C. richardsonii var. megalophyllum; incl. C. richardsonii var. fluitans non C. cuspidatum f. fluitans, Hypnum moldavicum Velen. 1903, C. richardsonii var. robustum, H. cordifolium var. robustum]OZB-O03

Calliergon richardsonii (Mitt.) Kindb. 1897OZB-O03 [=C. cordifolium var. richardsoniiOZB-O03, Hypnum cordifolium var. richardsoniOZB-O03, Stereodon richardsoniiOZB-O03; incl. H. breidleriD24]

*Hamatocaulis vernicosus (Mitt.) Hedenäs 1989OZB-O03, S04 [=Hypnum vernicosumS04, Amblystegium vernicosumD24, Drepanocladus vernicosusS04, Limprichtia vernicosaOZB-O03, Scorpidium vernicosumS04, Stereodon vernicosusOZB-O03; incl. Drepanocladus vernicosus f. brevifoliusOZB-O03, Hypnum lycopodioides var. genuinumOZB-O03, D. vernicosus f. gigasOZB-O03, D. vernicosus f. gracilescens nec D. aduncus var. gracilescens nec D. revolvens f. gracilescens nec D. sendtneri f. gracilescens nec D. uncinatus f. gracilescensOZB-O03, D. vernicosus f. inundatusOZB-O03, D. vernicosus f. major OZB-O03, Hypnum vernicosum var. majusD24]

‘Hygrohypnum’ ochraceum (Turner ex Wilson) Loeske 1903VH02, S04 [=Hypnum ochraceumS04; incl. Hyg. ochraceum f. complanatumOZB-O03, Hyp. ochraceum var. complanatum non Hyp. complanatumD24, Hyg. ochraceum f. filiformeOZB-O03, Hyg. ochraceum f. flaccidumOZB-O03, Hypnum ochraceum var. flaccidumD24, Hyg. ochraceum f. uncinatumOZB-O03, Hyp. ochraceum var. uncinatum non Hyp. uncinatumOZB-O03]

Hypnum exannulatum’ var. falcifolium [=H. fluitans var. falcifolium; incl. H. exannulatum var. stenophyllum]D24

Scorpidium cossonii (Schimp.) Hedenäs 1989S04 [=Drepanocladius intermedius var. cossoniOZB-O03, D. revolvens f. cossoniOZB-O03, Hypnum revolvens var. cossoniD24, Limprichtia cossonii (Schimp.) Anderson, Crum & Buck 1990S04, OZB-O03; incl. Amblystegium intermediumD24, D. revolvens var. intermediusS04, Hypnum intermediumS04]

Scorpidium revolvens (Sw.) Hedenäs 1989S04 [=Hypnum revolvensS04, Amblystegium revolvensD24, Drepanocladus revolvensS04, Limprichtia revolvens (Sw. ex anon.) Loeske in Nitardy 1907S04, OZB-O03; incl. D. revolvens f. gracilescens non D. aduncus var. gracilescensOZB-O03]

Scorpidium scorpioides (Hedw.) Limpr. 1899SK02 [=Hypnum scorpioidesS04, Amblystegium scorpioidesD24, Calliergon scorpioidesOZB-O03; incl. Scorpidium scorpioides f. fluitansOZB-O03, S. scorpioides f. gracileOZB-O03, S. scorpioides f. julaceumOZB-O03, Hypnum scorpioides var. submersumOZB-O03, S. scorpioides var. submersumOZB-O03]

*Straminergon stramineum (Brid.) Hedenäs 1993OZB-O03, S04 [=Acrocladium stramineumS04, Amblystegium stramineumD24, Calliergon stramineumSK02, Hypnum stramineumD24, Stereodon stramineusOZB-O03; incl. Calliergon stramineaum var. acutifoliumOZB-O03, C. stramineum f. compactumOZB-O03, C. stramineum f. patensOZB-O03]

Warnstorfia subg. Sarmentypnum (Tuomikoski & Koponen) Ochyra in Ochyra, Żarnowiec & Bednarek-Ochyra 2003 [=Sarmentypnum Tuomikoski & Koponen 1979]OZB-O03

Warnstorfia exannulata (Schimp.) Loeske in Nitardy 1907OZB-O03, S04 [=Hypnum exannulatumS04, Amblystegium exannulatumD24, Drepanocladus exannulatus (Bruch & Schimp.) Warnst. 1903SK02; incl. D. exannulatus var. brachydictyusOZB-O03, Hypnum exannulatum var. brachydictyonD24, H. fluitans var. brachydictyonD24, D. exannulatus var. calcareusOZB-O03, Amblystegium campylopodioides Broth. 1935 (n. n.)SK02, D. exannulatus f. falcatus non D. fluitans var. falcatus (Jensen) Roth 1904OZB-O03, D. exannulatus f. integrusOZB-O03, D. exannulatus f. obtususOZB-O03, D. exannulatus f. orthophyllusOZB-O03, Hypnum exannulatum var. brachydictyon f. orthophyllaD24, H. exannulatum var. orthophyllumOZB-O03, Drepanocladus exannulatus var. pinnatusOZB-O03, D. exannulatus f. pratensisOZB-O03, Hypnum exannulatum var. purpurascensOZB-O03, D. exannulatus var. rotaeS04, H. exannulatum var. rotaeD24, D. exannulatus f. serratusOZB-O03, H. exannulatum var. serratumOZB-O03, H. stramineoidesSK02, Rhynchostegium stramineoides (Sauerb.) Wijk & Margad. 1960SK02, H. aduncum var. subalpinumOZB-O03, H. kneiffii var. subalpinumOZB-O03, Drepanocladus exannulatus f. submersusOZB-O03, D. fluitans f. submersusOZB-O03, D. exannulatus f. tenuisOZB-O03, Hypnum aduncum var. tenueOZB-O03]

‘Warnstorfia’ fluitans (Hedw.) Loeske in Nitardy 1907VH02, S04 [=Hypnum fluitansSK02, Amblystegium fluitansSK02, Drepanocladus fluitans (Hedw.) Warnst. 1903SK02, Harpidium fluitansOZB-O03; incl. D. fluitans f. alpinusOZB-O03, D. fluitans var. falcatus (Jensen) Roth 1904SK02, D. h-schulzeiS04, D. fluitans f. obtusus non D. exannulatus f. obtususOZB-O03, D. fluitans f. paludosusOZB-O03, Hypnum pseudofluitans (n. n.)SK02, H. sudeticumOZB-O03, H. turfosumOZB-O03, Drepanocladus fluitans var. uncatusOZB-O03]

Warnstorfia pseudostraminea (Müll.Hal.) Tuom. & Kop. 1979OZB-O03 [=Rhynchostegium pseudostramineumSK02, Calliergidium pseudostramineumSK02, Drepanocladus fluitans f. pseudostramineusOZB-O03, Hypnum fluitans var. pseudostramineumOZB-O03]

Warnstorfia sarmentosa (Wahlenb.) Hedenäs 1993S04 [=Acrocladium sarmentosumS04, Amblystegium sarmentosumD24, Calliergon sarmentosum (Wahlenb.) Kindb. 1894SK02, Hypnum sarmentosumS04, *Sarmentypnum sarmentosumOZB-O03; incl. Calliergon sarmentosum f. fallaciosumOZB-O03, Hypnum sarmentosum var. fallaciosumOZB-O03, C. sarmentosum var. fontinaloides non C. cordifolium f. fontinaloidesOZB-O03, C. samentosum f. pumilumOZB-O03, Hypnum sarmentosum var. pumilumOZB-O03]

Warnstorfia trichophylla (Warnst.) Tuom. & Kop. 1979 [=Drepanocladus rotae var. trichophyllus; incl. D. exannulatus f. excurrens]OZB-O03

*Type species of generic name indicated


[D24] Dixon, H. N. 1924. The Student’s Handbook of British Mosses 3rd ed. V. V. Sumfield: Eastbourne.

[D03] Dusén, P. 1903. Patagonian and Fuegian mosses. In: Scott, W. B. (ed.) Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia, 1896–1899 vol. 8. Botany pp. 63–126. The University: Princeton (New Jersey).

[OZB-O03] Ochyra, R., J. Żarnowiec & H. Bednarek-Ochyra. 2003. Census Catalogue of Polish Mosses. Institute of Botany, Polish Academy of Sciences: Cracow.

[S04] Smith, A. J. E. 2004. The Moss Flora of Britain and Ireland 2nd ed. Cambridge University Press.

[SK02] Streimann, H., & N. Klazenga. 2002. Catalogue of Australian Mosses. Flora of Australia Supplementary Series 17. Australian Biological Resources Study: Canberra.

[VH02] Vanderpoorten, A., L. Hedenäs, C. J. Cox & A. J. Shaw. 2002. Phylogeny and morphological evolution of the Amblystegiaceae (Bryopsida). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 23 (1): 1–21.

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