Slender sea moth Pegasus volitans, copyright Ria Tan.

Belongs within: Scombrimorpharia.
Contains: Callionyminae.

The Callionymoidei are small marine fishes with broad heads and a small mouth (Smith 1963).

Characters (from Smith 1963, as Callionymiformes): Head usually broad, depressed. Body without scales but with lateral line well defined, those of each side generally connected over occiput, sometimes also over peduncle. Usually two dorsal fins (exceptionally one), first of one to four flexible spines, soft fin longer, anal fin similar to soft dorsal. Gill openings usually reduced or even pore-like. Mouth small, fine villiform teeth uniserial or in bands in each jaw, none on palate. One or more opercular bones armed with spine.

<==Callionymoidei [Callionymiformes]
    |--Draconetta Jordan & Fowler 1903 [incl. Centrodraco Regan 1913; Draconettidae]S63
    |    |--*D. xenica Jordan & Fowler 1903S63
    |    |--*Centrodraco’ acanthopomaR13
    |    `--D. africana Smith 1963S63
    |    |--Ramphosus [Ramphosidae]P93
    |    |    `--R. rosenkrantzi Nielsen 1960P93
    |    `--Pegasidae [Pegasiformes]B-RB13
    |         |--Zalises draconisG75
    |         |--Parapegasus natans (Linné 1766) [=Pegasus natans]M58
    |         `--Pegasus Linnaeus 1758L58
    |              |--*P. volitans Linnaeus 1758 [=Parapegasus volitansM58]
    |              |--P. chiropterusH04
    |              `--P. draconis Linné 1766M58
         |    |--Pogonymus Gosline 1959S63
         |    `--Charibarbitus Smith 1963S63
         |         `--*C. celetus Smith 1963S63

*Type species of generic name indicated


[B-RB13] Betancur-R., R., R. E. Broughton, E. O. Wiley, K. Carpenter, A. López, C. Li, N. I. Holcroft, D. Arcila, M. Sanciangco, J. C. Cureton, II, F. Zhang, T. Buser, M. A. Campbell, J. A. Ballesteros, A. Roa-Varon, S. Willis, W. C. Borden, T. Rowley, P. C. Reneau, D. J. Hough, G. Lu, T. Grande, G. Arratia & G. Ortí. 2013. The tree of life and a new classification of bony fishes. PLoS Currents Tree of Life April 18 2013. doi: 10.1371/currents.tol.53ba26640df0ccaee75bb165c8c26288.

[G75] Grant, E. M. 1975. Guide to Fishes. The Co-ordinator-General’s Department: Brisbane (Australia).

[H04] Haeckel, E. 1899–1904. Kunstformen der Natur. Bibliographisches Institut: Leipzig und Wien.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[M58] Munro, I. S. R. 1958. The fishes of the New Guinea region: a check-list of the fishes of New Guinea incorporating records of species collected by the Fisheries Survey Vessel “Fairwind” during the years 1948 to 1950. Papua and New Guinea Agricultural Journal 10 (4): 97–369 (reprinted: 1958. Territory of Papua and New Guinea Fisheries Bulletin no. 1).

[P93] Patterson, C. 1993. Osteichthyes: Teleostei. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 621–656. Chapman & Hall: London.

[R13] Regan, C. T. 1913. The classification of the percoid fishes. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 8, 12: 111–145.

[S63] Smith, J. L. B. 1963. Fishes of the families Draconettidae and Callionymidae from the Red Sea and the western Indian Ocean. Ichthyological Bulletin 28: 547–564.

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