Bearded emperor tamarins Saguinus imperator subgrisescens, photographed by Jitka Vokurková.

Belongs within: Platyrrhini.
Contains: Mico.

The Callitrichinae are the marmosets and tamarins, a clade of small monkeys (including some of the smallest of all primates) found in northern South America. Many members of the clade are ornately coloured.

Characters (from Rylands 1984): Size small; claws (rather than nails) on all digits except big toe; two molar teeth in each side of each jaw (three in Callimico goeldii, rear inner cusp absent on upper molars; uterus simple, twin births usual (single births in C. goeldii).

<==Callitrichinae [Callitrichidae, Callitrichini]
    |  i. s.: Micodon Setoguchi & Rosenberger 1985SM93
    |           `--M. kiotensisH99
    |         Lagonimico conclucatus Kay 1994H99
    |--Saguinus Hoffmannsegg 1807OW06, C57 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |  i. s.: ‘Hapale’ devillei Geoffroy 1851 (see below for synonymy)C57
    |    |         S. tamarin (Link 1794)JP84, C57 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |--+--S. leucopus (Günther 1876)FS15, C57 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |  `--+--S. tripartitus (Milne-Edwards 1878)FS15, C57 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |     `--+--S. nigricollis (Spix 1823)FS15, C57 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |        |    |--S. n. nigricollisR84
    |    |        |    `--S. n. graellsi (Espada 1870)R84, C57 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |        `--+--S. fuscicollis (Spix 1823)FS15, C57 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |           |    |--S. f. fuscicollisR84
    |    |           |    |--S. f. acrensisR84
    |    |           |    |--S. f. avilapiresiR84
    |    |           |    |--S. f. crandalliR84
    |    |           |    |--S. f. cruzlimaiR84
    |    |           |    |--S. f. fuscus (Lesson 1840)R84, C57 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |           |    |--S. f. illigeri (Pucheran 1845)R84, C57 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |           |    |--S. f. lagonotus (Espada 1870)R84, C57 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |           |    |--S. f. leucogenys (Gray 1865)R84, C57 [=Midas leucogenysC57]
    |    |           |    |--S. f. nigrifrons (Geoffroy 1851)R84, C57 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |           |    |--S. f. primitivus Hershkovitz 1978G91
    |    |           |    `--S. f. weddelli (Deville 1849)R84, C57 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |           `--S. melanoleucus (Miranda Ribeiro 1912)FS15, C57 (see below for synonymy)
    |    `--+--S. inustus (Schwarz 1951)FS15, C57 [=Leontocebus midas inustusC57]
    |       `--+--+--S. imperator (Goeldi 1907)FS15, C57 (see below for synonymy)
    |          |  |    |--S. i. imperatorR84
    |          |  |    `--S. i. subgrisescens (Lönnberg 1940)R84, C57 (see below for synonymy)
    |          |  `--+--S. labiatus (Geoffroy ex Humboldt 1812)FS15, C57 (see below for synonymy)
    |          |     |    |--S. l. labiatusR84 (see below for synonymy)
    |          |     |    |--‘Leontocebus’ l. griseovertex (Goeldi 1907) (see below for synonymy)C57
    |          |     |    `--S. l. thomasi (Goeldi 1907)R84, C57 [=Midas thomasiC57, Leontocebus thomasiC57]
    |          |     `--S. mystax (Spix 1823)FS15, C57 (see below for synonymy)
    |          |          |--S. m. mystaxR84
    |          |          |--S. m. pileatus (Geoffroy & Deville 1848)R84, C57 (see below for synonymy)
    |          |          `--S. m. pluto (Lönnberg 1926)R84, C57 (see below for synonymy)
    |          `--+--+--S. geoffroyi (Pucheran 1845)FS15, C57 (see below for synonymy)
    |             |  `--S. oedipus (Linnaeus 1758)FS15, C57 (see below for synonymy)
    |             `--+--+--S. bicolor (Spix 1823)FS15, C57 (see below for synonymy)
    |                |  |    |--S. b. bicolorR84
    |                |  |    `--S. b. ochraceousR84
    |                |  `--S. martinsi (Thomas 1912)FS15, C57 (see below for synonymy)
    |                `--+--S. midas (Linnaeus 1758)FS15, C57 (see below for synonymy)
    |                   `--S. niger (Schinz 1844)FS15, C57 [=Hapale nigraC57, Saguinus midas nigerR84]
    `--+--Leontopithecus Lesson 1840OW06, C57 [incl. Leontideus Cabrera 1956C57]
       |    |--+--L. caissaraFS15
       |    |  `--L. chrysopygus (Mikan 1823)FS15, C57 (see below for synonymy)
       |    `--+--L. chrysomelas (Kuhl 1820)FS15, C57 (see below for synonymy)
       |       `--L. rosalia (Linné 1766)FS15, C57 (see below for synonymy)
       `--+--+--Carlocebus Fleagle 1990H99, G91
          |  |    `--C. carmenensis Fleagle 1990H99
          |  `--+--Patasola magdalenae Kay & Meldrum 1997H99
          |     `--Callimico Miranda Ribeiro 1911OW06, C57
          |          `--C. goeldii (Thomas 1904) (see below for synonymy)C57
          `--+--+--Callibella humilisFS15
             |  `--Callithrix Erxleben 1777OW06, C57 (see below for synonymy)
             |       |  i. s.: C. humeralifer (Geoffroy ex Humboldt 1812)R84, C57 (see below for synonymy)
             |       |           |--C. h. humeraliferR84
             |       |           `--C. h. intermediusR84
             |       |         C. santaremensis (Matschie 1893) [=Hapale santaremensis]C57
             |       |--+--C. aurita (Geoffroy ex Humboldt 1812)FS15, C57 (see below for synonymy)
             |       |  |    |--C. a. aurita [incl. Hapale petronius Miranda Ribeiro 1924]C57
             |       |  |    `--C. a. coelestis (Miranda Ribeiro 1824) [=Hapale coelestis]C57
             |       |  `--C. flaviceps (Thomas 1903)FS15, C57 [=Hapale flavicepsC57, C. jacchus flavicepsBP87]
             |       `--+--+--*C. jacchus (Linnaeus 1758)C57, FS15, C57 (see below for synonymy)
             |          |  `--C. penicillata (Geoffroy ex Humboldt 1812)FS15, C57 (see below for synonymy)
             |          |       |--C. p. penicillata (Geoffroy ex Humboldt 1812)C57 (see below for synonymy)
             |          |       `--C. p. jordani Thomas 1904C57
             |          `--+--C. geoffroyi (Humboldt 1812)FS15, C57 (see below for synonymy)
             |             `--C. kuhliiFS15 [=C. penicillata kuhliiR84]
             `--+--Cebuella Gray 1866NG13, C57
                |    `--*C. pygmaea (Spix 1823) [=Jacchus pygmaeus, Callithrix pygmaea, Hapale (*Cebuella) pygmaea]C57
                |         |--C. p. pygmaeaC57
                |         `--C. p. niveiventris Lönnberg 1940C57

Callimico goeldii (Thomas 1904) [=Midas goeldii, Callithrix goeldii; incl. *Callimico suethlageri Miranda Ribeiro 1912, Callimidas snethlageri (l. c.)]C57

Callithrix Erxleben 1777OW06, C57 [incl. Arctopithecus Virey 1819C57, Cuistitis Burnett 1826C57, Hapale Illiger 1811C57, Jacchus Geoffroy in Humboldt 1812C57, Liocephalus Wagner 1840C57, Micoella Gray 1870C57, Sagoinus Kerr 1792C57, Sagouin Lacépede 1799C57, Sylvanus Rafinesque 1815 non Latreille 1807C57]

Callithrix aurita (Geoffroy ex Humboldt 1812)FS15, C57 [=Simia auritaC57, C. jacchus auritaBP87, Hapale auritaC57, H. auritusC57, Jacchus auritusC57]

Callithrix geoffroyi (Humboldt 1812)FS15, C57 [=Simia geoffroyiC57, C. jacchus geoffroyiBP87, Hapale geoffroyiC57; incl. Jacchus leucocephalus Geoffroy 1812C57, Hapale leucocephalaC57, Callithrix leucocephalaC57, H. leucocephalusC57, Jacchus maximiliani Reichenbach 1862C57]

Callithrix humeralifer (Geoffroy ex Humboldt 1812)R84, C57 [=Simia humeraliferaC57, Hapale humeraliferC57, Jacchus humeraliferC57]

*Callithrix jacchus (Linnaeus 1758)C57, FS15, C57 [=Simia jacchusC57, Hapale jacchusC57, S. jaccusC57; incl. Jacchus albicollis Spix 1823C57, Callithris albicollisC57, Hapale albicollisC57, H. leucotis Lesson 1840C57, Simia (Sagoinus) jacchus moschatus Kerr 1792C57, Jacchus vulgaris rufus Fischer 1829C57, J. vulgaris Geoffroy 1812C57]

Callithrix penicillata (Geoffroy ex Humboldt 1812)FS15, C57 [=Simia penicillataC57, Hapale penicillataC57, H. penicillatusC57, Jacchus penicillatusC57]

Callithrix penicillata penicillata (Geoffroy ex Humboldt 1812)C57 [=C. jacchus penicillataBP87; incl. Hapale melanotis Lesson 1840C57, H. trigonifer Reichenbach 1862C57]

‘Hapale’ devillei Geoffroy 1851 [=Leontocebus (Leontocebus) devillei, L. devillii, Marikina devillei, Midas devillei, Mystax devillei, Tamarin devilli; incl. My. devillei micans Thomas 1928, Tamarin devilli micans]C57

‘Leontocebus’ labiatus griseovertex (Goeldi 1907) [=Midas griseovertex, Mi. griseoventris (l. c.), Mystax griseovertex]C57

Leontopithecus chrysomelas (Kuhl 1820)FS15, C57 [=Midas chrysomelasC57, Hapale chrysomelasC57, Jacchus chrysomelasC57, Leontideus chrysomelasC57, Leontocebus chrysomelasC57, Leontopithecus rosalia chrysomelasR84, Marikina chrysomelasC57]

Leontopithecus chrysopygus (Mikan 1823)FS15, C57 [=Jacchus chrysopygusC57, Hapale chrysopygaC57, Leontideus chrysopygusC57, Leontocebus chrysopygusC57, Leontopithecus rosalia chrysopygusR84, Marikina chrysopygusC57, Midas chrysopygusC57; incl. Leontopithecus ater Lesson 1840C57]

Leontopithecus rosalia (Linné 1766)R84, C57 [=Simia rosaliaC57, Callithrix rosaliaC57, Hapale rosaliaC57, Jacchus rosaliaC57, *Leontideus rosaliaC57, Leontocebus rosaliaC57, Marikina rosaliaC57, Midas rosaliaC57; incl. Jacchus rosalia brasiliensis Fischer 1829C57, Jacchus rosalia guyanensis Fischer 1829C57, Simia leonina Shaw 1800C57, Leontopithecus marikina Lesson 1840C57]

Saguinus Hoffmannsegg 1807OW06, C57 [incl. Hapanella Gray 1870C57, Leontocebus Wagner 1839C57, Marikina Lesson 1840C57, Mystax Gray 1870C57, Oedipomidas Reichenbach 1862C57, Seniocebus Gray 1870C57, Tamarin Gray 1870C57, Tamarinus Gray 1899C57]

Saguinus bicolor (Spix 1823)FS15, C57 [=Midas bicolorC57, Hapale bicolorC57, Jacchus bicolorC57, Leontocebus (*Marikina) bicolorC57, Seniocebus bicolorC57, Tamarin (Oedipomidas) bicolorC57]

Saguinus fuscicollis (Spix 1823)FS15, C57 [=Midas fuscicollisC57, Leontocebus fuscicollisC57, Marikina fuscicollisC57, Tamarin fuscicollisC57; incl. Midas flavifrons Geoffroy 1848C57, T. nigricollis Cruz Lima 1945C57, Mystax nigrifons pebilis Thomas 1928C57, T. nigrifrons pebilisC57]

Saguinus fuscicollis fuscus (Lesson 1840)R84, C57 [=Leontopithecus fuscusC57, Leontocebus fuscusC57; incl. Simia leonina Humboldt 1805 non Shaw 1800C57, Hapale leoninaC57 Jacchus leoninusC57, Midas leoninusC57, *Leontocebus leoninusC57, Leontopithecus leoninusC57]

Saguinus fuscicollis illigeri (Pucheran 1845)R84, C57 [=Hapale illigeriC57, Midas illigeriC57, Leontocebus illigeriC57, Marikina illigeriC57, Oedipomidas illigeriC57, Tamarin illigeriC57; incl. Midas apiculatus Thomas 1904C57, Leontocebus apiculatusC57, Tamarin apiculatusC57, L. mounseyi Thomas 1920C57]

Saguinus fuscicollis lagonotus (Espada 1870)R84, C57 [=Midas lagonotusC57, Leontocebus lagonotusC57, Mystax lagonotusC57, Tamarin lagonotusC57; incl. My. bluntschlii Matschie 1915C57, Tamarin bluntschliiC57]

Saguinus fuscicollis nigrifrons (Geoffroy 1851)R84, C57 [=Midas nigrifronsC57, Hapale nigrifronsC57, Leontocebus nigrifronsC57, Tamarin nigrifronsC57]

Saguinus fuscicollis weddelli (Deville 1849)R84, C57 [=Midas weddelliC57, Leontocebus weddelliC57, Marikina weddelliC57; incl. Mystax imberbis Lönnberg 1940C57, Leontocebus purillus Thomas 1914C57]

Saguinus geoffroyi (Pucheran 1845)FS15, C57 [=Hapale geoffroyiC57, Leontocebus (Oedipomidas) geoffroyiC57, Marikina geoffroyiC57, Midas geoffroyiC57, Oedipus geoffroyiC57, Saguinus oedipus geoffroyiC57; incl. Oedipomidas salaquiensis Elliot 1912C57, Jacchus spixii Reichenbach 1862C57, Oedipomidas spixiC57]

Saguinus imperator (Goeldi 1907)FS15, C57 [=Midas imperatorC57, Leontocebus imperatorC57, Marikina imperatorC57, Tamarin imperatorC57]

Saguinus imperator subgrisescens (Lönnberg 1940)R84, C57 [=Mystax imperator subgrisescensC57, Marikina imperator subgrisescensC57, Tamarin imperator subgrisescensC57]

Saguinus labiatus (Geoffroy ex Humboldt 1812)FS15, C57 [=Simia labiataC57, Hapale labiataC57, Jacchus labiatusC57, Leontocebus labiatusC57, Marikina labiataC57, Ma. labiatusC57, Midas labiatusC57, Tamarin labiatusC57]

Saguinus labiatus labiatus (Geoffroy ex Humboldt 1812)R84, C57 [incl. Mi. elegantulus Slack 1861C57, Mi. erythrogaster Reichenbach 1862C57, Hapale erythrogasterC57, Jacchus rufiventer Gray 1843C57, Midas rufiventerC57, Mi. rufoventerC57]

Saguinus leucopus (Günther 1876)FS15, C57 [=Hapale leucopusC57, Callithrix leucopusC57, Leontocebus (Marikina) bicolorC57, Oedipomidas leucopusC57; incl. O. pegasis Elliot 1913C57]

Saguinus martinsi (Thomas 1912)FS15, C57 [=Leontocebus martinsiC57, L. (Marikina) martinsiC57, Seniocebus martinsiC57, Saguinus bicolor martinsiR84, Tamarin (Oedipomidas) martinsiC57]

Saguinus melanoleucus (Miranda Ribeiro 1912)FS15, C57 [=Mico melanoleucusC57, Callithrix melanoleucusC57, Hapale melanoleucusC57, Leontocebus melanoleucusC57, Marikina melanoleucaC57, Mystax melanoleucusC57, Saguinus fuscicollis melanoleucusR84, Tamarin melanoleucusC57; incl. Leontocebus hololeucus Pinto 1937C57]

Saguinus midas (Linnaeus 1758)FS15, C57 [=Simia midasC57, Callithrix midasC57, Cercopithecus midasC57, Hapale midasC57, Jacchus midasC57, Leontocebus midasC57, Marikina midasC57, Midas midasC57, Mystax midasC57, Tamarin midasC57; incl. Leontocebus midas egens Thomas 1912C57, Cercopithecus midas egensC57, Tamarin midas egensC57, Callithrix lacepede Fischer 1806C57, Midas lacepediiC57, M. rufimanus Geoffroy 1812C57, Cercopithecus rufimanusC57, Jacchus rufimanusC57, Tamarin rufimanusC57]

Saguinus mystax (Spix 1823)FS15, C57 [=Midas mystaxC57, Hapale mystaxC57, Leontocebus mystaxC57, Marikina mystaxC57, Tamarin mystaxC57]

Saguinus mystax pileatus (Geoffroy & Deville 1848)R84, C57 [=Midas pileatusC57, Hapale pileataC57, Leontocebus pileatusC57, Marikina pileataC57, Tamarin pileatusC57; incl. Midas pileatus juruanus Ihering 1904C57, Marikina pileata juruanaC57]

Saguinus mystax pluto (Lönnberg 1926)R84, C57 [=Mystax plutoC57, Leontocebus plutoC57, Marikina plutoC57, Tamarin plutoC57]

Saguinus nigricollis (Spix 1823)FS15, C57 [=Midas nigricollisC57, Hapale nigricollisC57, Leontocebus nigricollisC57, Marikina nigricollisC57, Tamarin nigricollisC57; incl. Leontocebus ater Lesson 1840C57, L. pacator Thomas 1914C57, Mystax devillei pacatorC57, Tamarin devilli pacatorC57, Midas rufoniger Geoffroy & Deville 1848C57]

Saguinus nigricollis graellsi (Espada 1870)R84, C57 [=Midas graellsiC57, Leontocebus graellsiC57, Marikina graellsiC57, Tamarin graellsiC57]

Saguinus oedipus (Linnaeus 1758)FS15, C57 [=Simia oedipusC57, Callithrix oedipusC57, Hapale oedipusC57, Jacchus oedipusC57, Jaccus oedipusC57, Leontocebus (*Oedipomidas) oedipusC57, Leontopithecus oedipusC57, Marikina oedipusC57, Midas oedipusC57; incl. Simia albifrons Thunberg 1819 non Humboldt 1812 (n. d.)C57, Jacchus albifronsC57, Seniocebus meticulosus Elliot 1912C57, Oedipus titi Lesson 1840C57]

Saguinus tamarin (Link 1794)JP84, C57 [=Cebus tamarinC57, Leontocebus tamarinC57, Marikina (Tamarin) tamarinC57, Midas tamarinC57; incl. Mystax ursulus umbratus Thomas 1922C57, Marikina tamarin umbrataC57, Tamarin tamarin umbratusC57, Saguinus ursula Hoffmannsegg 1807C57, Cercopithecus ursulusC57, Hapale ursulaC57, H. ursulusC57, Jacchus ursulusC57, Midas ursulusC57, Simia ursulaC57]

Saguinus tripartitus (Milne-Edwards 1878)FS15, C57 [=Midas tripartitusC57, Leontocebus tripartitusC57, Saguinus fuscicollis tripartitusR84, Tamarin tripartitusC57]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BP87] Burton, J. A., & B. Pearson. 1987. Collins Guide to the Rare Mammals of the World. Collins: London.

[C57] Cabrera, A. 1957. Catalogo de los mamiferos de America del Sur. I (Metatheria—Unguiculata—Carnivora). Revista del Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales “Bernardino Rivadavia” e Instituto Nacional de Investigacion de Las Ciencias Naturales, Ciencias Zoológicas 4 (1): 1–307.

[G91] Groves, C. P. 1991. A Theory of Human and Primate Evolution revised ed. Clarendon Press: Oxford.

[H99] Horovitz, I. 1999. A phylogenetic study of living and fossil platyrrhines. American Museum Novitates 3269: 1–40.

[JP84] Jolicoeur, P., P. Pirlot, G. Baron & H. Stephan. 1984. Brain structure and correlation patterns in Insectivora, Chiroptera, and Primates. Systematic Zoology 33 (1): 14–29.

[OW06] Opazo, J. C., D. E. Wildman, T. Prychitko, R. M. Johnson & M. Goodman. 2006. Phylogenetic relationships and divergence times among New World monkeys (Platyrrhini, Primates). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 40 (1): 274–280.

[R84] Rylands, A. B. 1984. Marmosets and tamarins. In: Macdonald, D. (ed.) All the World’s Animals: Primates pp. 46–51. Torstar Books: New York.

[SM93] Stucky, R. K., & M. C. McKenna. 1993. Mammalia. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 739–771. Chapman & Hall: London.

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