Calophyllaceae

Mastwood Calophyllum inophyllum, copyright Adityamadhav83.

Belongs within: Malpighiales.

The Calophyllaceae are an assemblage of about 450 species of latex-producing tropical trees and shrubs. One species, the mammee Mammea americana, is used in some parts of the Americas as a fruit tree whereas other species are used for their wood. Members of the genus Calophyllum are distinguished by leaves with close-set, parallel veins on the lamina alternating with latex canals (Stevens 1995).

Characters (from Stevens 1995): Leaves opposite or alternate; latex glands dots or lines. Inflorescence lateral or terminal; bracts present, deciduous or not, bracteoles often absent. Flowers regular, hermaphroditic or unisexual. Sepals and petals sometimes not clearly separated, up to 14, or sepals 4 or 5, decussate or imbricate, petals 4 or 5, decussate, imbricate or contorted. Stamens numerous, usually free. Ovary superior, 2-5-carpellate; ovules anatropous, basal or apical, usually 1-12; styles fused, rarely free; stigma often very prominently developed. Fruit a drupe, drupe-like, berry-like or a capsule. Seeds large to small; cotyledons well developed, sometimes fused; aril absent.

<==Calophyllaceae [Calophylloideae]
|  i. s.: Kayea S95
|           |–K. coriacea (Stevens) Stevens 1993 [=Mesua coriacea Stevens 1974] S95
|           `–K. macrophylla Kan. & Hat. 1942 [=Mesua macrophylla (Kan. & Hat.) Kosterm. 1969] S95
|–Endodesmia Benth. 1862 XR12, KC01
`–+–Mammea XR12
|    |–M. americana XR12
|    |–M. congregata S95
|    |–M. cordata Stevens 1974 S95
|    |–M. grandifolia Stevens 1974 S95
|    |–M. novoguineensis (Kan. & Hat.) Kosterm. 1956 (see below for synonymy) S95
|    |–M. odorata (Raf.) Kosterm. 1956 (see below for synonymy) S95
|    |–M. papuana (Laut.) Kosterm. 1956 [=Ochrocarpus papuana Laut. 1922] S95
|    |–M. papyracea Stevens 1993 S95
|    `–M. veimauriensis Stevens 1974 S95
`–+–Mesua ferrea Linnaeus 1753 XR12, S95
`–Calophyllum XR12
|–C. acutiputamen Stevens 1974 S95
|–C. alboramulum H03
|–C. antillanum F11
|–C. articulatum S95
|–C. bicolor Stevens 1980 S95
|–C. bifurcatum Stevens 1980 S95
|–C. blancoi H03
|–C. brasiliense SWK87
|–C. brassii Smith 1941 S95
|–C. carrii Stevens 1974 S95
|    |–C. c. var. carrii S95
|    `–C. c. var. longigemmatum Stevens 1974 S95
|–C. caudatum Kan. & Hat. 1942 S95
|–C. collinum Stevens 1980 S95
|–C. confusum Stevens 1974 S95
|–C. costatum S95
|–C. dasypodum H03
|–C. euryphyllum Laut. 1922 S95
|–C. goniocarpum Stevens 1974 S95
|–C. heterophyllum Stevens 1974 S95
|–C. hirasimum Stevens 1980 S95
|–C. inophyllum Linnaeus 1753 S95
|–C. insularum Stevens 1980 S95
|–C. lanigerum H03
|    |–C. l. var. lanigerum H03
|    `–C. l. var. austrocoriaceum H03
|–C. laticostatum Stevens 1974 S95
|–C. leleanii Stevens 1980 S95
|–C. leucocarpum S95
|–C. macrophyllum Scheffer 1873 S95
|–C. morobense Stevens 1974 S95
|–C. neo-ebudicum Guillaumin 1931 [incl. C. pseudovitiense Stevens 1974] S95
|–C. novoguineense Kan. & Hat. 1942 [incl. C. warenense Kan. & Hat. 1942] S95
|–C. obscurum Stevens 1974 S95
|–C. papuanum Laut. 1922 S95
|–C. parvifolium Choisy 1823 [incl. C. microphyllum Planch. & Triana 1862, C. schefferi Vesque 1893] S95
|–C. pauciflorum Smith 1941 [incl. C. congestiflorum Smith 1941] S95
|–C. peekelii Laut. 1922 S95
|–C. persimile Stevens 1980 S95
|–C. piluliferum Stevens 1974 S95
|–C. robustum Stevens 1974 S95
|–C. rufinerve Kan. & Hat. 1942 S95
|–C. rupicolum P88
|–C. savannarum Smith 1941 S95
|–C. sil Laut. 1922 [incl. C. procerum Smith 1941] S95
|–C. soulattri Burm. 1768 (see below for synonymy) S95
|–C. streimannii Stevens 1974 S95
|–C. suberosum Stevens 1974 S95
|–C. trachycaule Laut. 1922 S95
|–C. vexans Stevens 1974 [incl. C. gaimanum Stevens 1974] S95
`–C. waliense Stevens 1980 S95

Calophyllum soulattri Burm. 1768 [incl. C. kiong Laut. & Sch. 1901, C. lanceolatum Warb. 1891, C. paludosum White 1941, C. solomonense Smith 1941, C. versteegii Laut. 1922, C. warburgii Engl. 1892] S95

Mammea novoguineensis (Kan. & Hat.) Kosterm. 1956 [=Ochrocarpus novoguineensis Kan. & Hat. 1942; incl. M. lancelimba Kosterm. 1956] S95

Mammea odorata (Raf.) Kosterm. 1956 [=Lolanara odorata Raf. 1837, Ochrocarpus odoratus (Raf.) Merr. 1945; incl. O. excelsus (Planch. & Triana) Vesque 1893, O. ovalifolius Anderson ex Hemsl. 1885, O. pachyphyllus Sch. 1889] S95

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[F11] Fraga, R. M. 2011. Family Icteridae (New World blackbirds). In: Hoyo, J. del, A. Elliott & D. A. Christie (eds) Handbook of the Birds of the World vol. 16. Tanagers to New World Blackbirds pp. 684–807. Lynx Edicions: Barcelona.

[H03] Heads, M. 2003. Ericaceae in Malesia: vicariance biogeography, terrane tectonics and ecology. Telopea 10 (1): 311–449.

[KC01] Kirk, P. M., P. F. Cannon, J. C. David & J. A. Stalpers. 2001. Ainsworth & Bisby’s Dictionary of the Fungi 9th ed. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[P88] Polunin, I. 1988. Plants and Flowers of Malaysia. Times Editions: Singapore.

[SWK87] Snyder, N. F. R., J. W. Wiley & C. B. Kepler. 1987. The Parrots of Luquillo: Natural history and conservation of the Puerto Rican parrot. Western Foundation of Vertebrate Zoology: Los Angeles.

[S95] Stevens, P. F. 1995. Guttiferae subfam. Calophylloideae. In: Conn, B. J. (ed.) Handbooks of the Flora of Papua New Guinea vol. 3 pp. 61–126. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Australia).

[XR12] Xi, Z., B. R. Ruhfel, H. Schaefer, A. M. Amorim, M. Sugumaran, K. J. Wurdack, P. K. Endress, M. L. Matthews, P. F. Stevens, S. Mathews & C. C. Davis. 2012. Phylogenomics and a posteriori data partitioning resolve the Cretaceous angiosperm radiation Malpighiales. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 109 (43): 17519–17524.

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