Calycina

Salenia texana, copyright Ecphora.

Belongs within: Echinacea.

The Calycina are a group of echinoids known from the Lower Jurassic (possibly the Upper Triassic) to the present. Members of this group commonly have one or more large suranal plates over the apical system that superficially resemble a calyx. They are first represented in the fossil record by the Acrosaleniidae, which survived to the Upper Cretaceous and possess perforate primary tubercles. The Saleniidae, with imperforate primary tubercles, are known from the Upper Jurassic to the present (Fell & Pawson 1966).

Characters (from Fell & Pawson 1966, as Salenioida): Lantern stirodont. Test of cidaroid facies (each interambulacral plate with single large primary tubercle and number of much smaller secondary tubercles). Ambulacrals simple or compounded in diadematoid manner. Apical svstem with one or several large, polygonal suranal plates, closely connected with the oculogenital ring, simulating a calyx. Inner border of oculogenital ring angular, not circular or oval. Periproct posterior (toward genital 5) or posterodextral (toward ocular I), encroaching on posterior edge of suranal plate, or plates, which become emarginated. Primary tubercles usually crenulate. Primary spines of cidaroid facies, with collar and cortex layer.

<==Calycina [Salenioida]SG93
    |--AcrosaleniidaeFP66
    |    |--Eurysalenia minima Kier 1966SG93
    |    |--Monodiadema de Loriol 1890FP66
    |    |    `--*M. cotteaui de Loriol 1890FP66
    |    |--Recrosalenia Currie 1925FP66
    |    |    `--*R. somaliensis Currie 1925FP66
    |    |--Polysalenia Mortensen 1932FP66
    |    |    |--*P. notabilis Mortensen 1932FP66
    |    |    `--P. cottaldi Mortensen 1932G93
    |    |--Heterosalenia Cotteau 1861 [incl. Metacrosalenia Currie 1925]FP66
    |    |    |--*H. martini Cotteau 1861FP66
    |    |    |--H. occidentalis Hawkins 1923SG93
    |    |    `--*Metacrosalenia’ pseudocidaroides Currie 1925FP66
    |    |--Pseudosalenia Cotteau 1859 [=Amphisalenia Pomel 1883, Perisalenia Valette 1906]FP66
    |    |    |--P. aspera (Agassiz 1838) [=Acrosalenia aspera; incl. *P. flexuosa Cotteau 1859]FP66
    |    |    |--‘Acrosalenia’ gauthieri [=*Perisalenia gauthieri]FP66
    |    |    `--P. zumoffeniFP66
    |    `--Acrosalenia Agassiz 1840 [incl. Milnia Haime 1849, Plesiosalenia Valette 1906, Thylosalenia Pomel 1883]FP66
    |         |--*A. spinosa Agassiz 1840FP66
    |         |--‘Hemicidaris’ angularis Agassiz 1846 [=*Milnia angularis]FP66
    |         |--A. balsami (Stoppani 1860)SG93
    |         |--A. chartroni Lambert 1904SG93
    |         |--A. colcanapiFP99
    |         |--A. hemicidaroidesFP66
    |         |--A. lycetti Wright 1851SG93
    |         |--A. marcottiMD66
    |         |--A. patella [=Hemicidaris patella, *Thylosalenia patella]FP66
    |         `--A. pentagona [=*Plesiosalenia pentagona]FP66
    `--Saleniidae [Salenies]FP66
         |  i. s.: NovasaleniaJB12
         |--HyposaleniinaeFP66
         |    |--Idiocidaris de Loriol 1909FP66
         |    |    `--*I. lamberti de Loriol 1909FP66
         |    |--Glyphopneustes Pomel 1869 [=Coptophyma Peron & Gauthier 1879]FP66
         |    |    `--*G. problematicus (Cotteau 1880) [=Goniophorus problematicus, *Coptophyma problematicum]FP66
         |    |--Goniophorus Agassiz 1838 [incl. Gonosalenia Quenstedt 1872]FP66
         |    |    `--*G. lunulatus Agassiz 1838FP66
         |    `--Hyposalenia Desor 1856 (see below for synonymy)FP66
         |         |  i. s.: H. clathrataFP66
         |         |         H. heliophoraFP66
         |         |         H. wrightiFP66
         |         |--*H. (Hyposalenia) acanthoides (see below for synonymy)FP66
         |         `--H. (Poropeltaris Quenstedt 1875)SG93, FP66 [=Poropeltis (l. c.) non Henn. 1904 (ICBN)FP66]
         |              `--H. (*P.) sculptopunctata (Quenstedt 1875)SG93, FP66 [=*Poropeltaris sculptopunctataFP66]
         `--SaleniinaeFP66
              |--Trisalenia Lambert 1895FP66
              |    `--*T. loveni (Cotteau 1859) [=Salenia loveni]FP66
              |--Valsalenia Mortensen 1934FP66
              |    `--*V. garumnensis (Valette 1905) [=Salenia garumnensis]FP66
              |--Salenocidaris Agassiz 1869FP66
              |    |--*S. varispina Agassiz 1869FP66
              |    `--S. miliarisFP66
              |--Salenidia Pomel 1883FP66
              |    |--*S. gibba [=Salenia gibba]FP66
              |    |--S. blandfordiFP66
              |    `--S. hebertiFP66
              |--Pleurosalenia Pomel 1883FP66
              |    `--*P. tertiaria (Tate 1877) [=Salenia tertiaria, Salinida tertiaria]MM22
              `--Salenia Gray 1835 [incl. Bathysalenia Pomel 1838, Cidarelle Desmoulins 1835]FP66
                   |--*S. scutigera (Münster in Goldfuss 1826) [=Cidarites scutigera]FP66
                   |--S. goesianaFP66
                   |--S. neocomensisFP66
                   |--‘Echinus’ petaliferus [=*Cidarelle petalifera]FP66
                   |--S. rejaudryiFP66
                   |--S. taurica Weber 1934SG93
                   |--S. texanaK79
                   `--S. tumidulaFP66

Hyposalenia Desor 1856 [=Peltaris Quenstedt 1873, Peltastes Agassiz 1838 non Illiger 1807, Peltosalenia Quenstedt 1874]FP66

*Hyposalenia (Hyposalenia) acanthoides [=Echinus acanthoides, *Peltastes acanthoides, *Peltosalenia acanthoides]FP66

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[FP66] Fell, H. B., & D. L. Pawson. 1966. Echinacea. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt U. Echinodermata 3 vol. 2 pp. U367–U440. The Geological Society of America, Inc., and The University of Kansas Press.

[FP99] Flynn, J. J., J. M. Parrish, B. Rakotosamimanana, W. F. Simpson & A. R. Wyss. 1999. A Middle Jurassic mammal from Madagascar. Nature 401: 57–60.

[JB12] Johnson, M. E., & B. G. Baarli. 2012. Development of intertidal biotas through Phanerozoic time. In: Talent, J. A. (ed.) Earth and Life: Global biodiversity, extinction intervals and biogeographic perturbations through time pp. 63–128. Springer.

[K79] Kauffman, E. G. 1979. Cretaceous. In: Robison, R. A., & C. Teichert (eds) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt A. Introduction. Fossilisation (Taphonomy), Biogeography and Biostratigraphy pp. A418–A487. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

[MM22] McNamara, K. J., & S. Martin. 2022. Middle Eocene echinoids from the western Eucla Basin, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum 37: 31–56.

[MD66] Melville, R. V., & J. W. Durham. 1966. Echinoids—skeletal morphology. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt U. Echinodermata 3 vol. 1 pp. U220–U251. The Geological Society of America, Inc., and The University of Kansas Press.

[SG93] Simms, M. J., A. S. Gale, P. Gilliland, E. P. F. Rose & G. D. Sevastopulo. 1993. Echinodermata. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 491–528. Chapman & Hall: London.

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