Calymperes erosum, photographed by Li Zhang.

Belongs within: Dicranideae.

The Calymperaceae are a family of mosses found around the world, with their highest diversity in the tropics and subtropics. Calymperaceous mosses most often grow epiphytically or epixylically (on wood), but may also grow on rocks or on the ground. Major genera within the Calymperaceae include Calymperes, in which the calyptra is persistent, and Syrrhopodon, with a deciduous calyptra.

Characters (from Reese 1993): Plants erect (rarely prostrate and with erect-ascending branches), with simple or highly forked stems in loose to dense mats or cushions; stems lacking central strand; rhizoids brown to red or purple. Leaves sometimes dimorphic (gemmiferous and nongemmiferous), straight to crispate or variously contorted or twisted when dry; intramarginal files of differentiated cells (teniolae) present (some Calymperes) or lacking (most Syrrhopodon); costa single and strong, showing median guide cells with dorsal and ventral bands of stereid cells in section (stereid cells poorly developed in some Calymperes); basal part of leaf (lower lamina) mostly sheathing and with evident shoulders, including usually conspicuous fields (cancellinae) of enlarged, hyaline, externally and internally porose cells; upper part of leaf (upper lamina) shorter to many times longer than lower lamina, margins mostly variously thickened or bordered, or both, but rarely undifferentiated, mostly toothed at least in part; cells of upper lamina isodiametric to vertically or transversely elongate, smooth to bulging to mammillose to uni- or pluripapillose; gemmae frequently present on leaves in Calymperes, less common in Syrrhopodon, mostly ventral on costa at leaf apex but sometimes borne along costa at midleaf or lower, clavate, fusiform, or filiform-uniseriate. Dioicous (rarely monoicous). Perichaetial leaves scarcely differentiated. Setae smooth, mostly elongate; capsules cylindrical, mostly exserted but rarely immersed; stomata scanty, phaneropore; peristomes single or lacking, often vestigial, the teeth variously papillose externally, mostly smooth internally, with weak transverse bars; opercula rostrate. Calyptrae naked, smooth or papillose, cucullate and deciduous or rarely conical-mitrate (Syrrhopodon), or clasping the seta below the capsule and persistent (Calymperes), the spores then escaping through vertical fissures in the calyptra. Spores mostly spherical and finely papillose.

    |--Calymperopsis (Müll.Hal.) Fleisch 1913SK02
    |--Arthrocormus Dozy & Molk. 1846SK02
    |    `--A. schimperi (Dozy & Molk.) Dozy & Molk. 1846SK02
    |--Exostratum Ellis 1985SK02
    |    `--E. blumei (Nees ex Hampe) Ellis 1985SK02
    |--Octoblepharum Hedw. 1801SK02
    |    |--O. albidum Hedw. 1801SK02 [=Bryum albidum Linnaeus 1753 (nom. inv.)B05; incl. Leucobryum cycadis (nom. inv.)SK02]
    |    `--O. exiguum Müll.Hal. 1901SK02
    |--‘Thyridium’ Mitt. 1868 non Nitschke 1867B57, KC01
    |    |--T. flavumB57
    |    |--T. luteumB57
    |    `--T. parvifolium Bartram 1957B57
    |--Leucophanes Brid. 1826SK02
    |    |--L. angustifolium Renauld & Cardot 1891SK02
    |    |--L. candidum (Schwägr.) Lindb. 1865SK02
    |    |--L. glaucescens Müller ex Fleisch. 1904DD05
    |    |--L. glauculumBW15
    |    |--L. glaucum (Schwägr.) Mitt. 1859 (see below for synonymy)SK02
    |    |--L. nicobaricum Müller ex Gangulee 1971DD05
    |    `--L. octoblepharioides Brid. 1827SK02
    |--Mitthyridium Rob. 1975SK02
    |    |--M. constrictum (Sull.) Rob. 1975SK02
    |    |--M. crassum (Broth.) Rob. 1975SK02
    |    |--M. fasciculatum (Hooker & Greville) Rob. 1975 (see below for synonymy)SK02
    |    |--M. flavum (Müll.Hal.) Rob. 1975SK02
    |    |--M. jungquilianum (Mitt.) Rob. 1975SK02
    |    |--M. leucoloma (Müll.Hal.) Rob. 1975SK02
    |    |--M. luteum (Mitt.) Rob. 1975SK02
    |    |--M. obtusifolium (Lindb.) Rob. 1975SK02
    |    |--M. papuanum (Broth.) Rob. 1975SK02
    |    |--M. perundulatum (Broth.) Rob. 1975SK02
    |    |--M. repens (Harv.) Rob. 1975 (see below for synonymy)SK02
    |    |--M. subfasciculatum [=Codonoblapharon subfasciculatum, Syrrhopodon subfasciculatum]SK02
    |    |--M. subluteum (Müll.Hal.) Nowak 1980SK02
    |    |--M. undulatum (Broth. & Geh.) Rob. 1975 [=Syrrhopodon undulatus, Thyridium undulatum]SK02
    |    `--M. wallisii (Müll.Hal.) Rob. 1975SK02
    |--Calymperes Swartz 1814SK02
    |    |--C. afzelii Swartz 1818SK02
    |    |--C. angstroemiiBW15
    |    |--C. boulayi Besch. 1973SK02
    |    |--C. couguiense Besch. 1873SK02
    |    |--C. crassinerve (Mitt.) Jaeger 1873SK02
    |    |--C. dozyanum Mitt. 1859SK02
    |    |--C. erosum Müll.Hal. 1848 [incl. C. kennedianum]SK02
    |    |--C. graeffeanum Müll.Hal. 1864SK02
    |    |--C. lonchophyllum Schwägr. 1816SK02
    |    |--C. lorifoliumBW15
    |    |--C. moluccense Schwägr. 1824 [=C. palisotii ssp. moluccense (Schwägr.) Menzel 1990; incl. C. nigrescens]SK02
    |    |--C. motleyi Mitt. ex Dozy & Molk. 1856 (see below for synonymy)DD05
    |    |--C. palisotii Schwägr. 1816SK02
    |    |--C. porrectum Mitt. 1868SK02
    |    |--C. schmidtii Broth. 1901SK02
    |    |--C. serratum Braun ex Müll.Hal. 1849SK02
    |    |--C. strictifolium (Mitt.) Roth 1911SK02
    |    |--C. subintegrum Broth. 1901SK02
    |    |--C. taitense (Sull.) Mitt. 1868SK02
    |    |    |--C. t. var. taitenseB57
    |    |    `--C. t. var. truncatumB57
    |    `--C. tenerum Müll.Hal. 1872 [incl. C. tenerum var. edamense]SK02
    |         |--C. t. var. tenerumSG07
    |         `--C. t. var. teniolata Gangulee 1972SG07
    `--Syrrhopodon Schwägr. 1824SK02
         |--S. albovaginatus Schwägr. 1824SK02
         |--S. aneitensis Brotherus & Watts 1915 [=S. (Orthotheca) aneitensis]BW15
         |--S. aristifolius Mitt. 1868SK02
         |--S. armatus Mitt. 1863 [incl. S. cairnensis, S. fimbriatulus Müll.Hal. 1874, S. fimbriatus (preoc.)]SK02
         |--S. ciliatus (Hooker) Schwägr. 1824SK02
         |--S. clavatusSK02
         |--S. confertus Sande Lac. 1872 [incl. S. amoenus, Leucophanella amoena]SK02
         |--S. constrictus [incl. S. tubulosus]BW15
         |--S. croceus Mitt. 1859 [=Calymperidium croceum]SK02
         |--S. cyrtacanthos Reese 1992SK02
         |--S. diversiretis Brotherus & Watts 1915 [=S. (Orthotheca) diversiretis]BW15
         |--S. gardneri (Hooker) Schwägr. 1824SK02
         |--S. gaudichaudiiJ87
         |--S. gracilisBW15
         |--S. incompletus [incl. Calymperes armatum]SK02
         |--S. involutus Schwägr. 1824 [incl. S. rufescens, Leucophanella rufescens, S. revolutus]SK02
         |--S. (Cavifolia) lilliei Brotherus in Brotherus & Watts 1915BW15
         |--S. mammillosus Müll.Hal. 1874SK02
         |--S. muelleri (Dozy & Molk.) Sande Lac. 1870 [=Calymperidium muelleri]SK02
         |--S. parasiticus (Brid.) Besch. 1896 [incl. S. wattsii, Calymperopsis wattsii (Broth.) Fleischer 1913]SK02
         |--S. perarmatus Brotherus 1915SK02 [=S. (Orthotheca) perarmatusBW15]
         |--S. platycerii Mitt. 1873 [incl. S. novae-valesiae]SK02
         |--S. prolifer Schwägr. 1827SK02
         |    |--S. p. var. proliferSK02
         |    `--S. p. var. mossmanensis Reese 1989SK02
         |--S. smithiiB57
         |--S. spiculosus Hooker & Greville 1825SK02
         |--S. stoneae Reese 1989SK02
         |--S. subulatusS57
         |--S. tenuinervis Brotherus & Watts 1915 [=S. (Orthotheca) tenuinervis]BW15
         |--S. trachyphyllus Montagne 1856SK02
         |--S. tristichus Nees ex Schwägr. 1842 [incl. S. kindelii, S. parvicaulis]SK02
         `--S. vitiensis Bartram 1957 [=S. (Calymperidium) vitiensis]B57
Nomina nuda: Leucophanes apiculatum Hampe ex Müll.Hal. 1901SK02
             Syrrhopodon novae-valesiae f. microcarpa Bailey 1913SK02

Calymperes motleyi Mitt. ex Dozy & Molk. 1856 [incl. C. isleanum Besch. 1880, C. omanicum Besch. 1895, C. panduraefolium Broth. 1898]DD05

Leucophanes glaucum (Schwägr.) Mitt. 1859 [incl. Leucophanes australe Broth. 1891, Leucobryum australe Watts & Whitel. 1902 (nom. inv.)]SK02

Mitthyridium fasciculatum (Hooker & Greville) Rob. 1975 [=Syrrhopodon fasciculatus, Calymperes fasciculatum (preoc.), Thyridium fasciculatum]SK02

Mitthyridium repens (Harv.) Rob. 1975 [=Syrrhopodon repens, Calymperes repens, Thyridium repens; incl. Syrrhopodon humile (n. n.)]SK02

*Type species of generic name indicated


[B57] Bartram, E. B. 1957. Additional Fijian mosses, III. Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences 46 (12): 392–396.

[B05] Bhattacharyya, P. K. 2005. Bryophyte flora of Barddhaman district, West Bengal. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 47: 11–42.

[BW15] Brotherus, V. F., & W. W. Watts. 1915. The mosses of the New Hebrides [part 1]. Journal and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New South Wales 49 (1): 127–144.

[DD05] Daniels, A. E. D., & P. Daniels. 2005. Additions to the moss flora of the Indian mainland. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 47: 93–100.

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State MuseumBiological Sciences 32 (1): 1–136.

[KC01] Kirk, P. M., P. F. Cannon, J. C. David & J. A. Stalpers. 2001. Ainsworth & Bisby’s Dictionary of the Fungi 9th ed. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

Reese, W. D. 1993. Calymperaceae. Flora Neotropica 58: 1–101.

[SG07] Singh, S. K., & J. P. Ghosh. 2007. Bryo-diversity in Indian Botanic Garden, Howrah, West Bengal. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49: 155–164.

[SK02] Streimann, H., & N. Klazenga. 2002. Catalogue of Australian Mosses. Flora of Australia Supplementary Series 17. Australian Biological Resources Study: Canberra.

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