Calyptraea chinensis, copyright Erhanux.

Belongs within: Hypsogastropoda.
Contains: Crepidula.

The Calyptraeidae, slipper limpets, are a family of limpet-like marine gastropods whose vernacular name refers to a septum partially closing the opening of the shell. Muscle scars (if present) are large and not horseshoe-shaped, and located just before the septum. The animal possesses well-developed eyes at the base of stubby tentacles. They are most famous for the stacking behaviour of some species: as protandrous hermaphrodites (starting life as males and later becoming females), they form mating stacks when a male climbs on top of a female. Other males will then climb on top of him, waiting for the time when the male below them becomes a female. Females then brood their larvae under their shells for at least part of their development (Herbert & Portell 2004). Members of the genus Sigapatella retain a coiled spire with rounded whorls.

<==Calyptraeidae (see below for synonymy)
    |--Sigapatella Lesson 1830S11, P61
    |    |--*S. novaezelandiae Lesson 1830W93, P61
    |    |--S. maccoyi (Suter 1917) [=Calyptraea maccoyi]F27a
    |    |--S. superstes Fleming 1958P61
    |    |--S. terraenovae Peile 1924P61
    |    `--S. vertex (Marwick 1926) [=Calyptraea vertex]F27a
    `--+--‘Trochita’ Schumacher 1817 non Hofer 1760S11, BR05
       |    |--*T. spiralis Schumacher 1817BR17
       |    |--T. candeanaG79
       |    |--T. costellataC64
       |    |--T. diegoana Conrad 1855C64
       |    |--T. dilatataH86
       |    |--T. neozelanicaH86
       |    |--T. radiansC64
       |    |--T. subtabulataQ72
       |    |--T. trochiformis (Born 1778)S11 [=Calyptraea trochiformisCF02; incl. T. spirataC64]
       |    |--T. turbinata Tenison-Woods 1878F71
       |    `--T. ventricosaC64
          |  |  `--Bostrycapulus Olsson & Harbison 1953S11, W93
          |  |       |--*B. aculeatus (Gmelin 1791)W93 (see below for synonymy)
          |  |       |--B. bonnieae (Petuch & Drolshagen 2009) [=Crepidula (Bostrycapulus) bonnieae]P12
          |  |       `--B. odites Collin 2005S11
          |  `--Crucibulum Schumacher 1817S11, O27
          |       |--*C. rudisO27
          |       |--C. auricula (Gmelin 1791) [=Patella auricula]MP65
          |       |--C. auritum [incl. C. striata]C64
          |       |--C. corrugatum [incl. C. jewetti]C64
          |       |--C. imbricatumC64
          |       |--C. lignarium (Broderip 1834)PP78 [incl. C. rugosumC64]
          |       |--C. pectinatumC64
          |       |--C. personatum Keen 1958V89
          |       |--C. quiriquinae (Lesson 1830)S11 [incl. C. byronensisC64, C. ferrugineumC64]
          |       |--C. radiatumC64
          |       |--C. scetellatum (Wood 1828)V89
          |       |--C. serratumC64
          |       |--C. sordidum [incl. Calyptraea unguis, Cr. unguis]C64
          |       |--C. spinosum (Sowerby 1824)V89 (see below for synonymy)
          |       `--C. umbrella (Deshayes 1830)V89
          `--Calyptraea Lamarck 1799S11, BR05 [=Galerus Gray 1847BR17]
               |--*C. chinensis (Linnaeus 1758) [=Patella chinensis, *Galerus chinensis]BR17
               |--C. auriculata [=Crucibulum auriculatum; incl. Ca. cuvieri]G79
               |--C. calyptraeformis Lamarck 1822W93 [=C. (Sigapatella) calyptraeformisP61]
               |--C. centralis (Conrad 1841)S11
               |--C. cepacea [incl. C. planulata]C64
               |--C. conica [=Galerus conicus; incl. C. aspersa, Trochita aspera]C64
               |--C. contorta (Carpenter 1865) [=Galerus contortus]O27
               |--C. corrugata Broderip 1835F27b [=Trochita corrugataC64]
               |--C. edgariana Melv. 1898 [=C. (Galerus) edgariana]M01
               |--C. equestrisG20
               |--C. fastigiata Gould 1846V89 [=Galerus fastigiatusC64]
               |--C. imbricataC64 [incl. C. extinctoriumC64, Galerus extinctorumF66]
               |--C. laevis (Philippi 1887)BD12 [=Calyptraea (Trochita) laevisBS00]
               |--C. lybicus Quaas 1902BD12 [=C. (Clypeola) lybicusBS00, C. (Trochita) lybicusBS00]
               |--C. maculataH79
               |--C. mammillaris (Broderip 1834)V89 [=Galerus mamillarisC64; incl. G. regularisC64, Trochita solidaC64]
               |--C. pellucida (Reeve 1859) [=Trochita pellucida]H09
               |--C. primogenita Kiel & Bandel 2003BD12
               |--C. (Calypeopsis) rugosaC64
               |--C. solitaria Wilckens 1922 (n. d.)F27a
               |--C. spinosaC64
               |--‘Galerus’ subreflexus Cpr. 1855 [=Trochita subreflexa]C64
               `--C. tortilisC64
Calyptraeidae incertae sedis:
  Dispotaea Say 1824 [=Dispotea (l. c.); Dispoteana, Dispotaeinae]BR05
    |--*D. costata (Say 1820) [=Calyptraea costata]BR17
    `--D. concameratum (Reeve 1859) [=Crucibulum (Dispotaea) concameratum]PP78
  Clypeola Gray 1867 [=Zegalerus Finlay 1927]W93
    |--*C. tenuis Gray 1867W93, P61 [=*Zegalerus tenuisW93]
    |--‘Zegalerus’ crater Finlay 1927P61 [=Trochita alta Hutton 1885 non Conrad 1855F27a, Calyptraea altaF27a]
    |--C. hedleyi (Smith 1915)W93 [=Calyptraea hedleyiF27a, Zegalerus hedleyiF27a]
    |--‘Zegalerus’ tatei Finlay 1927 [=Calyptraea corrugata Tate 1893 nec Broderip 1835 nec Forbes 1846]F27b
    `--‘Zegalerus’ tumens Finlay 1930P61
  Maoricrypta Finlay 1927P61
    |--*M. costata (Sowerby 1824) [=Crepidula costata]P61
    |--M. densistriata (Suter 1917) [=Crepidula densistriata]F27a
    |--M. halitoidea (Marwick 1926) [=Crepidula halitoidea]F27a
    |--M. hochstetteriana (Wilckens 1922) [=Crepidula hochstetteriana]F27a
    |--M. radiata [=Pilaeopsis radiatus; incl. Crepidula striata (n. d.)]F27a
    |--M. wilckensi (Finlay 1924)F27a [=Crepidula wilckensiF27a, C. incurva Zittel 1865 non (Broderip 1834)F27b]
    `--M. youngi Powell 1940P61
  Zeacrypta Finlay 1927W93
    |--*Z. monoxyla (Lesson 1830) [=Calyptraea monoxyla, Maoricrypta (*Zeacrypta) monoxyla]P61
    `--Z. immersa (Angas 1865)W93
  Ergaea Adams & Adams 1854 [Ergaeina, Ergaeinae]BR17
    `--*E. plana (Adams & Reeve 1850) [=Calyptraea plana]BR17
  Galericulus altus (Seeley 1861)TTE93
Nomen nudum: Calyptraea alveolataC64

*Bostrycapulus aculeatus (Gmelin 1791)W93 [=Patella aculeataH09, Crepidula aculeataW93; incl. C. californicaC64, C. echinusC64, C. hystryxC64]

Calyptraeidae [Calyptraeacea, Calyptraina, Crepidulacea, Crepiduladae, Crepidulidae, Galeridae, Galerina, Galerinae, Trochitina, Trochitinae]

Crucibulum spinosum (Sowerby 1824)V89 [incl. Cr. cinereaC64, Calyptraea hispidaC64, Cr. maculataC64, Cr. pezizaC64, Calypaeopsis tubiferaC64, Cr. tubiferaC64]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BD12] Bandel, K., & D. T. Dockery III. 2012. Protoconch characters of Late Cretaceous Latrogastropoda (Neogastropoda and Neomesogastropoda) as an aid in the reconstruction of the phylogeny of the Neogastropoda. Freiberger Forschungshefte C542 (psf 20): 93–128.

[BS00] Bandel, K., & W. Stinnesbeck. 2000. Gastropods of the Quiriquina Formation (Maastrichtian) in central Chile: paleobiogeographic relationships and the description of a few new taxa. Zbl. Geol. Paläont. Teil I 7–8: 757–788.

[BR05] Bouchet, P., & J.-P. Rocroi. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1–2): 1–397.

[BR17] Bouchet, P., J.-P. Rocroi, B. Hausdorf, A. Kaim, Y. Kano, A. Nützel, P. Parkhaev, M. Schrödl & E. E. Strong. 2017. Revised classification, nomenclator and typification of gastropod and monoplacophoran families. Malacologia 61 (1–2): 1–526.

[C64] Carpenter, P. P. 1864. Supplementary report on the present state of our knowledge with regard to the Mollusca of the west coast of North America. Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 33: 517–686.

[CF02] Chaparro, O. R., & M. L. Flores. 2002. Reproductive output of Crepidula fecunda females: distribution of energy in the production of gametes and capsular walls. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 36: 661–673.

[F27a] Finlay, H. J. 1927a. A further commentary on New Zealand molluscan systematics. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 320–485.

[F27b] Finlay, H. J. 1927b. New specific names for austral Mollusca. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 488–533.

[F71] Fletcher, H. O. 1971. Catalogue of type specimens of fossils in the Australian Museum, Sydney. Australian Museum Memoir 13: 1–167.

[F66] Fraser, L. 1866. Communication of a list of mollusks collected by R. Swinhoe, Esq., in Formosa. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 146.

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[G79] Guppy, R. J. L. 1879. First sketch of a marine invertebrate fauna of the Gulf of Paria and its neighbourhood. Part I.—Mollusca. Journal of Conchology 2: 151–172.

[H79] Haast, J. von. 1879. Geology of the Provinces of Canterbury and Westland, New Zealand. A report comprising the results of official explorations. “Times” Office: Christchurch.

[H09] Hedley, C. 1909. The Marine Fauna of Queensland: Address by the President of Section D. Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science: Brisbane.

[H86] Hutton, F. W. 1886. The Mollusca of the Pareora and Oamaru systems of New Zealand. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (1): 205–237.

[M01] Melville, J. C. 1901. A few further remarks upon the Erythrean molluscan fauna, with descriptions of seven species from Aden, in the collection of Commander E. R. Shopland, R.I.M. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 7: 550–556.

[MP65] Merrill, A. S., & R. E. Petit. 1965. Mollusks new to South Carolina. Nautilus 79 (2): 58–66.

[O27] Oldroyd, I. S. 1927. The Marine Shells of the West Coast of North America vol. 2 pt 3. Stanford University Press: Stanford University (California).

[P12] Petuch, E. J. 2012. Miocene asteroid impacts: proposed effects on the biogeography and extinction patterns of eastern North American gastropods. In: Talent, J. A. (ed.) Earth and Life: Global biodiversity, extinction intervals and biogeographic perturbations through time pp. 967–981. Springer.

[PP78] Poorman, F. L., & L. H. Poorman. 1978. Additional molluscan records from Bahía de Los Angeles, Baja California Norte. Veliger 20 (4): 369–374.

[P61] Powell, A. W. B. 1961. Shells of New Zealand: An illustrated handbook 4th ed. Whitcombe and Tombs Limited: Christchurch.

[Q72] Quilty, P. G. 1972. The biostratigraphy of the Tasmanian marine Tertiary. Papers and Proceedings of the Royal Society of Tasmania 106: 25–44.

[S11] Simone, L. R. L. 2011. Phylogeny of the Caenogastropoda (Mollusca), based on comparative morphology. Arquivos de Zoologia 42 (4): 161–323.

[TTE93] Tracey, S., J. A. Todd & D. H. Erwin. 1993. Mollusca: Gastropoda. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 131–167. Chapman & Hall: London.

[V89] Vermeij, G. J. 1989. Habitat and form of Crepidula grandis in Japan, with comments on habitat specialization in calyptraeid gastropods. Nautilus 103 (3): 89–91.

[W93] Wilson, B. 1993. Australian Marine Shells vol. 1. Prosobranch Gastropods. Part One. Odyssey Publishing: Kallaroo (Western Australia).

Leave a comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *