Calyptratae

Lesser house fly Fannia canicularis, copyright Rui Andrade.

Belongs within: Schizophora.
Contains: Ornithomyinae, Streblidae, Muscidae, Anthomyiidae, Oestroidea, Fanniidae.

The Calyptratae are a major clade of flies, most of which possess an enlarged lower calypter on the wing, that include many of the most familiar fly species. Phylogenetic analyses indicate a basal division between two major lineages, one containing the Hippoboscoidea and the other usually classified as the superfamilies Muscoidea and Oestroidea though the former may be paraphyletic to the latter. The Hippoboscoidea are a group of blood-sucking flies in which the female’s vagina is enlarged to form a uterus in which larvae are retained until they can be ‘laid’ after reaching the pupal stage. The most plesiomorphic members of the Hippoboscoidea are the tsetse flies of the genus Glossina, found in Africa and Arabia; a number of species of tsetse fly are significant disease vectors. The ‘Muscoidea’, including the house flies and similar taxa, have historically been distinguished from the Oestroidea by the absence of a row of bristles on the meron.

Characters (from Kutty et al. 2010): Pedicel bearing dorsolateral cleft or seam; lower fronto-orbital bristles present; proboscis with hyoid sclerite and labellar pseudotracheae forming prestomal teeth; thorax with complete transverse line; costa with subcostal break and two rows of alternating slender and robust setae; lower calypter often enlarged; abdominal spiracles 2–5 positioned in tergites.

<==Calyptratae [Calypterae, Calyptrata, Pupipara, Schizometopa]WT11
| i. s.: Crosskeya gigasF92
| Paraphania diabolus [=Tachina diabolus]R01
| OrectoceraR01
| Anapera pallidaL49
|--HippoboscoideaKP10
| |--Glossina [Glossinidae, Glossinoidea]KP10
| | | i. s.: G. fuscaA71
| | | G. fuscipleurisA71
| | | G. longipalpisA71
| | | G. longipennisA71
| | | G. medicorumA71
| | | G. oligocenaGE05
| | | G. osborniGE05
| | | G. tabaniformisA71
| | | G. tachinoidesA71
| | |--G. brevipalpisKP10
| | `--+--+--G. fuscipesKP10
| | | `--G. palpalisKP10
| | `--+--+--G. austeniKP10
| | | `--G. pallidipesKP10
| | `--+--G. morsitansKP10
| | | |--G. m. morsitansA71
| | | `--G. m. submorsitansA71
| | `--G. swynnertoniKP10
| `--Hippoboscidae [Coriaceae, Eproboscidea, Olfersiini]KP10
| | i. s.: Stenepteryx hirundinisA71
| | Ornithoica [Ornithoicinae]W10
| | `--O. vicinaW10
| | Allobosca [Alloboscinae]W10
| | `--A. crassipesW10
| | Stenopteryx hirundinisR26
| | OxypterumR26
| | |--O. kyrbianumR26
| | `--O. pallidumR26
| |--OrnithomyinaeKP10
| `--+--+--PseudolynchiaKP10
| | | |--P. brunneaW10
| | | `--P. canariensisW10
| | `--Lipopteninae [Melophaginae]MP87
| | |--Neolipoptena ferrisiMP87, W10
| | `--LipoptenaKP10
| | |--+--L. depressaKP10
| | | | |--L. d. depressaMP87
| | | | `--L. d. pacificaMP87
| | | `--L. mazamaeKP10
| | `--+--L. cerviKP10
| | `--Melophagus Latreille 1802KP10, L02
| | |--*M. ovinus (Linnaeus 1758)L02, L58 [=Hippobosca ovinaL02]
| | `--M. rupicaprinusA71
| `--+--+--StreblidaeKP10
| | `--Ortholfersia [Ortholfersiinae]KP10
| | |--O. macleayiCM91
| | `--O. minutaKP10
| `--Hippobosca Linnaeus 1758KP10, L58 [Hippoboscinae]
| |--H. camelinaA71
| |--H. capensisA71
| |--H. equina Linnaeus 1758L58
| |--H. fulvaA71
| |--H. hirsutaA71
| |--H. hirundinis Linnaeus 1758L58
| |--H. longipennisMP87
| |--H. martinagliaA71
| |--H. rufipes Olfers 1816R01 [incl. H. maculataR01, H. variegataA71, H. wahlenbergianaR01]
| |--H. sitiens Boisduval 1835B35
| `--H. struthiornisA71
`--MuscoideaKP10
| i. s.: MormotomyiaGE05 [MormotomyiidaeCM91]
| `--M. hirsutaGE05
| Proboscidomyia siphonina Bigot 1885H72
|--+--MuscidaeKP10
| `--+--AnthomyiidaeKP10
| `--OestroideaKP10
`--FanniidaeKP10

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[B35] Boisduval, J. B. 1835. Voyage de Découvertes de l’Astrolabe. Exécuté par ordre du Roi, pendant les années 1826–1827–1828–1829, sous le commandement de M. J. Dumont d’Urville. Faune entomologique de l’océan Pacifique, avec l’illustration des insectes nouveaux recueillis pendant le voyage vol. 2. Coléoptères et autres ordres. J. Tastu: Paris.

[CM91] Colless, D. H., & D. K. McAlpine. 1991. Diptera (flies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 717–786. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[F92] Fan Z. 1992. Key to the Common Flies of China 2nd ed. Science Press: Beijing.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[KP10] Kutty, S. N., T. Pape, B. M. Wiegmann & R. Meier. 2010. Molecular phylogeny of the Calyptratae (Diptera: Cyclorrhapha) with an emphasis on the superfamily Oestroidea and the position of Mystacinobiidae and McAlpine’s fly. Systematic Entomology 35: 614–635.

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 3. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis revised 10th ed. vol. 1. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[L49] Lucas, H. 1849. Exploration Scientifique de l’Algérie pendant les années 1840, 1841, 1842 publiée par ordre du gouvernement et avec le concours d’une commission académique. Sciences physiques. Zoologie. II. Histoire naturelle des animaux articulés. Troisième partie. Insectes (suite). Imprimerie Nationale: Paris.

[MP87] Maa, T. C., & B. V. Peterson. 1987. Hippoboscidae. In: McAlpine, J. F. (ed.) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 2 pp. 1271–1281. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[R01] Ricardo, G. 1901. Notes on Diptera from South Africa (concluded). Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 7: 89–110.

[R26] Risso, A. 1826. Histoire naturelle des principales productions de l’Europe méridionale et particulièrement de celles des environs de Nice et des Alpes maritimes vol. 5. F.-G. Levrault: Paris.

[WT11] Wiegmann, B. M., M. D. Trautwein, I. S. Winkler, N. B. Barr, J.-W. Kim, C. Lambkin, M. A. Bertone, B. K. Cassel, K. M. Bayless, A. M. Heimberg, B. M. Wheeler, K. J. Peterson, T. Pape, B. J. Sinclair, J. H. Skevington, V. Blagoderov, J. Caravas, S. N. Kutty, U. Schmidt-Ott, G. E. Kampmeier, F. C. Thompson, D. A. Grimaldi, A. T. Beckenbach, G. W. Courtney, M. Friedrich, R. Meier & D. K. Yeates. 2011. Episodic radiations in the fly tree of life. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 108 (14): 5690–5695.

[W10] Wood, D. M. 2010. Hippoboscidae (louse flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 2 pp. 1241–1248. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

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