Camarotoechiidae

Various views of Leiorhynchus specimen, from the Peabody Museum of Natural History.

Belongs within: Rhynchonellida.

The Camarotoechiidae are a group of medium-sized to large brachiopods known from the Silurian to the Permian (Ager et al. 1965).

Characters (from Ager et al. 1965): Medium-sized to large, round or elliptical in outline, sides and front never truncated; costae generally rounded. Brachial valve with high median septum or ridge; hinge plate entire, or divided only in its most anterior portion, or divided by small shallow open septalium; cardinal process usually absent.

<==CamarotoechiidaeAG65
    |  i. s.: ParacamarotoechiaJB12
    |--Septalariinae [Pseudopugnaxinae, Septalariidae]AG65
    |    |--Septalaria Leidhold 1928AG65
    |    |    `--S. subtetragona (Schnur 1851) (see below for synonymy)AG65
    |    |--Amissopecten Havlíček 1960AG65
    |    |    `--*A. velox (Barrande 1847) [=Terebratula velox]AG65
    |    |--Pseudocamarophoria Wedekind 1925AG65
    |    |    `--*P. microrhyncha (Roemer 1844) [=Terebratula microrhyncha]AG65
    |    `--Pseudopugnax Likharev 1956AG65
    |         `--*P. planissimus Likharev 1956AG65
    `--Camarotoechiinae [Leiorhynchinae, Nudirostrinae]MM02
         |--Astutorhyncha Havlíček 1961AG65
         |    `--*A. proserpina (Barrande 1847) [=Rhynchonella proserpina]AG65
         |--Calvinaria Stainbrook 1945AG65
         |    `--*C. ambigua (Calvin 1878) [=Rhynchonella ambigua]AG65
         |--Felinotoechia Havlíček 1961AG65
         |    `--*F. felina (Barrande 1879) [=Atrypa astuta var. felina]AG65
         |--Fenestrirostra Cooper 1955AG65
         |    |--*F. glacialis (Billings 1862) [=Rhynchonella glacialis]AG65
         |    `--F. primaeva Jin 1989HB93
         |--Hyborhynchella Cooper 1955AG65
         |    `--*H. bransoni Cooper 1955AG65
         |--Paranorella Cloud 1944AG65
         |    |--*P. imperialis Cloud 1944AG65
         |    `--P. aquilonia Cooper & Grant 1976HB93
         |--Sanjuania Amos 1958AG65
         |    `--*S. dorsisulcata Amos 1958AG65
         |--Rhynchotretina Khalfin 1939AG65
         |    `--*R. aequivalvis Khalfin 1939AG65
         |--Rugaltarostrum Sartenaer 1961AG65
         |    `--*R. madisonense (Haynes 1916) [=Leiorhynchus madisonense]AG65
         |--Caryorhynchus Crickmay 1952AG65
         |    |--*C. carya (Crickmay 1952) [=Leiorhynchus carya]N79
         |    `--C. globiliformeN79
         |--Leiorhynchoidea Cloud 1944AG65
         |    |--*L. schucherti Cloud 1944AG65
         |    `--L. carboniferum (Girty 1911) [=Leiorhynchus carboniferum]AG65
         |--Paurorhyncha Cooper 1942AG65
         |    |--*P. endlichi (Meek 1875) [=Rhynchonella endlichi]AG65
         |    `--P. cooperiAG65
         |--Plagiorhyncha McLearn 1918MM02
         |    |--P. depressa (Sowerby 1839) (see below for synonymy)MM02
         |    |--P. niobe (Barrande 1847)MM02
         |    `--P. thisbe (Barrande 1847)MM02
         |--Hircinisca Havlíček 1960AG65
         |    |--*H. sapho (Barrande 1879) [=Atrypa hircina var. sapho]AG65
         |    |--H. hebesAG65
         |    `--H. hircinaAG65
         |--Camarotoechia Hall & Clarke 1893AG65
         |    |--*C. congregata (Conrad 1841) [=Atrypa congregata]AG65
         |    |--C. alleganiaN79
         |    |--C. hosfordiMB12
         |    `--C. mesacostalisZBB12
         |--Platyterorhynchus Sartenaer 1970NU83
         |    `--*P. russelli (McLaren 1962) [=Leiorhynchus russelli]NU83
         `--Leiorhynchus Hall 1860 [=Liorhynchus Oehlert 1887 non Rudolphi 1801, Nudirostra Cooper & Muir-Wood 1951]AG65
              |--*L. quadracostatus (Vanuxem 1842) [=Orthis quadracostata, *Nudirostra quadracostata]AG65
              |--L. castaneaN79
              |--L. hippocastaneaN79
              |--L. mesacostaleN79
              |--L. miramN79
              |    |--L. m. miramN79
              |    `--L. m. alphaN79
              |--L. sinuatumN79
              `--L. (Zigania) ursusH79

Plagiorhyncha depressa (Sowerby 1839) [=Atrypa depressa; incl. A. analoga Wenjukow 1899, Plagiorhyncha analoga, Spirigerina cordata Lindström 1861, P. cordata, Rhynchonella glassii Davidson 1883, *P. glassii, Septatrypa subanaloga Rybnikova 1967, P. subanaloga]MM02

Septalaria subtetragona (Schnur 1851) [=Terebratula subtetragona; incl. T. ascendens Steininger 1853, *Septalaria ascendens]AG65

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[AG65] Ager, D. V., R. E. Grant, D. J. McLaren & H. Schmidt. 1965. Rhynchonellida. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt H. Brachiopoda vol. 2 pp. H552–H632. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas Press: Lawrence (Kansas).

[HB93] Harper, D. A. T., C. H. C. Brunton, L. R. M. Cocks, P. Copper, E. N. Doyle, A. L. Jeffrey, E. F. Owen, M. A. Parkes, L. E. Popov & C. D. Prosser. 1993. Brachiopoda. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 427–462. Chapman & Hall: London.

[H79] House, M. R. 1979. Devonian in the Eastern Hemisphere. In: Robison, R. A., & C. Teichert (eds) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt A. Introduction. Fossilisation (Taphonomy), Biogeography and Biostratigraphy pp. A183–A217. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

[JB12] Johnson, M. E., & B. G. Baarli. 2012. Development of intertidal biotas through Phanerozoic time. In: Talent, J. A. (ed.) Earth and Life: Global biodiversity, extinction intervals and biogeographic perturbations through time pp. 63–128. Springer.

[MB12] Mistiaen, B., D. Brice, M. K. Zapalski & C. Loones. 2012. Brachiopods and their auloporid epibionts in the Devonian of Boulonnais (France): comparison with other associations globally. In: Talent, J. A. (ed.) Earth and Life: Global biodiversity, extinction intervals and biogeographic perturbations through time pp. 159–188. Springer.

[MM02] Musteikis, P., & T. L. Modzalevskaya. 2002. Some Silurian brachiopods from Lithuania and their palaeobiogeographical significance. Palaeontology 45 (3): 595–626.

[N79] Norris, A. W. 1979. Devonian in the Western Hemisphere. In: Robison, R. A., & C. Teichert (eds) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt A. Introduction. Fossilisation (Taphonomy), Biogeography and Biostratigraphy pp. A218–A253. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

[NU83] Norris, A. W., & T. T. Uyeno. 1983. Biostratigraphy and paleontology of middle-upper Devonian boundary beds, Gypsum Cliffs area, northeastern Alberta. Geological Survey of Canada Bulletin 313: 1–65.

[ZBB12] Zambito, J. J., IV, C. E. Brett & G. C. Baird. 2012. The Late Middle Devonian (Givetian) global Taghanic biocrisis in its type area (northern Appalachian Basin): geologically rapid faunal transitions driven by global and local environmental changes. In: Talent, J. A. (ed.) Earth and Life: Global biodiversity, extinction intervals and biogeographic perturbations through time pp. 677–703. Springer.

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