Campanulidae

 Holly Ilex aquifolium, photographed by Jan De Laet.

Belongs within: Gunneridae.
Contains: Asterales, Escalloniaceae, Apiales, Dipsacales.

The Aquifoliales is a clade of flowering plants supported by molecular phylogenetic analysis (Kårehed 2001). They are mostly tropical, though one of their best-known members is the northern temperate holly Ilex aquifolium. Most members of the Aquifoliales are trees or shrubs, but Cardiopteris is a genus of twining vines. Members of the families Cardiopteridaceae (except Cardiopteris itself) and Stemonuraceae were previously placed in the Icacinaceae, but are now known to be only distantly related to that family. Most Cardiopteridaceae (except Citronella) have sympetalous flowers, while most Stemonuraceae (except Lasianthera) have free petals (Kårehed 2001).

<==CampanulidaeCD07
    |--Apiidae [Aralianae]CD07
    |    |--AsteralesK03
    |    `--+--EscalloniaceaeK03
    |       `--+--BrunialesAPG16
    |          |    |--BerzeliaK03 [BruniaceaeAPG16]
    |          |    |    `--B. lanuginosaK03
    |          |    `--ColumelliaceaeAPG16
    |          |         |--ColumelliaCD07
    |          |         `--Desfontainia [Desfontainiaceae, Desfontainieae]CD07
    |          |              `--D. spinosaD03
    |          `--+--ApialesAPG16
    |             `--+--DipsacalesAPG16
    |                `--Paracryphiaceae [Paracryphiales]APG16
    |                     |--ParacryphiaK03
    |                     |--Sphenostemon Baillon 1875K03, P84 [Sphenostemonaceae]
    |                     |    |--S. arfakensisH03
    |                     |    `--S. lobosporus (Muell.) Smith 1957 [=Phlebocalymna lobospora Muell. 1875]P84
    |                     `--Quintinia DC. 1830K03, A61
    |                          |--Q. acutifolia Kirk 1899 [incl. Q. acutifolia var. lanceolata Kirk 1899]A61
    |                          |--Q. elliptica Hooker 1852 [=Q. serrata var. elliptica (Hooker) Kirk 1899]A61
    |                          |--Q. serrata Cunn. 1839A61
    |                          `--Q. verdoniiK03
    `--AquifolialesK03
         |--+--CardiopteridaceaeCD07
         |  |    |--Citronella Don 1832K01, G84 (see below for synonymy)
         |  |    |    |--*C. mucronata (Ruíz Lopez & Pavón) Don 1832 [=*Villaresia mucronata Ruíz Lopez & Pavón 1802]G84
         |  |    |    |--C. moorei (Muell. ex Benth.) Howard 1940 (see below for synonymy)G84
         |  |    |    |--C. smythii (Muell.) Howard 1940 (see below for synonymy)G84
         |  |    |    `--*Pleuropetalon’ suaveolens Blume 1850 [=*Chariessa suaveolens (Blume) Miq. 1856]G84
         |  |    `--+--Cardiopteris Royle 1834K01, H84 [incl. Peripterygium Hassk. 1843H84]
         |  |       |    |--C. moluccana Blume 1847 (see below for synonymy)H84
         |  |       |    |--C. polymorphaF71
         |  |       |    `--C. quinqueloba Hassk. 1855CD07 [=*Peripterygium quinquelobum Hassk. 1843H84]
         |  |       `--+--DendrobangiaK01
         |  |          `--+--Leptaulus [Leptaulaceae]K01
         |  |             `--Gonocaryum calleryanumK01, C-R79
         |  `--Stemonuraceae [Stemonureae]CD07
         |       |--LasiantheraK01
         |       `--+--Irvingbaileya Howard 1943K01, G84
         |          |    `--*I. australis (White) Howard 1943 (see below for synonymy)G84
         |          `--+--Gomphandra Wallich ex Lindley 1836K01, G84
         |             |    |--*G. tetrandraG84
         |             |    |--G. australiana Muell. 1867 [=Stemonurus australianus (Muell.) Kuntze 1891]G84
         |             |    |--G. axillarisDD73
         |             |    `--G. capitulata [incl. Mastixia heterophylla Bl. 1850]M77
         |             `--+--DiscophoraK01
         |                `--+--+--HartleyaK01
         |                   |  `--+--CodiocarpusK01
         |                   |     `--GrisolleaK01
         |                   `--+--GastrolepisK01
         |                      `--+--WhitmoreaK01
         |                         `--+--Stemonurus ammuiK01
         |                            `--CantleyaK01
         `--+--Phyllonoma [Phyllonomaceae]K01
            |    `--P. laticuspisK03
            `--+--Helwingia [Helwingiaceae]K01
               |    `--H. japonicaK03
               `--AquifoliaceaeK01
                    |--Ilicoxylon Greguss 1943CBH93
                    |--IlexpollenitesCBH93
                    `--Ilex L. 1753P84 [incl. NemopanthusK01]
                         |--*I. aquifolium L. 1753P84
                         |--*Byronia’ anomalaP84
                         |--I. arnhemensis (Muell.) Loes. 1901 [=Byronia arnhemensis Muell. 1861]P84
                         |    |--I. a. ssp. arnhemensisP84
                         |    `--I. a. ssp. ferdinandi (Harms) Pedley 1984 (see below for synonymy)P84
                         |--I. blancheana Judd 1986JS87
                         |--I. canariensisKL98
                         |--I. cornutaMS10
                         |--I. crenata Thunberg 1784CD07
                         |--I. cubanaJ87
                         |--I. denticulata Wallich ex Wight 1850MM02
                         |--I. fuertesianaJ87
                         |--I. integraLO98
                         |--I. macfadyeniiJ87
                         |--I. mitis-erythraeusA78
                         |--I. nitidaSWK87
                         |--I. obcordataJ87
                         |--I. opacaF11
                         |--I. paraguariensisC55
                         |--I. peduculosaMH98
                         |--I. rotundaMH98
                         |--I. serrataB88
                         |--I. sinensisB88
                         |--I. vomitoriaMS98
                         `--I. wightianaRR02

Cardiopteris moluccana Blume 1847 [=C. lobata var. moluccana (Blume) Masters in Hook. 1875, Peripterygium moluccanum (Blume) Sleumer 1940]H84

Citronella Don 1832K01, G84 [=Villaresia Ruíz Lopez & Pavón 1802 non Ruíz Lopez & Pavón 1794G84; incl. Chariessa Miq. 1856 non Perty 1830 (ICZN)G84, Pleuropetalon Blume 1840 non Hook. 1846G84]

Citronella moorei (Muell. ex Benth.) Howard 1940 [=Villaresia moorei Muell. ex Benth. 1863, Chariessa moorei (Muell. ex Benth.) Engl. 1893]G84

Citronella smythii (Muell.) Howard 1940 [=Villaresia smythii Muell. 1866, Chariessa smythii (Muell.) Becc. 1877; incl. V. adenophylla Domin 1921]G84

Ilex arnhemensis ssp. ferdinandi (Harms) Pedley 1984 [=I. ferdinandi Harms 1942, I. peduncularis Muell. 1870 non Reissek 1861; incl. I. brassii Merr. & Perry 1939]P84

*Irvingbaileya australis (White) Howard 1943 [=Tylecarpus australis White 1918, Medusanthera australis (White) Howard 1940]G84

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[A61] Allan, H. H. 1961. Flora of New Zealand vol. 1. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Psilopsida, Lycopsida, Filicopsida, Gymnospermae, Dicotyledones. R. E. Owen, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[APG16] Angiosperm Phylogeny Group. 2016. An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG IV. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 181: 1–20.

[A78] Ananthakrishnan, T. N. 1978. Thrips galls and gall thrips. Zoological Survey of India, Technical Monograph 1: 1–69, 26 pls.

[B88] Bouček, Z. 1988. Australasian Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera): A biosystematic revision of genera of fourteen families, with a reclassification of species. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[C55] Candolle, A. de. 1855. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[CD07] Cantino, P. D., J. A. Doyle, S. W. Graham, W. S. Judd, R. G. Olmstead, D. E. Soltis, P. S. Soltis & M. J. Donoghue. 2007. Towards a phylogenetic nomenclature of Tracheophyta. Taxon 56 (3): E1–E44.

[CBH93] Collinson, M. E., M. C. Boulter & P. L. Holmes. 1993. Magnoliophyta (‘Angiospermae’). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 809–841. Chapman & Hall: London.

[C-R79] Corpuz-Raros, L. A. 1979. Philippine Oribatei (Acarina). II. Family Lohmanniidae. Kalikasan 8 (3): 315–334.

[DD73] Deb, D. B., & R. M. Dutta. 1973. Contribution to the flora of Tirap Frontier Division. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 69 (3): 547–573.

[D03] Dusén, P. 1903. The vegetation of western Patagonia. In: Scott, W. B. (ed.) Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia, 1896–1899 vol. 8. Botany pp. 1–34. The University: Princeton (New Jersey).

[F71] Fletcher, H. O. 1971. Catalogue of type specimens of fossils in the Australian Museum, Sydney. Australian Museum Memoir 13: 1–167.

[F11] Fraga, R. M. 2011. Family Icteridae (New World blackbirds). In: Hoyo, J. del, A. Elliott & D. A. Christie (eds) Handbook of the Birds of the World vol. 16. Tanagers to New World Blackbirds pp. 684–807. Lynx Edicions: Barcelona.

[G84] Guymer, G. P. 1984. Icacinaceae. In: George, A. S. (eds) Flora of Australia vol. 22. Rhizophorales to Celastrales pp. 204–211. Australian Government Publishing Service: Canberra.

[H03] Heads, M. 2003. Ericaceae in Malesia: vicariance biogeography, terrane tectonics and ecology. Telopea 10 (1): 311–449.

[H84] Hewson, H. J. 1984. Cardiopteridaceae. In: George, A. S. (eds) Flora of Australia vol. 22. Rhizophorales to Celastrales pp. 212–213. Australian Government Publishing Service: Canberra.

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum—Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1–136.

[JS87] Judd, W. S., & J. D. Skean Jr. 1987. Three new angiosperms from Parc National Pic Macaya, Massif de la Hotte, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum—Biological Sciences 32 (1): 137–150.

[K01] Kårehed, J. 2001. Multiple origin of the tropical forest tree family Icacinaceae. American Journal of Botany 88 (12): 2259–2274.

[K03] Kårehed, J. 2003. The family Pennantiaceae and its relationships to Apiales. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 141: 1–24.

[KL98] Kiffe, K., K. Lewejohann. 1998. Ein Neufund von Carex oedipostyla Duval-Jouve (Cyperaceae) auf Teneriffa, Kanarische Inseln. Willdenowia 28: 117–122.

[LO98] Lack, H. W., & H. Ohba. 1998. Die Xylothek des Chikusai Kato. Willdenowia 28: 263–276.

[MS98] Margulis, L., & K. V. Schwartz. 1998. Five Kingdoms: An Illustrated Guide to the Phyla of Life on Earth 3rd ed. W. H. Freeman and Company: New York.

[M77] Matthew, K. M. 1977. Cornaceae. Flora Malesiana, Series I—Spermatophyta, Flowering Plants 8 (2): 85–97.

[MS10] Moore, M. J., P. S. Soltis, C. D. Bell, J. G. Burleigh & D. E. Soltis. 2010. Phylogenetic analysis of 83 plastid genes further resolves the early diversification of eudicots. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 107 (10): 4623–4628.

[MH98] Morikawa, H., A. Higaki, M. Nohno, M. Takahashi, M. Kamada, M. Nakata, G. Toyohara, Y. Okamura, K. Matsui, S. Kitani, K. Fujita, K. Irifune & N. Goshima. 1998. More than a 600-fold variation in nitrogen dioxide assimilation among 217 plant taxa. Plant, Cell and Environment 21: 180–190.

[MM02] Murugan, C., V. S. Manickam, M. M. Josephine & V. Sundaresan. 2002. Extended distribution of two rare and endangered taxa from Tirunelveli Hills, Western Ghats, Tamil Nadu. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 99 (3): 545–546.

[P84] Pedley, L. 1984. Aquifoliaceae. In: George, A. S. (eds) Flora of Australia vol. 22. Rhizophorales to Celastrales pp. 199–204. Australian Government Publishing Service: Canberra.

[RR02] Ramachandran, V. S., & S. P. Raj. 2002. A note on the additional host range for the genus Korthasella van Tiegh. family Loranthaceae, from Nilgiris, southern India. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 99 (3): 560.

[SWK87] Snyder, N. F. R., J. W. Wiley & C. B. Kepler. 1987. The Parrots of Luquillo: Natural history and conservation of the Puerto Rican parrot. Western Foundation of Vertebrate Zoology: Los Angeles.

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