Holly Ilex aquifolium, photographed by Jan De Laet.

Belongs within: Gunneridae.
Contains: Asterales, Escalloniaceae, Apiales, Dipsacales.

The Aquifoliales is a clade of flowering plants supported by molecular phylogenetic analysis (Kårehed 2001). They are mostly tropical, though one of their best-known members is the northern temperate holly Ilex aquifolium. Most members of the Aquifoliales are trees or shrubs, but Cardiopteris is a genus of twining vines. Members of the families Cardiopteridaceae (except Cardiopteris itself) and Stemonuraceae were previously placed in the Icacinaceae, but are now known to be only distantly related to that family. Most Cardiopteridaceae (except Citronella) have sympetalous flowers, while most Stemonuraceae (except Lasianthera) have free petals (Kårehed 2001).

    |--Apiidae [Aralianae]CD07
    |    |--AsteralesK03
    |    `--+--EscalloniaceaeK03
    |       `--+--BrunialesAPG16
    |          |    |--BerzeliaK03 [BruniaceaeAPG16]
    |          |    |    `--B. lanuginosaK03
    |          |    `--ColumelliaceaeAPG16
    |          |         |--ColumelliaCD07
    |          |         `--Desfontainia [Desfontainiaceae, Desfontainieae]CD07
    |          |              `--D. spinosaD03
    |          `--+--ApialesAPG16
    |             `--+--DipsacalesAPG16
    |                `--Paracryphiaceae [Paracryphiales]APG16
    |                     |--ParacryphiaK03
    |                     |--Sphenostemon Baillon 1875K03, P84 [Sphenostemonaceae]
    |                     |    |--S. arfakensisH03
    |                     |    `--S. lobosporus (Muell.) Smith 1957 [=Phlebocalymna lobospora Muell. 1875]P84
    |                     `--Quintinia DC. 1830K03, A61
    |                          |--Q. acutifolia Kirk 1899 [incl. Q. acutifolia var. lanceolata Kirk 1899]A61
    |                          |--Q. elliptica Hooker 1852 [=Q. serrata var. elliptica (Hooker) Kirk 1899]A61
    |                          |--Q. serrata Cunn. 1839A61
    |                          `--Q. verdoniiK03
         |  |    |--Citronella Don 1832K01, G84 (see below for synonymy)
         |  |    |    |--*C. mucronata (Ruíz Lopez & Pavón) Don 1832 [=*Villaresia mucronata Ruíz Lopez & Pavón 1802]G84
         |  |    |    |--C. moorei (Muell. ex Benth.) Howard 1940 (see below for synonymy)G84
         |  |    |    |--C. smythii (Muell.) Howard 1940 (see below for synonymy)G84
         |  |    |    `--*Pleuropetalon’ suaveolens Blume 1850 [=*Chariessa suaveolens (Blume) Miq. 1856]G84
         |  |    `--+--Cardiopteris Royle 1834K01, H84 [incl. Peripterygium Hassk. 1843H84]
         |  |       |    |--C. moluccana Blume 1847 (see below for synonymy)H84
         |  |       |    |--C. polymorphaF71
         |  |       |    `--C. quinqueloba Hassk. 1855CD07 [=*Peripterygium quinquelobum Hassk. 1843H84]
         |  |       `--+--DendrobangiaK01
         |  |          `--+--Leptaulus [Leptaulaceae]K01
         |  |             `--Gonocaryum calleryanumK01, C-R79
         |  `--Stemonuraceae [Stemonureae]CD07
         |       |--LasiantheraK01
         |       `--+--Irvingbaileya Howard 1943K01, G84
         |          |    `--*I. australis (White) Howard 1943 (see below for synonymy)G84
         |          `--+--Gomphandra Wallich ex Lindley 1836K01, G84
         |             |    |--*G. tetrandraG84
         |             |    |--G. australiana Muell. 1867 [=Stemonurus australianus (Muell.) Kuntze 1891]G84
         |             |    |--G. axillarisDD73
         |             |    `--G. capitulata [incl. Mastixia heterophylla Bl. 1850]M77
         |             `--+--DiscophoraK01
         |                `--+--+--HartleyaK01
         |                   |  `--+--CodiocarpusK01
         |                   |     `--GrisolleaK01
         |                   `--+--GastrolepisK01
         |                      `--+--WhitmoreaK01
         |                         `--+--Stemonurus ammuiK01
         |                            `--CantleyaK01
         `--+--Phyllonoma [Phyllonomaceae]K01
            |    `--P. laticuspisK03
            `--+--Helwingia [Helwingiaceae]K01
               |    `--H. japonicaK03
                    |--Ilicoxylon Greguss 1943CBH93
                    `--Ilex L. 1753P84 [incl. NemopanthusK01]
                         |--*I. aquifolium L. 1753P84
                         |--*Byronia’ anomalaP84
                         |--I. arnhemensis (Muell.) Loes. 1901 [=Byronia arnhemensis Muell. 1861]P84
                         |    |--I. a. ssp. arnhemensisP84
                         |    `--I. a. ssp. ferdinandi (Harms) Pedley 1984 (see below for synonymy)P84
                         |--I. blancheana Judd 1986JS87
                         |--I. canariensisKL98
                         |--I. cornutaMS10
                         |--I. crenata Thunberg 1784CD07
                         |--I. cubanaJ87
                         |--I. denticulata Wallich ex Wight 1850MM02
                         |--I. fuertesianaJ87
                         |--I. integraLO98
                         |--I. macfadyeniiJ87
                         |--I. mitis-erythraeusA78
                         |--I. nitidaSWK87
                         |--I. obcordataJ87
                         |--I. opacaF11
                         |--I. paraguariensisC55
                         |--I. peduculosaMH98
                         |--I. rotundaMH98
                         |--I. serrataB88
                         |--I. sinensisB88
                         |--I. vomitoriaMS98
                         `--I. wightianaRR02

Cardiopteris moluccana Blume 1847 [=C. lobata var. moluccana (Blume) Masters in Hook. 1875, Peripterygium moluccanum (Blume) Sleumer 1940]H84

Citronella Don 1832K01, G84 [=Villaresia Ruíz Lopez & Pavón 1802 non Ruíz Lopez & Pavón 1794G84; incl. Chariessa Miq. 1856 non Perty 1830 (ICZN)G84, Pleuropetalon Blume 1840 non Hook. 1846G84]

Citronella moorei (Muell. ex Benth.) Howard 1940 [=Villaresia moorei Muell. ex Benth. 1863, Chariessa moorei (Muell. ex Benth.) Engl. 1893]G84

Citronella smythii (Muell.) Howard 1940 [=Villaresia smythii Muell. 1866, Chariessa smythii (Muell.) Becc. 1877; incl. V. adenophylla Domin 1921]G84

Ilex arnhemensis ssp. ferdinandi (Harms) Pedley 1984 [=I. ferdinandi Harms 1942, I. peduncularis Muell. 1870 non Reissek 1861; incl. I. brassii Merr. & Perry 1939]P84

*Irvingbaileya australis (White) Howard 1943 [=Tylecarpus australis White 1918, Medusanthera australis (White) Howard 1940]G84

*Type species of generic name indicated


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