Rhopalosyringium perforaculum, from Babazadeh & Wever (2004). Scale bar = 15 µm.

Belongs within: Nassellaria.

The Cannobotryoidea are a group of radiolarians known from the Cretaceous to the present (Afanasieva et al. 2005).

Characters (from Afanasieva et al. 2005): Two or three segments. Cephalis specialized, multilobed, subdivided into lobes. Spines A, L, l, and V belonging to eucephalic portion with MB at the base of it. Lower collar portion delineated by arcs ap extending from spine A, collar region lacking walls. Anteriorly collar and upper zones of eucephalic lobe adjacent to antecephalic lobe. Spine D positioned at base of antecephalic lobe. Antecephalic lobe subdivided into upper (apical-dorsal) part and lower part, if unpaired apophysis a directed forward present. Posteriorly, postcephalic lobe adjacent to eucephalic lobe. Spine V occurring within postcephalic lobe. Antecephalic lobe larger than eucephalic. Cephalis elongated anteroposteriorly and laterally compressed. Thorax often joined with cephalis to produce specialized cephalothorax (almost entire test). Feet absent. Tubes connected with spines A, V, D, and L usual. Thorax and abdomen (when present) barrel-shaped, laterally compressed. Successive segments developed rarely. Segments separated by internal shelves. Aperture open, simple, or compressed and elongated into tube, sometimes closed sac-like. Walls porous hyaline or multilayered, spongy. Pores arranged irregularly or in transverse rows.

    |    |--Acanthobotrys Popofsky 1913AA05
    |    |--Bisphaerocephalus Popofsky 1908AA05
    |    |--Botryocampe Ehrenberg 1960AA05
    |    |--Botryocyrtis Ehrenberg 1860AA05
    |    |--Botryometra Petrushevskaya 1975AA05
    |    |--Monotubus Popofsky 1913AA05
    |    `--Amphimelissa Jorgensen 1905AA05
    |         `--A. setosa (Cleve 1899)BC98
    `--Cannobotryidae [Cannobotrythidae]AA05
         |--Acrobotrissa Haeckel 1887AA05
         |--Acrobotrys Haeckel 1881AA05
         |--Bisphaerocephalia Petrushevskaya 1965AA05
         |--Botryocella Haeckel 1881AA05
         |--Botryocylinder Petrushevskaya 1975AA05
         |--Botryopyle Haeckel 1881AA05
         |--Cannobotrys Haeckel 1881AA05
         |--Centrobotrys Petrushevskaya 1965AA05
         |--Cornutovum Foreman 1968AA05
         |--Eribotris Foreman 1968AA05
         |--Lithobotrys Ehrenberg 1844AA05
         |--Lithocoryphium Ehrenberg 1847AA05
         |--Neobotrys Popofsky 1913AA05
         |--Phormobotrys Haeckel 1881AA05
         |--Pylobotrys Haeckel 1881AA05
         |--Saccospyris Haecker 1908AA05
         |--Artobotrys Petrushevskaya 1971AA05
         |    `--A. boreale (Cleve 1899)BC98
         `--Rhopalosyringium Campbell & Clark 1944 [Rhopalosyringiidae]AA05
              |--R. adriaticum O’Dogherty 1994BW04
              |--R. hispidum O’Dogherty 1994BW04
              |--R. mosquense (Smirnova & Aliev in Aliev & Smirnova 1969)BW04
              |--R. perforaculum O’Dogherty 1994BW04
              |--R. scissum O’Dogherty 1994BW04
              `--R. solivagum O’Dogherty 1994BW04

*Type species of generic name indicated


[AA05] Afanasieva, M. S., E. O. Amon, Y. V. Agarkov & D. S. Boltovskoy. 2005. Radiolarians in the geological record. Paleontological Journal 39 (Suppl. 3): S135–S392.

[BW04] Babazadeh, S. A., & P. de Wever. 2004. Early Cretaceous radiolarian assemblages from radiolarites in the Sistan Suture (eastern Iran). Geodiversitas 26 (2): 185–206.

[BC98] Bjørklund, K. R., G. Cortese, N. Swanberg & H. J. Schrader. 1998. Radiolarian faunal provinces in surface sediments of the Greenland, Iceland and Norwegian (GIN) Seas. Marine Micropalaeontology 35: 105–140.

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