Caprelloidea

Male (above) and female Podocerus chelonophilus, from Iwasa-Arai et al. (2020). Scale bar = 500 μm.

Belongs within: Corophiida.
Contains: Cyamus, Caprella.

The Caprelloidea are a group of amphipods characterised by an extremely long basal segment on the urosome. Members include the Caprellidae, skeleton shrimp, which are small, elongate amphipods that are mostly found living among larger, camouflaging organisms such as bryozoans or seagrasses. Caprellinoididae resemble Caprellidae in body form but have the molars reduced or absent. The Podoceridae are less elongate than Caprellidae and vary in body form from broadly depressed to subcylindrical (Barnard 1969). The Cyamidae, whale lice, are specialised for living on the skin of cetaceans.

Caprelloidea [Caprellida, Cystibranchia]
    |  i. s.: Protellopsis kergueleniL95
    |         Leptomera ventricosaG20
    |         Proto pedatusG20
    |--CaprogammaridaeLM13
    |--AeginellidaeB83
    |--Dulichia Krøyer 1845B69 [incl. Dyopedos Bate 1857B69; DulichiidaeLM13]
    |    |--*D. spinosissima Krøyer 1845B69
    |    |--D. monacanthaN00 [=Dyopedos monacanthusYS06]
    |    `--D. tuberculataN00
    |--ProtellidaeMD01
    |    |--Metaprotella sandalensis Mayer 1898L95
    |    |--Paraprotella prima Mayer 1903L95
    |    `--ProtellaL95
    |         |--P. gracilis Dana 1853L95
    |         `--P. similis Mayer 1903L95
    |--PariambidaeMD01
    |    |  i. s.: ‘Protella’ trilobata McCain & Gray 1971L95
    |    |--Pariambus typicus (Kröyer 1844)BD95 [=Podalirus typicusBK77]
    |    `--HemiaeginaL95
    |         |--H. costai de Qrujo Quitete 1972L95
    |         `--H. minutaL95
    |--Cyamidae [Cyamida, Cyamoidea]LM13
    |    |--Isocyamus delphiniW81
    |    |--Syncyamus pseudorcaeW81
    |    |--Neocyamus physeterisW81
    |    |--Platycyamus thompsoniW81
    |    `--CyamusW81
    |--CaprellinoididaeMD01
    |    |--Caprellinoides tristanensis Stebbing 1888L95
    |    |--ProliropusL95
    |    |--Verrucaprella Laubitz 1995L95
    |    |    `--*V. gracilispina Laubitz 1995L95
    |    |--Liropropus Laubitz 1995L95
    |    |    `--*L. segonzaci Laubitz 1995L95
    |    `--Pseudaeginella Mayer 1890 [incl. Fallotritella]L95
    |         |--P. antiguae Barnard 1932L95
    |         |--P. biscaynensis (McCain 1968)L95
    |         |--P. montoucheti (de Araujo Quitete 1971)L95
    |         |--P. polynesica (Müller 1990)L95
    |         |--P. sanctipauli Laubitz 1995L95
    |         `--P. tristanensis (Stebbing 1888)L95
    |--Caprellidae [Dodecadidae, Phtisicidae, Phtisicoidea]LM13
    |    |  i. s.: Liporus elongatus Mayer 1890BD95
    |    |         Pseudolirius kroyeri (Haller 1879)BD95
    |    |         Pseudoprotella phasma (Montagu 1804)BD95
    |    |--CaprellaLM13
    |    |--Paracercopinae [Paracercopidae]LM13
    |    |--PhtisicinaeLM13
    |    |    |--Phtisica marina Slabber 1769L95
    |    |    `--Quadrisegmentum triangulum Hirayama 1988L95
    |    `--DodecadinaeL95
    |         |--Dodecas elongata Stebbing 1883L95
    |         |--Pseudocaprellina pambanensis Sundara Raj 1927L95
    |         |--DodecasellaL95
    |         |--Semidodecas Laubitz 1995L95
    |         |    `--*S. beuroisi Laubitz 1995L95
    |         `--Symmetrella Laubitz 1995L95
    |              `--*S. arnaudi Laubitz 1995L95
    `--PodoceridaeLM13
         |--Cyrtophium Dana 1852B69
         |    `--*C. orientale Dana 1852B69
         |--Neoxenodice Schellenberg 1926B69
         |    `--*N. caprellinoides Schellenberg 1926B69
         |--Xenodice Boeck 1871B69
         |    `--*X. frauenfeldti Boeck 1871B69
         |--Laetmatophilus Bruzelius 1859B69
         |    `--*L. tuberculatus Bruzelius 1859B69
         |--Paradulichia Boeck 1871B69
         |    `--*P. typica Boeck 1871B69
         |--Leipsuropus Stebbing 1899B69
         |    `--*L. parasiticus (Haswell 1880) [=Cyrtophium parasiticum]B69
         `--Podocerus Leach 1814 [incl. Dexiocerella Haswell 1885, Platophium Dana 1852]B69
              |--*P. variegatus Leach 1814B69
              |--P. anguipesCS77
              |--P. capillimanus Nicholls 1938N38
              |--P. chelonophilus (Chevreux 1900)BD95
              |--P. herdmani Walker 1893N00
              |--P. isopus Walker 1889N00
              |--P. laevisN38
              |--P. minutusN00
              `--P. pulchellusM01

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[BD95] Bakalem, A. & J.-C. Dauvin. 1995. Inventaire des crustacés amphipodes (Gammaridea, Caprellidea, Hyperiidea) des costes d’Algérie: essai de synthèse. Mésogée 54: 49–62.

[BK77] Barel, C. D. N., & P. G. N. Kramers. 1977. A survey of the echinoderm associates of the north-east Atlantic area. Zoologische Verhandelingen 156: 1–159.

[B69] Barnard, J. L. 1969. The families and genera of marine gammaridean Amphipoda. United States National Museum Bulletin 271: i–vi, 1–535.

[B83] Bousfield, E. L. 1983. An updated phyletic classification and palaeohistory of the Amphipoda. In: Schram, F. R. (ed.) Crustacean Phylogeny pp. 257–277. A. A. Balkema.

[CS77] Cramp, S., & K. E. L. Simmons (eds) 1977. Handbook of the Birds of Europe, the Middle East and North Africa: The Birds of the Western Palaearctic vol. 1. Ostrich to Ducks. Oxford University Press: Oxford.

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[L95] Laubitz, D. R. 1995. Caprellidea (Crustacea: Amphipoda) from the southern and western Indian Ocean. Mésogée 54: 81–100.

[LM13] Lowry, J. K., & A. A. Myers. 2013. A phylogeny and classification of the Senticaudata subord. nov. (Crustacea: Amphipoda). Zootaxa 3610: 1–80.

[MD01] Martin, J. W., & G. E. Davis. 2001. An updated classification of the Recent Crustacea. Natural History Museum Los Angeles County, Science Series 39: 1–124.

[M01] M’Intosh, W. C. 1901. The coloration of marine animals. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 7: 221–240.

[N38] Nicholls, G. E. 1938. Australasian Antarctic Expedition 1911–1914. Under the Leadership of Sir Douglas Mawson, O.B.E., B.E., D.Sc., F. R. S. Scientific Reports. Series C—Zoology and Botany vol. 2 pt 4. Amphipoda Gammaridea. David Harold Paisley, Government Printer: Sydney (Australia).

[N00] Norman, A. M. 1900. British Amphipoda: families Pontoporeidae to Ampeliscidae. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 5: 326–346.

[W81] Watson, L. 1981. Sea Guide to Whales of the World. Hutchinson: London.

[YS06] Yu, O. H., & H.-L. Suh. 2006. Life history and reproduction of the amphipod Synchelidium trioostegitum (Crustacea, Oedicerotidae) on a sandy shore in Korea. Marine Biology 150: 141–148.

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