Carabinae

Forest caterpillar hunter Calosoma sycophanta, copyright Thomas Huntke.

Belongs within: Carabidae.
Contains: Pamborus, Carabus.

The Carabinae are a group of ground beetles that, in the sense used herein, include species with open procoxal and mesocoxal cavities (other classifications expand the ‘Carabinae’ to cover a much larger, probably non-monophyletic subgroup of the Carabidae). The mandibles lack a setigerous puncture in the scrobe (Ball & Bousquet 2001).

In members of the tribe Carabini, the mandibles lack teeth and have a rugose upper surface, and the clypeus possesses a setigerous puncture at each anterior corner. Species of Calosoma have antennae with the second segment globose and distinct carinae along the dorsal margin of the second and third segments, and mandibles with transversely corrugate surfaces. Members of this genus climb vegetation in search of tree-dwelling larvae of insects such as moths and sawflies, and may play a role in the control of defoliators. As well as Calosoma, the subtribe Calosomatina includes the genus Aplothorax represented by a single species on St Helena in the South Atlantic (Ball & Bousquet 2001).

Members of the Cychrini have smooth and toothed mandibles, and lack prominent setae on the clypeus (Lawrence & Britton 1991). They are molluscivores, inhabiting cool, damp woods and ravines. Genera of Cychrini include the Holarctic Cychrus, the Asian Cychropsis and the North American Sphaeroderus and Scaphinotus. Scaphinotus differs from the genera Sphaeroderus and Cychrus in possessing at least a partial suture separating the proepisternum and proepimeron. Sphaeroderus has the second labial palpomere bisetose whereas Cychrus has it plurisetose (Ball & Bousquet 2001).

Characters (from Ball & Bousquet 2001): Size moderate to large (total length ca. 10–50 mm); head capsule ventrally without antennal grooves; antennal insertions laterad, each between base of mandible and anterior margin of eye; antenna filiform, antennomeres 2–4 not nodose, 2–6 without unusually long setae, with 11 antennomeres; labrum with six setae; mandible with scrobe asetose; terminal palpomeres various, from about cylindrical to distinctly securiform; pterothorax with mesonotal scutellum dorsally evident, not concealed beneath elytra; front coxal cavities open, middle coxal cavities disjunct-confluent, hind coxal cavities conjunct-confluent; elytra striate to smooth dorsally, extended to apex of abdominal sternum VIII, and apical margins subsinuate; metathoracic wings various, long (macropterous) to short (brachypterous); front tibia anisochaete; antennal cleaner sulcate or emarginate; abdomen with six (II–VII) pregenital sterna normally exposed, sterna III and IV separated by suture; male genitalia with parameres slender, about equal in size, asetose apically; ovipositor with gonocoxae rotated 90° in repose, with ramus, gonocoxa of two gonocoxites, gonocoxite 2 without accessory lobe; reproductive tract with spermatheca 1, without spermatheca 2. Secretions of pygidial glands saturated acids and aldehydes, or unsaturated acids; discharge by spraying.

Carabinae [Carabitae]
    |  i. s.: Ceroglossus chilensis (Eschscholtz 1829)B14
    |         Damaster blaptoides Kollar 1836B14
    |           |--D. b. blaptoidesK64
    |           `--D. b. rugipennisK64
    |         AcoptolabrusB14
    |         CoptolabrusB14
    |--Cychrini [Cychrinae, Pamborinae]LB91
    |    |--Sphaeroderus Dejean 1826BB01
    |    |--Cychropsis Boileau 1901BB01
    |    |--PamborusLB91
    |    |--Cychrus Fabricius 1794BB01
    |    |    |--C. attenuatusB14
    |    |    |--C. caraboides Linnaeus 1758B14
    |    |    |--C. cordicollisB14
    |    |    |--C. italicusR26
    |    |    `--C. rostratus [=Carabus (Cychrus) rostratus]G20
    |    `--Scaphinotus Dejean 1826BB01
    |         |--S. (Scaphinotus) [incl. Irichroa Newman 1838, Megaliridia Casey 1920]BB01
    |         |    |--S. (S.) elevatus Fabricius 1787)BB01
    |         |    |    |--S. e. elevatusBB01
    |         |    |    `--S. e. neomexicanus Van Dyke 1924BB01
    |         |    `--S. (S.) petersiBB01
    |         |--S. (Brennus Motschulsky 1865)BB01
    |         |    `--S. (B.) marginatus (Fischer von Waldheim 1822)BB01
    |         |--S. (Maronetus Casey 1914)BB01
    |         |    |--S. (M.) debilis (LeConte 1853)BB01
    |         |    |--S. (M.) hubbardi (Schwarz 1895)BB01
    |         |    |--S. (M.) imperfectus (Horn 1860)BB01
    |         |    `--S. (M.) incompletus (Schwarz 1895)BB01
    |         |--S. (Neocychrus Roeschke 1907)BB01
    |         |    `--S. (N.) angulatusBB01
    |         |--S. (Nomaretus LeConte 1853)BB01
    |         |--S. (Pseudonomaretus Roeschke 1907)BB01
    |         |--S. (Steniridia Casey 1924)BB01
    |         |    `--S. (S.) andrewsiiBB01
    |         `--S. (Stenocantharus Gistel 1857) [incl. Pemphus Motschulsky 1866]BB01
    |              `--S. (S.) angusticollis (Fischer von Waldheim 1823)BB01
    `--CarabiniLB91
         |--CarabusBB01
         `--CalosomatinaBB01
              |--Aplothorax Waterhouse 1843BB01
              `--Calosoma Weber 1801BB01 [=Callisoma Agassiz 1846LM87]
                   |  i. s.: C. australe Hope 1845LM87
                   |         C. cyaneoventre Mandl 1955LM87
                   |         C. indagatorB90
                   |         C. inquisitorL02
                   |--C. (Calosoma) [incl. Callipara Motschulsky 1865, Syncalosoma Breuning 1927]BB01
                   |    |--*C. (C.) sycophanta (Linnaeus 1758) [=Carabus sycophanta]LM87
                   |    `--C. (C.) frigidum Kirby 1837BB01
                   |--C. (Australodrepa Lapouge 1929)LM87
                   |    |--C. (A.) oceanicum Perroud & Montrouzier 1864 (see below for synonymy)LM87
                   |    `--C. (A.) schayeri Erichson 1842 [incl. C. curtisi Hope 1845, C. grandipenne Castelnau 1867]LM87
                   |--C. (Blaptosoma Géhin 1876) [incl. Aulacopterum Géhin 1885]BB01
                   |    `--C. (B.) haydeni Horn 1870BB01
                   |--C. (Callisthenes Fischer von Waldheim 1821)BB01
                   |--C. (Callitropa Motschulsky 1865) [incl. Paratropa Lapouge 1929]BB01
                   |    |--C. (C.) externum (Say 1823)BB01
                   |    `--C. (C.) macrum LeConte 1853BB01
                   |--C. (Calodrepa Motschulsky 1865)BB01
                   |    |--C. (C.) aurocinctum Chaudoir 1850BB01
                   |    |--C. (C.) scrutator (Fabriciys 1775)BB01
                   |    |--C. (C.) splendidum Dejean 1831BB01
                   |    `--C. (C.) wilcoxi LeConte 1848BB01
                   |--C. (Camedula Motschulsky 1865) [incl. Acamegonia Lapouge 1924]BB01
                   |    `--C. (C.) peregrinator Guérin-Méneville 1844BB01
                   |--C. (Camegonia Lapouge 1924)BB01
                   |    |--C. (C.) marginale Casey 1897BB01
                   |    `--C. (C.) prominensBB01
                   |--C. (Carabosoma Géhin 1885)BB01
                   |    `--C. (C.) angulatum Chevrolat 1834BB01
                   |--C. (Castrida Motschulsky 1865) (see below for synonymy)BB01
                   |    `--C. (C.) sayi Dejean 1826BB01
                   |--C. (Chrysostigma Kirby 1837) [incl. Lyperostenia Lapouge 1929]BB01
                   |    `--C. (C.) calidum (Fabricius 1775)BB01
                   |--C. (Microcallisthenes Apfelbeck 1918) [incl. Callistenia Lapouge 1929, Isotenia Lapouge 1929]BB01
                   |    |--C. (M.) luxatum Say 1823BB01
                   |    `--C. (M.) moniliatum LeConte 1852BB01
                   |--C. (Tapinosthenes Kolbe 1895)BB01
                   |    `--C. (T.) cancellatum Eschscholtz 1833BB01
                   `--C. (Teratexis Semenov & Znojko 1933)BB01

Calosoma (Australodrepa) oceanicum Perroud & Montrouzier 1864 [incl. C. (*A.) timorense Chaudoir 1869, C. walkeri Waterhouse 1898]LM87

Calosoma (Castrida Motschulsky 1865) [incl. Acampalita Lapouge 1929, Calamata Motschulsky 1865, Callistriga Motschulsky 1865, Catastriga Lapouge 1929]BB01

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[BB01] Ball, G. E., & Y. Bousquet. 2001. Carabidae Latreille, 1810. In: Arnett, R. H., Jr & M. C. Thomas (eds) American Beetles vol. 1. Archostemata, Myxophaga, Adephaga, Polyphaga: Staphyliniformia pp. 32–132. CRC Press: Boca Raton.

[B14] Bouchard, P. (ed.) 2014. The Book of Beetles: A lifesize guide to six hundred of nature’s gems. Ivy Press: Lewes (United Kingdom).

[B90] Brongniart, C. 1890. Capture à Montmorency (Seine-et-Oise) du Calosoma indagator. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France, 6e série 9: ccxl.

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[K64] Krauss, N. L. H. 1964. Investigations on biological control of giant African (Achatina fulica) and other land snails. Nautilus 78 (1): 21–27.

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 3. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[LB91] Lawrence, J. F., & E. B. Britton. 1991. Coleoptera (beetles). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 543–683. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[LM87] Lawrence, J. F., B. P. Moore, J. E. Pyke & T. A. Weir. 1987. Zoological Catalogue of Australia vol. 4. Coleoptera: Archostemata, Myxophaga and Adephaga. Australian Government Publishing Service: Canberra.

[R26] Risso, A. 1826. Histoire naturelle des principales productions de l’Europe méridionale et particulièrement de celles des environs de Nice et des Alpes maritimes vol. 5. F.-G. Levrault: Paris.

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