Carabodes (Carabodes)

Carabodes labyrinthicus, copyright Biodiversity Institute of Ontario.

Belongs within: Carabodinae.

The type subgenus of the genus Carabodes is a subcosmopolitan group of carabodid oribatid mites with an evenly arched notogaster. The type species, C. coriaceus, is widespread in forest soils in Europe with less certain records from other parts of the Holarctic region.

Characters (from Balogh & Balogh 1992): Prodorsum and notogaster without high elevation(s) or deep excavation(s); notogaster with ten pairs of well-developed setae. Ventral region not shortened, genital and anal plates normally separated. Genital plates with four setae; aggenital setae usually present.

Carabodes Koch 1835 (Carabodes) [incl. Neocepheus Willmann 1936]S04
|--C. (C.) labyrinthicus (Michael 1879)SC19, S04 (see below for synonymy)
`--+--*C. (C.) coriaceus Koch 1835S04, SC19, S04 (see below for synonymy)
`--C. (C.) subarcticus Trägardh 1902SC19, S04 [=C. elongatus var. subarcticaS22]

Carabodes (Carabodes) incertae sedis:
C. (C.) affinis Berlese 1913S04
C. (C.) apuanicus Bernini 1979S04
C. (C.) arduinii Valle 1955S04
C. (C.) areolatus Berlese 1916S04
C. (C.) auriculatus Mahunka 1987S04
C. (C.) azoricus Pérez-Íñigo & Pérez-Íñigo 1996S04
C. (C.) basilewskyi Balogh 1958 (n. d.)S04
C. (C.) bellus Aoki 1959S04
C. (C.) berninii Mahunka 1983S04
C. (C.) bicolor Balogh 1958 (n. d.)S04
C. (C.) brevis Banks 1896S04
C. (C.) cephalotes Koch 1836 (n. d.)S04 [incl. C. cynocephalus Koch 1839S04, Nothrus cynocephalusM98]
C. (C.) cerebrum Fujikawa 1993S04
C. (C.) cherokee Reeves 1993S04
C. (C.) chirstlus Mahunka 1987 [incl. C. foliatus Morell 1990]S04
C. (C.) clavatus Warburton 1912 (n. d.) [=C. lalbyrinthicus clavatus]S04
C. (C.) cochleaformis Reeves 1990S04
C. (C.) colorado Reeves & Behan-Pelletier 1998S04
C. (C.) comas Kulijev 1979S04
C. (C.) coweetaensis Reeves 1995S04
C. (C.) dudichi Mahunka & Mahunka-Papp 1999S04
C. (C.) egregius Djaparidze 1990S04
C. (C.) erectus Reeves 1992S04
C. (C.) falcatus Jacot 1937S04
C. (C.) floridus Berlese 1913S04
C. (C.) gibbiceps Berlese 1916S04
C. (C.) grandjeani Bernini 1977S04
C. (C.) granulatus Banks 1895 [incl. C. omo Jacot 1937]S04
C. (C.) gregorioi Gil-Martín & Subías 1997S04
C. (C.) guadarramicus Subías & Arillo 2001S04
C. (C.) hispanicus Pérez-Íñigo 1966S04
C. (C.) hoh Reeves & Behan-Pelletier 1998S04
C. (C.) hummelincki (Willmann 1936)S04 [=*Neocepheus hummelinckiCH98]
C. (C.) hungaricus Balogh 1943S04
C. (C.) ikeharai Aoki 1988S04
C. (C.) interruptus Reeve 1992S04
C. (C.) magnus Kunst 1961S04
C. (C.) marginatus (Michael 1884)SK10, S04 (see below for synonymy)
C. (C.) montanus Bernini 1979S04
C. (C.) nantahalaensis Reeves 1993S04
C. (C.) neonominatus Subías 2004 (see below for synonymy)S04
C. (C.) niger Banks 1895S04 [=C. nigraM98]
C. (C.) nitens Johnston 1847 (n. d.)S04
C. (C.) ornatus Storkan 1925 [incl. C. forsslundi Sellnick 1953]S04
C. (C.) palmifer Berlese 1904 [incl. C. peniculatus Aoki 1970]S04
C. (C.) paraspinosus Kulijev 1968S04
C. (C.) pentasetosus Reeves 1992S04
C. (C.) perezinigoi Salinas 1971S04
C. (C.) phylliformis Reeves 1993S04
C. (C.) pirenaicus Subías & Arillo 2001S04
C. (C.) pirenensis Kunst 1961S04
C. (C.) polyporetes Reeves 1991S04
C. (C.) prunum Fujikawa 1993S04
C. (C.) quadrangulus Bernini 1979 [incl. C. flagellifer Mihelčič 1966]S04
C. (C.) reticulatus Berlese 1913 [=C. coriaceus reticulatus]S04
C. (C.) spiniformis Reeves 1995S04
C. (C.) spinosus Storkan 1925S04
C. (C.) subalpinus Thor 1937S04
C. (C.) subcarinatus Mahunka & Mahunka-Papp 2000 (see below for synonymy)S04
C. (C.) tenuis Forsslund 1953S04
|--C. t. tenuisS04
`--C. t. longisetosus Kulijev 1968S04
C. (C.) wettsteini Mahunka 1996S04
C. (C.) wonalancetanus Reeves 1990S04
C. femoralis groupCA86
|--C. (C.) femoralis (Nicolet 1855)SK10, S04 [=Tegeocranus femoralisS04]
|--C. (C.) rimosus Aoki 1959CA86
|--C. (C.) rugosior Berlese 1916CA86, S04 [=C. femoralis var. rugosiorS04]
|--C. (C.) transversarius Choi & Aoki 1986CA86
`--C. (C.) tsushimaensis Aoki 1970CA86, S04 [=C. rimosus tsushimaensisS04]
|--C. t. tsushimaensisS04
`--C. t. ‘dorsalis’ Choi & Aoki 1986 non C. dorsalis Banks 1896S04

*Carabodes (Carabodes) coriaceus Koch 1835S04, SC19, S04 [=Cepheus coriaceusM98, Tegeocranus coriaceusM98; incl. Carabodes nepos Hull 1914S04, Oribates papillosus Lucas 1847M98, E12, Ca. papillosusS04]

Carabodes (Carabodes) labyrinthicus (Michael 1879)SK10, S04 [=Tegeocranus labyrinthicusS04; incl. Cepheus heimi Oudemans 1903S04, Carabodes marginepunctatus Trägardh 1902S04, Ca. scymnus Hull 1914S04, Ca. vermiculatus Berlese 1916S04]

Carabodes (Carabodes) marginatus (Michael 1884)SK10, S04 [=Tegeocranus marginatusS04; incl. C. marginatus var. pontiger Berlese 1913BA85, S04]

Carabodes (Carabodes) neonominatus Subías 2004 [=C. gibbiceps clavata Jacot 1938 non C. labyrinthicus clavatus Warburton 1912]S04

Carabodes (Carabodes) subcarinatus Mahunka & Mahunka-Papp 2000 [incl. C. carinatus Mahunka & Mahunka-Papp 1999 non Wallwork 1977]S04

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

Balogh, J., & P. Balogh. 1992. The Oribatid Mites Genera of the World vol. 1. Hungarian Natural History Museum: Budapest.

[BA85] Bernini, F., & R. Arcidiacono. 1985. Notulae oribatologicae XXXVI. A catalogue of the Sicilian oribatids (Acarida, Oribatida). Animalia 12 (1–3): 165–205.

[CA86] Choi, S. S., & J. Aoki. 1986. The oribatid mites (Acari: Cryptostigmata) of Korea (4). On the femoralis-group of the genus Carabodes C.L. Koch, 1836. Korean Journal of Entomology 16 (1): 27–32.

[CH98] Colloff, M. J., & R. B. Halliday. 1998. Oribatid Mites: A catalogue of Australian genera and species. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood.

[E12] Evenhuis, N. L. 2012. Publication and dating of the Exploration Scientifique de l’Algérie: Histoire Naturelle des Animaux Articulés (1846–1849) by Pierre Hippolyte Lucas. Zootaxa 3448: 1–61.

[M98] Michael, A. D. 1898. Oribatidae. In: H. Lohmann (ed.) Das Tierreich. Eine Zusammenstellung und Kennzeichnung der rezenten Tierformen vol. 3. Acarina pp. 1–93. R. Friedländer und Sohn: Berlin.

[S22] Schweizer, J. 1922. Beitrag zur Kenntnis der terrestrischen Milbenfauna der Schweiz. Verhandl. Naturf. Ges. Basel 33: 23–112, 4 pls.

[SC19] Schaefer, I., & T. Caruso. 2019. Oribatid mites show that soil food web complexity and close aboveground-belowground linkages emerged in the early Paleozoic. Communications Biology 2: 387.

[SK10] Schäffer, S., S. Koblmüller, T. Pfingstl, C. Sturmbauer & G. Krisper. 2010. Ancestral state reconstruction reveals multiple independent evolution of diagnostic morphological characters in the “Higher Oribatida” (Acari), conflicting with current classification. BMC Evolutionary Biology 10: 246.

[S04] Subías, L. S. 2004. Listado sistemático, sinonímico y biogeográfico de los ácaros oribátidos (Acariformes, Oribatida) del mundo (1758–2002). Graellsia 60 (número extraordinario): 3–305.

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