Graceful shark Carcharhinus amblyrhynchoides, copyright Tassapon Krajangdara.

Belongs within: Carcharhiniformes.

The Carcharhinidae, requiem sharks, are a group of actively swimming sharks including many of the most commonly encountered species in tropical waters.

Characters (from Compagno 1984): Head without laterally expanded blades; eyes circular, vertically oval, or horizontally oval, their lengths 1.5 times their height or less; nictitating eyelids internal; spiracles usually absent; anterior nasal flaps varying from lobular and tube-shaped to vestigial, not barbel-like; internarial width usually about 3 to 6 times nostril width; labial furrows varying from moderately long and conspicuous, to short and hidden when mouth is closed; teeth small to large, with acute and narrow to moderately broad cusps, sometimes lateral cusplets, but with basal ledges and grooves low or absent; teeth variably differentiated in upper and lower jaws, uppers often more compressed and bladelike, lowers often more cuspidate and not compressed; posterior teeth not comblike; tooth rows 18 to 60/18 to 56. Precaudal pits present. First dorsal fin moderate-sized to very large but not keel-like, much shorter than caudal fin; first dorsal base ahead of pelvic bases, varying from closer to pectoral bases to closer to pelvics; midpoint of first dorsal base always in front of pelvic origins; second dorsal fin usually much smaller than first; pectoral fins with radials extending into distal web of fins; ventral caudal lobe strong, undulations or ripples present in dorsal caudal margin. Neurocranium without supraorbital crests. Vertebral centra with strong, wedge-shaped intermedial calcifications. Valvular intestine with a scroll valve. Colour variable, usually no colour pattern. Development usually viviparous.

<==Carcharhinidae (see below for synonymy)
| i. s.: ‘Scyliorhinus’ africanus Arambourg 1952 non Squalus africanus Gmelin 1789 (not preoc. if in dif. gen.)CDZ93
|--Abdounia beaugei (Arambourg 1952)CDZ93
|--Eogaleus Cappetta 1975CDZ93, B80
| `--E. bolcensis Cappetta 1975CDZ93
|--Prionace Cantor 1849 (see below for synonymy)C84
| `--*P. glauca (Linnaeus 1758) (nom. cons.) (see below for synonymy)C84
|--Triaenodon Müller & Henle 1837C84
| `--*T. obesus (Rüppell 1837) [=Carcharias obesus; incl. T. apicalis Whitley 1939]C84
|--Nasolamia Compagno & Garrick 1983C84
| `--*N. velox (Gilbert in Jordan & Evermann 1898) [=Carcharhinus velox]C84
|--Lamiopsis Gill 1862C84
| `--*L. temmincki (Müller & Henle 1839) (see below for synonymy)C84
|--Isogomphodon Gill 1862C84
| `--*I. oxyrhynchus (Müller & Henle 1839)C84 (see below for synonymy)
|--Loxodon Müller & Henle 1838C84
| `--*L. macrorhinus Müller & Henle 1839 (see below for synonymy)C84
|--Scoliodon Müller & Henle 1837 [incl. Physodon Valenciennes in Bonaparte 1838]C84
| |--*S. laticaudus Müller & Henle 1838 (see below for synonymy)C84
| `--S. acutusJR10
|--Negaprion Whitley 1940 [incl. Hemigaleops Schultz in Schultz et al. 1953, Mystidens Whitley 1944]C84
| |--N. acutidens (Rüppell 1837) (see below for synonymy)C84
| `--N. brevirostris (Poey 1868) (see below for synonymy)C84
| |--P. latus [=Eugaleus latus, Galeus latus]F91
| |--P. secundus (Winkler 1874)CDZ93
| `--P. tertius (Winkler 1874) [incl. Physodon contortus (Weiler 1922)]F91
|--Glyphis Agassiz 1843 non Ach. 1814 (ICBN)G62
| |--*G. glyphis (Müller & Henle 1839) [=Carcharias (Prionodon) glyphis, Carcharhinus glyphis]C84
| |--G. gangeticus (Müller & Henle 1839) (see below for synonymy)C84
| `--G. hastalis Agassiz 1843C84
|--Galeocerdo Müller & Henle 1837 [incl. Boreogaleus Gill 1862]C84
| |--G. cuvier (Peron & LeSueur 1822) (see below for synonymy)C84
| |--G. acutus Storms 1894 [incl. G. medius Wittich 1898]F91
| |--G. aduncusC77
| |--G. latidens (Agassiz 1843)CDZ93
| `--G. pristodontusC77
|--Rhizoprionodon Whitley 1929 [=Rhizoprion Ogilby 1915 non Jourdan 1861; incl. Protozygaena Whitley 1940]C84
| |--R. acutus (Rüppell 1837)C84 (see below for synonymy)
| |--R. lalandii (Valenciennes in Müller & Henle 1839) (see below for synonymy)C84
| |--R. longurio (Jordan & Gilbert 1882) [=Carcharias (Scoliodon) longurio]C84
| |--R. oligolinx Springer 1964C84
| |--R. porosus (Poey 1861) [=Squalus porosus]C84
| |--R. taylori (Ogilby 1915) [=Physodon taylori, Protozygaena taylori]C84
| `--R. terraenovae (Richardson 1836) [=Squalus (Carcharias) terraenovae, Scoliodon terraenovae]C84
|--Alopiopsis plejodon Lioy 1865B80
`--Carcharhinus Blainville 1816 (see below for synonymy)C84
|--*C. melanopterus (Quoy & Gaimard 1824)C84 (see below for synonymy)
|--C. acronotus (Poey 1860) (see below for synonymy)C84
|--C. albimarginatus (Rüppell 1837) (see below for synonymy)C84
|--C. altimus (Springer 1950) [=Eulamia altima; incl. C. radamae Fourmanoir 1961]C84
|--C. amblyrhynchoides (Whitley 1934) [=Gillisqualus amblyrhynchoides]C84
|--C. amblyrhynchos (Bleeker 1856)C84 (see below for synonymy)
|--C. amboinensis (Müller & Henle 1839) (see below for synonymy)C84
|--C. borneensis (Bleeker 1859) [=Carcharias (Prionodon) borneensis]C84
|--C. brachyurus (Günther 1870)C84 (see below for synonymy)
|--C. brevipinna (Müller & Henle 1839)C84 (see below for synonymy)
|--C. cautus (Whitley 1945) [=Galeolamna greyi cauta]C84
|--C. dussumieri (Valenciennes in Müller & Henle 1839) (see below for synonymy)C84
|--C. elongatusF91
|--C. falciformis (Bibron in Müller & Henle 1839)C84 (see below for synonymy)
|--‘Carcharias’ fissidens Bennett 1830–1831 (n. d.)C84
|--C. fitzroyensis (Whitley 1943) [=Galeolamna (Uranganops) fitzroyensis]C84
|--C. galapagensis (Snodgrass & Heller 1905) [=Carcharias galapagensis]C84
|--C. hemiodon (Valenciennes in Müller & Henle 1839)C84 (see below for synonymy)
|--‘Hypoprion’ heterodus Philippi 1887 (n. d.) [=Hemigaleus heterodus]C84
|--C. isodon (Valenciennes in Müller & Henle 1839) (see below for synonymy)C84
|--‘Carcharias’ javanicus van Hasselt 1823 (n. d.)C84
|--C. leucas (Valenciennes in Müller & Henle 1839)C84 (see below for synonymy)
|--C. limbatus (Valenciennes in Müller & Henle 1839) (see below for synonymy)C84
|--C. longimanus (Poey 1861) (nom. cons.)C84 (see below for synonymy)
|--C. macloti (Müller & Henle 1839) [=Carcharias (Hypoprion) macloti]C84
|--‘Carcharias’ macrotaW96
|--‘Carcharias (Prionodon)’ munsing Bleeker 1849 (n. d.)C84
|--C. obscurus (LeSueur 1818)C84 (see below for synonymy)
|--C. perezi (Poey 1876) (see below for synonymy)C84
|--‘Eulamia’ philippi Fowler 1930 (n. d.) (see below for synonymy)C84
|--‘Thalassorhinus’ platyrhynchus Müller & Henle 1839 (n. d.)C84
|--C. plumbeus (Nardo 1827)C84 (see below for synonymy)
|--C. porosus (Ranzani 1839) (see below for synonymy)C84
|--‘Carcharias’ robustus Philippi 1896 (n. d.)C84
|--‘Carcharias’ sanctaethomae Engelhardt 1912 (n. d.)C84
|--C. sealei (Pietschmann 1916)C84 (see below for synonymy)
|--‘Carcharias (Prionodon)’ siamensis Steindachner 1896 (n. d.)C84
|--C. signatus (Poey 1868) [=Hypoprion signatus; incl. H. bigelowi Cadenat 1956, H. longirostris Poey 1876]C84
|--C. sorrah (Valenciennes in Müller & Henle 1839)C84 (see below for synonymy)
`--C. wheeleri Garrick 1982C84

Inorganic: Gleocerdo cuvieri minilorientalis Okamura 1987O87

Nomina nuda: Squalus (Carcharhinus) broussonetii Blainville 1816C84
Squalus (Carcharhinus) heterobranchialis Blainville 1816C84
Squalus (Carcharhinus) heterodon Blainville 1816C84
Squalus (Carcharhinus) lividus Blainville 1816C84
Squalus (Carcharhinus) megalops Blainville 1816 non S. megalops (Macleay 1882)C84
Squalus (Carcharhinus) ustus Blainville 1816C84

Carcharhinidae [Carcharhininae, Carchariae, Carcharinidae, Eulamiidae, Galeocerdinae, Loxodontinae, Nictitantes, Scoliodontidae, Triaenodontes, Triaenodontini]

Carcharhinus Blainville 1816 [=Carcharorhinus Agassiz 1843 (nom. rej.); incl. Aprion Müller & Henle 1839 non Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830, Aprionodon Gill 1862, Bogimba Whitley 1943, Carcharias Cuvier 18917 (nom. rej.), Carcharinus Cloquet 1817 (nom. rej.), Eulamia Gill 1862, Galeolamna Owen 1853, Galeolamnoides Whitley 1934, Gillisqualus Whitley 1934, Gymnorhinus Hilgendorf in Hemprich & Ehrenberg 1899 non Maximillian 1841, Gymnorrhinus Hemprich & Ehrenberg 1899, Hypoprion Müller & Henle 1839, Hypoprionodon Gill 1862, Isoplagiodon Gill 1862, Lamnarius Whitley 1943, Longmania Whitley 1939, Mapolamia Whitley 1934, Ogilamia Whitley 1939, Platypodon Gill 1862, Prionodon Müller & Henle 1839 non Horsfield 1822, Pterolamia Springer 1950 (nom. rej.) non Breuning 1942, Pterolamiops Springer 1951, Uranga Whitley 1943, Uranganops Whitley 1943]C84

Carcharhinus acronotus (Poey 1860) [=Squalus acronotus; incl. Prionodon curcuri Castelnau 1855, Carcharias (Prionodon) remotus Dumeril 1865, Carcharhinus remotus]C84

Carcharhinus albimarginatus (Rüppell 1837) [=Carcharias albimarginatus; incl. Eulamia (Platypodon) platyrhynchus Gilbert 1892 non Thalassorhinus platyrhynchus Müller & Henle 1839, Carcharhinus platyrhynchus]C84

Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos (Bleeker 1856)C84 [=Carcharis (Prionodon) amblyrhynchosC84, Carcharhinus amblyrhynchusC84; incl. Galeolama coongoola Whitley 1964C84, G. fowleri Whitley 1944C84, Carcharias nesiodes Snyder 1904C84, G. tufiensis Whitley 1949C84, Carcharhinus tufiensisM58]

Carcharhinus amboinensis (Müller & Henle 1839) [=Carcharias (Prionodon) amboinensis; incl. Carcharias (P.) brachyrhynchos Bleeker 1859, Carcharias (P.) henlei Bleeker 1844 non Valenciennes in Müller & Henle 1839, Triaenodon obtusus Day 1878]C84

Carcharhinus brachyurus (Günther 1870)C84 [=Carcharias brachyurusC84; incl. Carcharhinus acarenatus Morenos & Hoyos 1983C84, Eulamia ahenea Stead 1938C84, Carcharhinus aheneaG75, Carcharhinus improvisus Smith 1952C84, Carcharias lamiella Jordan & Gilbert 1882C84, Carcharhinus lamiellaC84, Carcharhinus remotoides Deng, Xiong & Zhan 1981C84, Carcharhinus rochensis Abella 1972C84]

Carcharhinus brevipinna (Müller & Henle 1839)C84 [=Carcharias (Aprion) brevipinnaC84, Aprionodon brevipinnaC84; incl. Longmania calamaria Whitley 1944C84, A. caparti Poll 1951C84, Carcharhinus johnsoni Smith 1951C84, Isogomphodon maculipinnis Poey 1865C84, Carcharhinus maculipinnisC84, Uranga nasuta Whitley 1943C84, Carcharhinus nasutaG75]

Carcharhinus dussumieri (Valenciennes in Müller & Henle 1839) [=Carcharias (Prionodon) dussumieri; incl. Carcharias (P.) javanicus Bleeker 1852 non Carcharias javanicus van Hasselt 1823, Cacharias malabaricus Day 1873, Carcharias (P.) tjutjot Bleeker 1852]C84

Carcharhinus falciformis (Bibron in Müller & Henle 1839)C84 [=Carcharias (Prionodon) falciformisC84; incl. Carcharhinus atrodorsus Deng, Xiong & Zhan 1981C84, Carcharias falcipinnis Lower 1839C84, Carcharhinus floridanus Bigelow, Schroeder & Springer 1943C84, Eulamia malpeloensis Fowler 1944C84, Carcharias (P.) menisorrah Valenciennes in Müller & Henle 1839C84, Carcharhinus menisorrahC84, Eulamia menisorrahM58, Gymnorhinus pharaonis Hemprich & Ehrenberg 1899C84, Gymnorrhinus pharaonisC84, Aprionodon sitankaiensis Herre 1931C84, Prionodon tiburo Poey 1860C84, Squalus tiburo non Linnaeus 1758C84]

Carcharhinus hemiodon (Valenciennes in Müller & Henle 1839)C84 [=Carcharias (Hypoprion) hemiodonC84, Hypoprionodon hemiodonJR10; incl. Hypoprion atripinna Chu 1960C84, Carcharias watu Setna & Sarangdhar 1946C84]

Carcharhinus isodon (Valenciennes in Müller & Henle 1839) [=Carcharias (Aprion) isodon, Aprionodon isodon; incl. Aprionodon punctatus Gill 1861]C84

Carcharhinus leucas (Valenciennes in Müller & Henle 1839)C84 [=Carcharias (Prionodon) leucasC84; incl. Carcharias azureus Gilbert & Starks 1904C84, Carcharhinus azureusC84, Galeolamna (Bogimba) bogimba Whitley 1943C84, Carcharhinus bogimbaG75, G. grayi mackaili Whitley 1943C84, Eulamia nicaraquensis Gill & Bransford 1877C84, Carcharhinus nicaraquensisC84, Squalus obtusus Poey 1861 C84, Prionodon obtususC84, S. platyodon Poey 1861C84, Carcharhinus platyodonC84, Carcharias spenceri Ogilby 1911C84, Carcharhinus spenceriG75, Carcharhinus vanrooyeni Smith 1958C84, Carcharias (Prionodon) zambezensis Peters 1852C84, Carcharhinus zambezensisC84]

Carcharhinus limbatus (Valenciennes in Müller & Henle 1839) [=Carcharias (Prionodon) limbatus; incl. Gymnorhinus abbreviatus Hemprich & Ehrenberg 1899, Gymnorrhinus abbreviatus, Carcharias aethlorus Jordan & Gilbert 1882, Carcharias ehrenbergi Klunzinger 1871, Carcharias maculipinna Günther 1868, Carcharias microps Low 1840, Carcharias (Prionodon) muelleri Steindachner 1867 non C. (Physodon) muelleri Valenciennes in Müller & Henle 1839, Carcharhinus natator Meek & Hildebrand 1923, Carcharias phorcys Jordan & Gilbert 1903, Carcharias (Pr.) pleurotaenia Bleeker 1852, Carcharhinus pleurotaenia, Galeolamna pleurotaenia tilsoni Whitley 1950]C84

Carcharhinus longimanus (Poey 1861) (nom. cons.)C84 [=Squalus longimanusC84, Prionodon longimanusS58, *Pterolamia longimanusS58, *Pterolamiops longimanusS58; incl. Pterolamiops budkeri Fourmanoir 1961C84, Carcharias insularum Snyder 1904C84, Pterolamiops insularumS58, Pterolamiops magnipinnis Smith 1958C84, Squalus (Carcharias) maou Lesson 1830C84, Carcharhinus maouC84, Carcharias (Prionodon) obtusus Garman 1881 non Squalus obtusus Poey 1861C84]

*Carcharhinus melanopterus (Quoy & Gaimard 182) C84 [=Carcharias melanopterusC84, Carcharias (Prionodon) melanopterusM58, Eulamia melanopterusM58; incl. Squalus (Carcharhinus) commersoni Blainville 1816 (n. n.)C84, Carcharinus commersonii Blainville 1825G62, Carcharias elegans Hemprich & Ehrenberg 1899C84, Carcharias marianensis Engelhardt 1912C84, Carcharias playfairi Günther 1870C84, Hypoprion playfairiC84]

Carcharhinus obscurus (LeSueur 1818)C84 [=Squalus obscurusC84, Carcharias (Prionodon) obscurusL43; incl. Galeolamna (Galeolamnoides) eblis Whitley 1944C84, *G. greyi Owen 1853G62, C84, Carcharhinus greyiC84, Carcharhinus iranzae Fourmanoir 1961C84, Carcharias macrurus Ramsay & Ogilby 1887C84, Carcharhinus macrurusG75, Galeolamna macrurusC84, Carcharhinus obscurella Deng, Xiong & Zhan 1981C84, Prionodon obvelatus Valenciennes in Webb & Berholt 1844C84]

Carcharhinus perezi (Poey 1876) [=Platypodon perezi; incl. Eulamia springeri Bigelow & Schroeder 1944, Carcharhinus springeri]C84

Carcharhinus plumbeus (Nardo 1827)C84 [=Squalus plumbeusC84; incl. Squalus caecchia Nardo 1847C84, Carcharias ceruleus DeKay 1842 non Squalus (Carcharhinus) caeruleus Blainville 1825C84, Lamna caudata DeKay 1842C84, Galeolamna dorsalis Whitley 1944C84, Carcharias (Prionodon) japonicus Schlegal 1850C84, Carcharhinus japonicusC84, Carcharias latistomus Fang & Wang 1932C84, Carcharias (P.) milberti Valenciennes in Müller & Henle 1839C84, Carcharhinus milbertiC84, Eulamia milbertiC84, Carcharias obtusirostris Moreau 1881C84, Carcharias stevensi Ogilby 1911C84, Carcharhinus stevensiG75, Galeolamna stevensiC84]

Carcharhinus porosus (Ranzani 1839) [=Carcharias porosus; incl. Carcharhinus cerdale Gilbert in Jordan & Evermann 1898, Carcharias (Prionodon) henlei Valenciennes in Müller & Henle 1839]C84

Carcharhinus sealei (Pietschmann 1916)C84 [=Carcharias sealeiC84, Carcharhias borneensis Seale 1910 non Bleeker 1859C84; incl. Platypodon coatesi Whitley 1939C84, Carcharhinus coatesiG75]

Carcharhinus sorrah (Valenciennes in Müller & Henle 1839)C84 [=Carcharias (Prionodon) sorrahC84, Eulamia sorrahM58; incl. Carcharias (P.) bleekeri Dumeril 1865C84, Carcharhinus bleekeriC84, Galeolamna isobel Whitley 1947C84, Squalus spallanzani Peron & LeSueur in LeSueur 1822C84, Carcharhinus spallanzaniC84, Mapolamia spallanzaniiC84, Carcharias taeniatus Hemprich & Ehrenberg 1899C84]

‘Eulamia’ philippi Fowler 1930 (n. d.) [=Carcharias brachyrrhynchus Philippi 1887 non C. (Prionodon) brachyrhynchos Bleeker 1859]C84

Galeocerdo cuvier (Peron & LeSueur 1822) [=Squalus cuvier; incl. S. arcticus Faber 1829, *Galeocerdo arcticus, Galeus cepedianus Agassiz 1838, Carcharias (Prionodon) fasciatus Bleeker 1852, Carcharias hemprichii Hilgendorf in Hemprich & Ehrenberg 1899, Galeus maculatus Ranzani 1840, Galeocerdo obtusus Klunzinger 1871, Galeocerdo rayneri McDonald & Barron 1868, Galeocerdo tigrinus Müller & Henle 1839]C84

Glyphis gangeticus (Müller & Henle 1839) [=Carcharias (Prionodon) gangeticus, Carcharhinus gangeticus, Eulamia gangetica, Platypodon gangeticus, Squalus gangeticus; incl. Carcharias murrayi Günther 1887]C84

*Isogomphodon oxyrhynchus (Müller & Henle 1839)C84 [=Carcharias (Prionodon) oxyrhynchusC84, Carcharhinus oxyrhynchusC84, Eulamia oxyrhinchusF16]

*Lamiopsis temmincki (Müller & Henle 1839) [=Carcharias (Prionodon) temmincki, Carcharhinus temmincki, Eulamia temmincki; incl. Carcharhinus microphthalmus Chu 1960, Carcharias tephrodes Fowler 1905]C84

*Loxodon macrorhinus Müller & Henle 1839 [incl. Scoliodon affinis Ogilby 1912, Carcharias albomarginatus Hemprich & Ehrenberg 1899, S. ceylonensis Setna & Sarangdhar 1946, C. (Scoliodon) dumerili Bleeker 1865, S. jordani Ogilby 1908]C84

Negaprion acutidens (Rüppell 1837) [=Carcharias acutidens; incl. C. forskaelii Hemprich & Ehrenberg 1899, *Hemigaleops forsteri Schultz in Schultz et al. 1953, *Mystidens innominatus Whitley 1944, Odontaspis madagascariensis Fourmanoir 1961, Carcharias munzingeri Kossmann & Raeuber 1877, Eulamia odontaspis Fowler 1908, Aprionodon acutidens queenslandicus Whitley 1939, *Negaprion queenslandicus]C84

Negaprion brevirostris (Poey 1868) [=Hypoprion brevirostris; incl. Carcharias fronto Jordan & Gilbert 1882, Negaprion fronto]C84

Prionace Cantor 1849 (nom. cons.) [incl. Cynocephalus Gill 1862 nec Boddaërt 1768 nec Geoffroy & Cuvier 1795, Galeus Garman 1913 nec Rafinesque 1810 nec Cuvier 1817 nec Leach 1818, Thalassinus Moreau 1881, Thalassorhinus Valenciennes in Bonaparte 1838]C84

*Prionace glauca (Linnaeus 1758) (nom. cons.) [=Squalus glaucus, Glyphis glauca; incl. S. adscentionis Osbeck 1765, Carcharias aethiops Philippi 1896, S. (Carcharhinus) caeruleus Blainville 1825, C. gracilis Philippi 1887, C. (Prionodon) hirundinaceus Valenciennes in Müller & Henle 1839, Hypoprion isodus Philippi 1887, Hemigaleus isodus, Prionace macki Phillipps 1935, Carcharias pugae Perez Canto 1886, Squalus rondeletii Risso 1810, Thalassinus rondeletii Moreau 1881, Galeus thalassinus Valenciennes in Cuvier 1835, Thalassorhinus vulpecula Valenciennes in Bonaparte 1838]C84

Rhizoprionodon acutus (Rüppell 1837)C84 [=Carcharias acutusC84; incl. C. aaronis Hemprich & Ehrenberg 1899C84, C. (Scoliodon) crenidens Klunzinger 1879C84, *Rhizoprion crenidensC84, *Rhizoprionodon crenidensC84, Carcharias eumeces Pietschmann 1913C84, Scoliodon longmani Ogilby 1912C84, Protozygaena longmaniG75, Carcharias (Prionodon) sorrakowa Bleeker 1853C84, Scoliodon sorrakowaC84, S. sorrakowahC84, S. vagatus Garman 1913C84, C. (Scoliodon) walbeehmi Bleeker 1856C84, S. walbeehmiC84, C. walbeniiC84]

Rhizoprionodon lalandii (Valenciennes in Müller & Henle 1839) [=Carcharias (Scoliodon) lalandii, R. lalandei, Scoliodon lalandei; incl. S. intermedius Garman 1913]C84

*Scoliodon laticaudus Müller & Henle 1838 [=Carcharias (Scoliodon) laticaudus; incl. C. (S.) macrorhynchos Bleeker 1852, C. (Physodon) muelleri Valenciennes in Müller & Henle 1839, C. (Prionodon) palasorra Bleeker 1853, Scoliodon palasorra]C84

*Type species of generic name indicated


[B80] Blot, J. 1980. La faune ichthyologique des gisements du Monte Bolca (Province de Vérone, Italie). Catalogue systématique présentant l’état actuel des recherches concernant cette faune. Bulletin du Museum National d’Histoire Naturelle C 2: 339–396.

[CDZ93] Cappetta, H., C. Duffin & J. Zidek. 1993. Chondrichthyes. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 593–609. Chapman & Hall: London.

[C84] Compagno, L. J. V. 1984. FAO Species Catalogue vol. 4. Sharks of the World: An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Part 2—Carcharhiniformes. United Nations Development Programme, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations: Rome.

[C77] Cope, E. D. 1877. Report upon the extinct Vertebrata obtained in New Mexico by parties of the expedition of 1874. Geographical Surveys West of the One Hundredth Meridian 4 (2): i–iv, 1–370.

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[F91] Freess, W. B. 1991. Beiträge zur Kenntnis von Fauna und Flora des marinen Mitteloligozäns bei Leipzig. Altenburger Naturwissenschaftliche Forschungen 6: 3–74.

[G62] Garrick, J. A. F. 1962. Reasons in favor of retaining the generic name Carcharhinus Blainville, and a proposal for identifying its type species as the Indo-Pacific black-tipped shark, C. melanopterus. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 75: 89–96.

[G75] Grant, E. M. 1975. Guide to Fishes. The Co-ordinator-General’s Department: Brisbane (Australia).

[JR10] Jordan, D. S., & R. E. Richardson. 1910. Check-list of the species of fishes known from the Philippine archipelago. Bureau of Printing: Manila.

[L43] Lowe, R. T. 1843. On the fishes of Madeira. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 11: 81–95.

[M58] Munro, I. S. R. 1958. The fishes of the New Guinea region: a check-list of the fishes of New Guinea incorporating records of species collected by the Fisheries Survey Vessel “Fairwind” during the years 1948 to 1950. Papua and New Guinea Agricultural Journal 10 (4): 97–369 (reprinted: 1958. Territory of Papua and New Guinea Fisheries Bulletin 1).

[O87] Okamura, C. 1987. New facts: Homo and all Vertebrata were born simultaneously in the former Paleozoic in Japan. Original Report of the Okamura Fossil Laboratory 15: 347–573.

[S58] Smith, J. L. B. 1958. Sharks of the genus Pterolamiops Springer, 1951 with notes on isurid sharks. Ichthyological Bulletin 10: 131–134.

[W96] Walsh, S. L. 1996. S. Middle Eocene mammal faunas of San Diego County, California. In: Prothero, D. R., & R. J. Emry (eds) The Terrestrial Eocene–Oligocene Transition in North America pp. 75–119. Cambridge University Press.

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