Carcharhiniformes

Gulf catshark Asymbolus vincenti, copyright Seaborn.

Belongs within: Selachimorpha.
Contains: Hemigaleidae, Sphyrnidae, Carcharhinidae, Triakidae, Scyliorhinus, Apristurus, Galeus, Halaelurus.

The Carcharhiniformes are a diverse group of sharks with dorsal fins lacking anterior spines, and the posterior gill slit(s) overlapping the base of the pectoral fins.

Characters (from Compagno 1984): Trunk cylindrical to slightly compressed or depressed but not raylike. Head conical to depressed and usually not anteriorly expanded, except for the prebranchial head in Sphyrnidae; 5 pairs of gill slits present on sides of head (partly dorsolateral in some Scyliorhinidae), with the last 1 to 3 over pectoral bases; spiracles present in many species, small to large and close behind eyes, or absent; nostrils usually without barbels and nasoral grooves and always without circumnarial grooves, barbels when present developed from anterior nasal flaps rather than from lateral surfaces of flaps, anterior nasal flaps varying from well separated from mouth to overlapping it posteriorly; eyes lateral or dorsolateral on head, with true nictitating lower eyelids; snout varying from very short to moderately long and almost bladelike, but not greatly elongated and not formed as a rostral saw with lateral teeth and barbels; mouth moderately large to very large, arched, and extending behind anterior ends of eyes; labial furrows varying from large and on both jaws to absent; teeth variably differentiated along jaws, but usually without enlarged molariform posterior teeth and with anterior teeth not separated by small intermediate teeth or a gap from the lateral teeth. Two dorsal fins (possibly only one in Pentanchus, family Scyliorhinidae), without spines, the first with origin varying from over the gill slits to behind the pelvic bases; pectoral fins moderate-sized to large but not raylike, without triangular anterior lobes; pelvic fins small to moderately large, with vent continuous with their inner margins; anal fin present; caudal fin with a long dorsal lobe but with ventral lobe varying from long (but considerably shorter than the dorsal lobe) to absent; vertebral axis raised into the dorsal caudal lobe. Intestinal valve of spiral or scroll type.

<==Carcharhiniformes [Scyliorhinoidei] C84
    |–+–Carcharhinidae MW07
    |  `–Triakidae MW07
    `–Scyliorhinidae [Atelomycteridae, Catulidae, Cephaloscylliinae, Galeinae, Halaeluridae, Pentanchidae, Scyllia] C84
         |–Scyliorhinus MW07
         |–Apristurus C84
         |–Galeus C84
         |–Halaelurus C84
         |–Macrourogaleus hassei Woodward 1889 CDZ93
         |–Cephalurus Bigelow & Schroeder 1941 C84
         |    `–*C. cephalus (Gilbert 1892) [=Catulus cephalus] C84
         |–Pentanchus Smith & Radcliffe 1912 C84
         |    `–*P. profundicolus Smith & Radcliffe 1912 C84
         |–Aulohalaelurus Fowler 1934 C84
         |    `–*A. labiosus (Waite 1905) (see below for synonymy) C84
         |–Atelomycterus Garman 1913 [=Atelomycterius (l. c.); incl. Deltascyllium Leigh-Sharpe 1926] C84
         |    |–*A. marmoratus (Bennett 1830) (see below for synonymy) C84
         |    `–A. macleayi Whitley 1939 C84
         |–Holohalaelurus Fowler 1934 [=Holohaelurus (l. c.)] C84
         |    |–*H. regani (Gilchrist 1922) (see below for synonymy) C84
         |    `–H. punctatus (Gilchrist 1914) (see below for synonymy) C84
         |–Protoscyliorhinus Herman 1977 B18
         |    |–*P. bettrechiensis B18
         |    `–P. lamaudi Biddle & Landemaine 1988 B18
         |–Poroderma Smith 1837 [incl. Conoporoderma Fowler 1934] C84
         |    |–*P. africanum (Gmelin 1789) (see below for synonymy) C84
         |    |–P. marleyi Fowler 1934 [=Conoporoderma marleyi, Scyliorhinus leopardus Fowler 1935] C84
         |    `–P. pantherinum (Smith in Müller & Henle 1838) (see below for synonymy) C84
         |–Haploblepharus Garman 1913 C84
         |    |–*H. edwardsii (Voigt in Cuvier 1832) [=Scyllium edwardsii] C84
         |    |–H. fuscus Smith 1950 C84
         |    `–H. pictus (Müller & Henle 1838) [=Scyllium pictum] C84
         |–Schroederichthys Springer 1966 C84
         |    |–*S. maculatus Springer 1966 C84
         |    |–S. bivius (Smith in Müller & Henle 1838) [=Scyllium bivium, Halaelurus bivius] C84
         |    |–S. chilensis (Guichenot in Gay 1848) (see below for synonymy) C84
         |    `–S. tenuis Springer 1966 C84
         |–Parmaturus Garman 1906 [incl. Dichichthys Chan 1966] C84
         |    |–*P. pilosus Garman 1906 [incl. Pristiurus hertwigi Engelhardt 1912] C84
         |    |–P. campechiensis Springer 1979 [=P. (Dichichthys) campechiensis] C84
         |    |–P. melanobranchius (Chan 1966) (see below for synonymy) C84
         |    `–P. xaniurus (Gilbert 1892) [=Catulus xaniurus] C84
         |–Cephaloscyllium Gill 1862 C84
         |    |–*C. laticeps (Dumeril 1853) [=Scyllium laticeps] C84
         |    |–C. fasciatum Chan 1966 C84
         |    |–C. isabellum (Bonnaterre 1788) (see below for synonymy) C84
         |    |–C. nascione Whitley 1932 [=C. isabella laticeps f. nascione] C84
         |    |–C. silasi (Talwar 1974) [=Scyliorhinus (Halaelurus) silasi] C84
         |    |–C. sufflans (Regan 1921) [=Scyliorhinus (Cephaloscyllium) sufflans] C84
         |    `–C. ventriosum (Garman 1880) (see below for synonymy) C84
         `–Asymbolus Whitley 1939 [incl. Juncrus Whitley 1939] C84
              |–*A. analis (Ogilby 1885) [=Scyllium anale, Halaelurus analis] C84
              |–A. funebris Compagno, Stevens & Last 1999 CSL99
              |–A. occiduus Last, Gomon & Gledhill 1999 LGG99
              |–A. pallidus Last, Gomon & Gledhill 1999 LGG99
              |–A. parvus Compagno, Stevens & Last 1999 CSL99
              |–A. rubiginosus Last, Gomon & Gledhill 1999 LGG99
              |–A. submaculatus Compagno, Stevens & Last 1999 CSL99
              `–A. vincenti (Zeitz 1908) [=Scyllium vincenti, Halaelurus vincenti, *Juncrus vincenti] C84

Carcharhiniformes incertae sedis:
  Proscyllidae [Proscylliinae] C84
    |–Proscyllium Hilgendorf 1904 [incl. Calliscyllium Tanaka 1912] C84
    |    `–*P. habereri Hilgendorf 1904 (see below for synonymy) C84
    |–Gollum Compagno 1973 C84
    |    `–*G. attenuatus (Garrick 1954) [=Triakis attenuata] C84
    |–Ctenacis Compagno 1973 C84
    |    `–*C. fehlmanni (Springer 1968) [=Triakis fehlmanni] C84
    `–Eridacnis Smith 1913 [incl. Neotriakis Smith 1957] C84
         |–*E. radcliffei Smith 1913 [incl. Proscyllium alcocki Misra 1950] C84
         |–E. barbouri (Bigelow & Schroeder 1944) [=Triakis barbouri] C84
         `–E. sinuans (Smith 1957) [=Neotriakis sinuans] C84
  Pseudotriakis Capello 1868 [=Pseudotriacis Günther 1870; Pseudotriacinae, Pseudotriakidae] C84
    `–*P. microdon Capello 1868 [incl. P. acrages Garman 1913, P. acrales Jordan & Snyder 1904] C84
  Leptocharias Smith in Müller & Henle 1838 (see below for synonymy) C84
    `–*L. smithii (Müller & Henle 1839) [=Triaenodon smithii; incl. Mustelus osborni Fowler 1923] C84
  Hemigaleidae C84
  Sphyrnidae C84

*Atelomycterus marmoratus (Bennett 1830) [=Scyllium marmoratum; incl. S. maculatum Gray 1832, S. pardus Temminck in Müller & Henle 1838 (n. n.)] C84

*Aulohalaelurus labiosus (Waite 1905) [=Catulus labiosus, Halaelurus (*Aulohalaelurus) labiosus; incl. Squalus maculatus Bloch & Schneider 1801 non Bonnaterre 1788] C84

Cephaloscyllium isabellum (Bonnaterre 1788) [=Squalus isabella; incl. C. formosanum Teng 1962, Scyllium lima Richardson 1842, Sc. sabella Gmelin 1789, Cephaloscyllium umbratile Jordan & Fowler 1903] C84

Cephaloscyllium ventriosum (Garman 1880) [=Scyllium ventriosum; incl. Catulus uter Jordan & Gilbert in Jordan & Evermann 1896] C84

Holohalaelurus punctatus (Gilchrist 1914) [=Scylliorhinus punctatus; incl. Scyliorhinus (Halaelurus) polystigma Regan 1921] C84

*Holohalaelurus regani (Gilchrist 1922) [=Scylliorhinus regani, Halaelurus (*Holohalaelurus) regani; incl. Scyliorhinus (Halaelurus) melanostigma Norman 1939] C84

Leptocharias Smith in Müller & Henle 1838 [=Leptocarcharias Günther 1870, Leptocarias (l. c.); Leptochariana, Leptochariidae] C84

Parmaturus melanobranchius (Chan 1966) [=*Dichichthys melanobranchius, Figaro melanobranchius; incl. F. piceus Chu, Meng & Liu 1983] C84

*Poroderma africanum (Gmelin 1789) [=Squalus africanus, Scyllium africanum, Scyliorhinus africanus; incl. Squalus striatus Lichtenstein 1844, Sq. vittatus Shaw & Nodder 1798] C84

Poroderma pantherinum (Smith in Müller & Henle 1838) [=Scyllium pantherinum, Conoporoderma pantherinum; incl. S. leopardinum Müller & Henle 1838 (n. n.), S. malandrinum Rapp in Müller & Henle 1838, Poroderma submaculatum Smith 1837 (n. n.), P. variegatum Smith 1837 (n. n.), Scyllium variegatum Smith in Müller & Henle 1838] C84

*Proscyllium habereri Hilgendorf 1904 [=Scyllium (*Proscyllium) habereri; incl. *Calliscyllium venustum Tanaka 1913, Triakis venusta] C84

Schroederichthys chilensis (Guichenot in Gay 1848) [=Scyllium chilense, Halaelurus chilensis; incl. Scyllium brevicolle Philippi 1887] C84

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B18] Bernárdez, E. 2018. Truyolsodontos estauni n. gen., n. sp., Truyolsodontidae, a new family of lamniform sharks from the Cenomanian of northern Spain. Annales de Paléontologie 104: 175–181.

[CDZ93] Cappetta, H., C. Duffin & J. Zidek. 1993. Chondrichthyes. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 593–609. Chapman & Hall: London.

[C84] Compagno, L. J. V. 1984. FAO Species Catalogue vol. 4. Sharks of the World: An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Part 2—Carcharhiniformes. United Nations Development Programme, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations: Rome.

[CSL99] Compagno, L. J. V., J. D. Stevens & P. R. Last. 1999. Australian spotted catsharks of the genus Asymbolus (Carcharhiniformes: Scyliorhinidae). Part 1: descriptions of three new species from Western Australia. CSIRO Marine Laboratories Report 239: 2–18.

[LGG99] Last, P. R., M. F. Gomon & D. C. Gledhill. 1999. Australian spotted catsharks of the genus Asymbolus (Carcharhiniformes: Scyliorhinidae). Part 2: descriptions of three new, dark-spotted species. CSIRO Marine Laboratories Report 239: 19–35.

[MW07] Mallatt, J., & C. J. Winchell. 2007. Ribosomal RNA genes and deuterostome phylogeny revisited: more cyclostomes, elasmobranchs, reptiles, and a brittle star. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 43: 1005–1022.

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